Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 59 , Issue 1
Showing 1-23 articles out of 23 articles from the selected issue
Reviews
  • Yoshifumi Tanaka
    2014 Volume 59 Issue 1 Pages 1-15
    Published: 2014
    Released: June 13, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: January 27, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
      It is known that many athletes competing in various sports are likely to experience impaired motor performance under psychological pressure. Numerous studies have been conducted to clarify and overcome this problem, which impacts on various motor skills, and a variety of results have been reported. In this review, in order to exclude the influence of task-specific differences on interpretation of the results, experimental studies of the golf-putting task, which has been most widely used in previous studies of motor behavior under pressure, published between 1992 and 2013 were systematically reviewed by categorizing them into the following research paradigms: (1) Explanations of reduced performance under pressure in terms of attentional foci and attentional capacity, including the conscious processing hypothesis and distraction hypothesis. (2) Studies of psychological, physiological, and behavioral symptoms manifested under pressure, especially studies of cognitive and emotional processes in the psychological domain, arousal in the physiological domain, and performance outcome, kinematics, force control, and eye movement in the behavioral domain. (3) Studies investigating methods for preventing pressure-related performance loss, such as those involving quiet eye training for optimal eye movement, and manipulation of attentional focusing to prevent an increased internal focus of attention under pressure. It is suggested that the theoretical background developed in this review would be useful for gaining scientific knowledge about sports performance under psychological pressure from a wide range of perspectives on motor behavior.
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Original investigations
  • Minori Ota, Tomohiro Kizuka
    2014 Volume 59 Issue 1 Pages 17-28
    Published: 2014
    Released: June 13, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: January 10, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
      In sports, assessment of skill is important for both evaluation of training and selection of players. The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of a dual-task testing paradigm for assessing the defense skills of softball players. 20 softball players were assessed using 2 testing methods: the dual-task test, and assessment by a coach. In the dual-task test, 20 players were evaluated through 2 different tests. The first was evaluation of catching-throwing and judging situations as separate tasks (single-task test), and the second was evaluation of the 2 tasks at the same time (dual-task test). The catching-throwing and judgement ratings were calculated based on the scores obtained. In assessments by coaches, softball coaches and other sports coaches evaluated the defense skills of the 20 players. The relationship between the dual-task test results and the assessments by softball coaches was analyzed, and this demonstrated a significant correlation between the 2. However, the relationship between the dual-task test results and the assessments by other sports coaches was not significant. These results showed that use of the dual-task test made it possible to assess the defense skills of softball players as effectively as softball coaches. In addition, the relationship between the assessments made by softball coaches and assessments derived from a combination of other sports coaches and the dual-task test showed that defense skills could be assessed by other sports coaches as effectively as by softball coaches, through simultaneous use of the dual-task test. We conclude that the dual-task testing method can help coaches to assess the defense skills of softball players in their teams.
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  • Masashi Asakura, Norihiro Shimizu
    2014 Volume 59 Issue 1 Pages 29-51
    Published: 2014
    Released: June 13, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: January 23, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
      The professional development of a physical education (PE) teacher occurs within a variety of experiences that become resources for the teacher to learn from. However, to gain experience does not necessarily mean development. Development through learning by experience is influenced by the beliefs that the person has. The purpose of this study was to determine the composition and function of PE teacher beliefs—especially “image of what a teacher is” and “vocational beliefs” that influence their professional development. In addition, we classified PE teachers by their beliefs, and examined their development status with a focus on the relevance of experiences for changing a teacher's ideals. A questionnaire survey was conducted. Data were collected from a sample of 634 junior high school and high school PE teachers. The main findings are summarized below.
      1)  Factor analysis of data revealed that the PE teachers' image of what a teacher is comprised 4 factors: “leader”, “supervisor”, “supporter of learning” and “team member”, and vocational beliefs comprised 7 factors: “emphasizing public values”, “self-actualization”, “pursuit of pioneering teaching practices”, “emphasizing students”, “professional exclusiveness”, “exercise of autonomy” and “research orientation”.
      2)  The teachers were classified by image of what a teacher is into 2 types: “supervisor” and “supporter”. The teachers were classified by vocational beliefs into 5 types: “self-actualization”, “emphasizing students”, “open-minded beliefs”, “self-righteous” and “close-minded beliefs”. The ratios of young teachers classified into “supervisor” and “emphasizing students” were significantly larger than that of experienced teachers. The ratios of experienced teachers classified into “supporter”, “self-actualization” and “self-righteous” were significantly larger than that of young teachers.
      3)  Factor analysis of data revealed that experiences comprised 5 factors: “reflecting on teaching practice”, “knowledge acquisition”, “conversing with fellow teachers”, “observing and opening up one's own teaching practices” and “hard experiences”. Experienced teachers were more passive in their experiences, except “knowledge acquisition”, than younger teachers. For more experienced teachers, having positive experiences was more effective for changing ideals.
      4)  Teachers classified as the “open-minded beliefs” type were more willing to experience a variety of things than the “close-minded beliefs” type teachers. Regression analysis of data revealed that “emphasizing public values”, “pursuit of pioneering teaching practices” and “research orientation” correlated significantly and positively with experience. But “professional exclusiveness”, “exercise of autonomy” and years of service correlated significantly and negatively with experience.
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  • Mizuho Takemura
    2014 Volume 59 Issue 1 Pages 53-66
    Published: 2014
    Released: June 13, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: January 10, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
      Medical technology has made remarkable advances in recent years. On the one hand, these advances have the benefit of contributing to the happiness of humankind; on the other hand, they can raise various ethical and social issues, precisely because they are applied to individual humans. One such issue is enhancement technology, which can be used not only for the purpose of treating disease, but also for improving or enhancing the body or mind; humans themselves can become subject to alterations without any medical purpose.
      Body enhancement used to improve athletic performance is of particular concern in competitive sports. In this study, body enhancement was considered to be an act of pursuing a better-performing body, and examined the issues related to “betterness” in this context from an ethical viewpoint.
      Specifically, I (1) elucidate the meaning of the word “betterness” within the phrase “better performing” and (2) examine whether the act of pursuing a body that is “better” is an act of overall human betterment by engaging in an ethical discussion of its pros and cons. I use the principle of action described in Kant's practical philosophy as a framework for discussion.
      With regard to (1), I conclude that the meaning of “better” in the context of body enhancement in competitive sports is defined by theoretical (logical) judgment, and not by moral judgment. With regard to (2), I describe what an unacceptable act is according to Kant's Formula of the End in Itself. I also present the limits of this study, and point out the need to clarify in future studies the concept of what comprises human nature.
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  • Toru Sato
    2014 Volume 59 Issue 1 Pages 67-82
    Published: 2014
    Released: June 13, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: December 27, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
      The most important activity for sport teaching or instruction is to grasp the level of motor development of the learners.
      Accepted current evaluation methods are quantitative and involve measurement of sports performance such as running speed, jumping or throwing distance. Qualitative morphological observation of the movement process is currently another accepted evaluation method.
      However these evaluation methods are only based on the features perceptible by the observer. Therefore the consciousness process of a moving person is not included in the evaluative process. Such methods excluding the consciousness process are totally insufficient for comprehension of being behavior.
      The purpose of this study was to examine the insufficiency of traditional evaluation methods of motor development and to emphasize the need for analysis of motor intentionality. This concept is based on the theory of the “phenomenal body” formulated by the French philosopher Merleau-Ponty.
      For example, in a study, it was noted that kindergarten children who were instructed to perform a broad jump for distance were unable to adequately perform the skill. They tended not to jump from the takeoff line drawn on the ground, but to jump aiming at the line.
      This unaccountable behavior is not due to intellectual immaturity. The reason for this lack of ability can be understood in terms of the “abstract movement” proposed by Merleau-Ponty. This means movements that are not directed at any actual situation, such as moving the arms or legs upon a command or pointing at something with a finger, whereas concrete movements necessary for life are habitual, i.e. they are directly connected with the actual situation, such as grasping or touching etc.
      Merleau-Ponty (2012) stated “The distinction between abstract movement and concrete movement is thereby clarified: the background of concrete movement is the given world, the background of abstract movement is, on the contrary, constructed.” Taken in the light of this theory, it is reasonable to conclude that children are unable to perform the requested action due to a lack of ability for construction of possible space or virtual space, into which they project their own intended movement.
      This consequence can never be obtained through measurement or observation methods. We must therefore focus our evaluation not only on skillfulness but also the intentionality of a moving person.
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  • Kohei Kogiso
    2014 Volume 59 Issue 1 Pages 83-101
    Published: 2014
    Released: June 13, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: January 10, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
      The aim of this study was to examine the function of Thai Massage schools for foreigners in the process of Thai Massage becoming a global health culture. Currently, Thai Massage attracts widespread popularity as a relaxation or health therapy. In the background, there is the Thai government's policy, which has institutionalized Thai Massage as “Thai Medicine” since the 1990s. As a result of this policy, Thai Massage has enhanced its medical value, cultural value and economic value, and become globalized.
      Another important factor must also be considered in the context of globalization of Thai Massage, and that is the global interest in Indian Yoga, Chinese Tai Chi and other various eastern health therapies or body techniques. This is a strong focus of the present paper. People who have a great deal of interest in “self-care” and their practical communities are another important factor of Thai Massage globalization. These practices are not restricted to national institutions, and are more fluid and transnational. “Health” is a concept that has developed in modern national systems, and “health culture” has emerged from this in relation to the power of modern nations. However, health culture created by people who practice Thai Massage and other eastern health therapies can be seen in a different dimension. This study focuses on Thai Massage schools for foreigners as specific foci of this dimension, and the process of Thai Massage can be envisaged as a global culture by analyzing the historical and cultural background of Thai Massage schools for foreigners and dealing with the actual situation ethnographically.
      In conclusion, it can be said that Thai Massage schools have structurally contributed to the globalization of Thai Massage by being gathering places for knowledge and techniques related to the body, to which humans universally aspire. It is now evident that these “health communities”, which differ from hospitals and clinics served by medicine, are places at which people can engage their bodies and health independently.
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  • Tomohiro Kizuka, Atsushi Itaya, Masato Iwami, Hiromi Iijima
    2014 Volume 59 Issue 1 Pages 103-114
    Published: 2014
    Released: June 13, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: January 10, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
      Even persons who are skilled at soccer ball juggling experience a decrease of performance when juggling on an unstable surface. We examined this activity in 19 college soccer players to determine the variation in the degree of skill deterioration. To investigate the associated factors, we measured posture retention, head sway, and muscle activity while juggling on a stable and an unstable surface. We measured the number of ball contacts while subjects juggled soccer balls for 20 s on both surfaces. We then divided the subjects into 2 groups: a skilled group, comprising 9 subjects whose average number of ball contacts fell from 57.6 to 55.2 when changing from the stable to the unstable surface, respectively; and a semi-skilled group, comprising 10 subjects whose average number of ball contacts fell from 55.8 to 32.5. On the unstable surface, the semi-skilled group spent significantly less time standing on one leg with eyes closed (11.4 vs. 23.7 s), showed a significantly higher maximal left-to-right head sway (41.5 vs. 30.4 cm), and had significantly higher activity in the biceps femoris (52.5 vs. 26.0%RMS). On the stable surface, the semi-skilled group showed a significantly higher maximal left-to-right head sway (25.3 vs. 17.2 cm) and had significantly higher activity in the biceps femoris (31.7 vs. 19.3%RMS). In addition, the reduction in the number of ball contacts on the unstable surface was correlated with increased biceps femoris activity (r=−.677). Overall, soccer ball juggling control in the semi-skilled group was slightly inferior to that in the skilled group. The present results show that the differences are small enough to negate the number of ball contacts during soccer ball juggling on a stable surface as an effective measure. When instability created a disturbance, juggling performance in the semi-skilled group declined due to excessive muscle activity of the biceps femoris, which led to unnecessary freezing of the knee and hip joints and increased head sway. The skilled group was able to better suppress the increase in control load caused by the instability, so that interference in juggling performance was lower. Manifesting a skill difference that cannot be determined only by the number of soccer ball juggling contacts on a stable surface may require an additional task involving posture control on an unstable surface.
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  • Hideo Bessho
    2014 Volume 59 Issue 1 Pages 115-131
    Published: 2014
    Released: June 13, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: January 27, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
      This paper describes the transformation of the concept of tairyoku or physical fitness during the period 1872-1945, and analyzes it from the viewpoints of “discourse” and “the body.” The word tairyoku was first used in official documents as a translation of “bodily powers” in modern Japanese education. The word tairyoku appeared in the context of the discourse on physical education encompassing the whole picture of intellectual, moral, and physical education. This appears to have been the birth of the concept of tairyoku in the Japanese education system. Tairyoku was often used in discussions of taikaku or physique, from the Meiji (1868-1912) to Taisho (1912-1926) periods, but it was not a common concept for the population as a whole. Modern research into tairyoku in order to explore the full potentiality of the body accompanied the changes in social structure during the development of capitalism in Japan after the First World War, and with the development of research in medicine, hygiene, health and physiology. Thereafter, research on tairyoku became scientific, but leaned toward a concept that included the spirit during the Second World War.
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  • Tetsuya Kanahori, Yukio Yamada, Hiroshi Aida, Kazushi Shimada, Takashi ...
    2014 Volume 59 Issue 1 Pages 133-147
    Published: 2014
    Released: June 13, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: January 23, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
      The purpose of this study was to clarify the viewpoint of a well-experienced baseball coach when evaluating batting skills using kinematics indices.
    Method: First, three baseball coaches evaluated sixteen baseball players in their own teams. The players were divided subjectively into a first superior (FG) group and a second superior (SG) group according to batting ability. Next, the hitting motion of all sixteen players was captured using a VICON system (9 cameras, 250 Hz). We measured the speed of the batted and pitched ball, or the timing of release by the pitcher, using three synchronized high-speed cameras (250 Hz). From these kinematics data, we calculated several kinematics indices for each batter, focusing especially on the indices for motion of the lower extremities and trunk. In contrast, a well-experienced expert coach who had never met these players evaluated the hitting motion of each player using only motion films without the above kinematics indices, and similarly divided them into FG and SG. The evaluation of fourteen players agreed between the team coaches and the expert coach. The FG and the SG each comprised seven players. We analyzed these fourteen players using the kinematics indices, and clarified objectively the differences in hitting motion between the two groups.
    Results & Conclusions: The speed of swing, batted ball speed and physical index were approximately the same in the two groups. However, players in the FG group showed a significantly longer distance of center of gravity migration in step than those in the SG group. This might have been attributable to the hip abduction movement on the pivot side on the basis of kinematics indices (p<0.05). Moreover, players in the FG group took more time in step, and swung in a shorter time after landing on the stepped foot, relative to the players in the SG group (p<0.05). These results suggest that the well-experienced expert coaches paid particular attention to the above hitting motion rather than the speed of swing, batted ball speed and physical index as coaching points.
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  • Mitsuharu Omine, Hidenori Tomozoe
    2014 Volume 59 Issue 1 Pages 149-157
    Published: 2014
    Released: June 13, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: February 26, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
      In this study, we focused on the collective responsibility of baseball club members who were not directly involved in a scandal, with the aim of providing a new insight into the ethics pertaining to suspension of the club from the Japan Student Baseball Association (JSBA). For this purpose, we referred to Räikkä and Miller, who had conducted a rigorous analysis of collective responsibility for scandal involving individuals, and on this basis considered the punishment imposed by the JSBA in such cases.
      Cases of scandal can be classified broadly into three categories: one in which there is no direct victim, one in which the victim is a member of the same team, and one in which the victim is a member of the public. We assessed the collective responsibility of the baseball club members who were not considered to have committed any misconduct directly related to these categories. The issue of individual scandal in high school baseball was addressed by considering the following four points:
    1.  Whether or not the club members had had an opportunity to oppose any wrongdoing without seriously risking their position.
    2.  Whether or not the club members had had an opportunity to oppose any wrongdoing by appealing for any facts readily available to them.
    3.  Whether or not the club members had had an opportunity to oppose any wrongdoing but did not do so because such efforts would have been considered futile.
    4.  Whether or not the club members had accepted any wrongdoing without opposition.
      On the basis of these considerations, we considered it reasonable to support disciplinary action from the JSBA in cases where violence and bullying at the club had continued for a long period. On the other hand, in clubs where there is a hierarchy structure of senior students over junior students, we considered it unreasonable to support any action of the JSBA against junior students who are unable to oppose any wrongdoing because of their inferior position. Also, in cases where there are no direct victims, such as those involving smoking and drinking, we considered that it was not appropriate to impose a suspension unless the prevailing ethos within the club promoted such practices. In cases where the victim is a member of the public, we considered it inappropriate to impose any suspension on members who have not been directly involved in misconduct.
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  • Kohei Yamamoto, Kenji Miyashiro, Hikari Naito, Kiyonobu Kigoshi, Sator ...
    2014 Volume 59 Issue 1 Pages 159-173
    Published: 2014
    Released: June 13, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: April 07, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
      This study was conducted to clarify the relationship between race pattern and performance in the men's 400-m race. Using several video cameras, 154 male 400-m sprinters (45-46 s: 26, 47 s: 35, 48 s: 58, 49 s: 35) in official competitions were videotaped at a sampling rate of 59.94 Hz from the start to the finish. The split time at every 50 m from the start was calculated using the Overlay method, which analyzes the split time by superimposing an image of the 400-m race onto an image of the hurdles in a 400-m hurdle race. Each segment was defined as follows: First segment, from the start to the 100-m mark; 2nd segment, from the 100-m mark to the 200-m mark; 3rd segment, from the 200-m mark to the 300-m mark; 4th segment, from the 300-m mark to the finish. The results of regression analysis revealed significant correlations between the 400-m race time and the all of the segment times (r=0.589-0.887, p<0.001), the ratio of the time for the 3rd segment (r=0.290, p<0.001) to that of the 4th segment (r=0.218, p<0.01), the rate of change in running speed from the 1st to the 2nd segments (r=−0.317, p<0.001), and that from the 2nd to the 3rd segments (r=−0.271, p<0.01). However, the relationship between the 400-m race time and the deceleration index (the slope of the linear relationship between running speed and the number of segments from the peak running speed to the finish) was not significant (r=0.154, p=0.056). These results suggest that it is important to maintain running speed in the 2nd and 3rd 100-m segments to achieve high performance in the 400-m sprint.
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  • Nobuaki Fujibayasi, Syota Sakaguchi, Yasushi Kariyama, Koji Zushi
    2014 Volume 59 Issue 1 Pages 175-188
    Published: 2014
    Released: June 13, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: April 18, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
      The present study was conducted to examine the most effective takeoff movement for the Rebound Long Jump Test (RLJ test) under high-speed conditions. This test is designed to evaluate the ability to perform the ballistic stretch-shortening cycle movement for unilateral horizontal jump events on the basis of the RLJ index (RLJ index (m/s)=Jumping distance (JD (m))/Contact time (CT (s)). Subjects jump from a 0.1-m-high step to the ground after an approach run (falling jump), followed by jumping without interruption for as far as possible (propulsive jump). Eleven male college track-and-field athletes performed the RLJ test, and the RLJ index was calculated. On the basis of the average value of the RLJ index, the athletes were assigned to an upper level group (RLJ index>mean value) or a lower level group (RLJ index<mean value), and the takeoff movement of upper level group was considered the effective takeoff movement. The results suggested that it was important to minimize the rotation angle of the body, and to use a faster rotation velocity. This was achieved by 1) increasing the movement distance and velocity in the direction of the forward movement of the swing leg in the air, 2) minimizing the rotation angle of the foot and shank segment, and increasing that of the thigh segment during the initial phase, and 3) accelerating the rotation angle of the thigh segment again and swinging the swing-leg forward and up during the latter phase. These results suggest that the RLJ test and RLJ index provide a measure of the takeoff movement technique in terms of pre-rotation moment, the mechanism of rotation of the lower limb segment, and the swing moment of the swing leg.
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  • Masahiro Kageyama, Mineaki Iwamoto, Takashi Sugiyama, Mirai Mizutani, ...
    2014 Volume 59 Issue 1 Pages 189-201
    Published: 2014
    Released: June 13, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: April 04, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
      The present study measured isometric muscular strength and mean power elicited by trunk twisting and trunk rotation during pitching in 28 university baseball pitchers aged 18-22 years. Based on the correlations among these measurements, the purpose of the study was to clarify 1) the influence of ball velocity on isometric muscular strength, trunk power output during the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) and trunk rotation during pitching and 2) the influence of augmentation which is an index of SSC elicited by trunk rotation on trunk rotation during pitching. We also determined mean power and augmentation during concentric (CT) and SSC rebound (RT) throws of medicine balls weighing 5 kg while twisting the trunk. Augmentation while throwing the medicine ball was positively correlated with ball velocity (r=0.619, p<0.01), and augmentation of the medicine ball was positively correlated with torso rotation velocity at 18-27% and at 46-75% (r=0.398-0.542, p<0.05), and trunk twist velocity at 60-66% (r=0.378-0.395, p<0.05) of the second phase (from stride foot contact to instant release of the ball) during the pitching motion. In addition, pitched ball velocity was positively correlated with the velocities of pelvic rotation at 37-78% (r=0.378-0.488, p<0.05), torso rotation at 46-87% (r=0.391-0.711, p<0.05) and trunk twist at 63-83% (r=0.375-0.499, p<0.05) during the second phase of the pitching motion. These results indicate that pitchers with a larger ball velocity can use SSC movement generated by twisting the trunk, which effectively increases trunk rotation from the first half to middle of the second phase, and they can also increase trunk rotation during the second phase.
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  • Akane Yamazaki, Yoshiko Murata, Kyungjin Park
    2014 Volume 59 Issue 1 Pages 203-226
    Published: 2014
    Released: June 13, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: April 24, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
      The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the perspective of teaching and evaluating movements of expert and novice dance teachers by clarifying the meaning of dance teachers' instructional language in a creative dance class. A teaching experiment was conducted with 4 expert teachers and 4 novice teachers for two instructional scenes: the teaching of movements and the evaluation of movements. The teaching material for the dance lesson was “expression inspired by newspaper”. All teachers were interviewed after the experiment. In the scene for teaching and inspiring movements, the important teaching points were considered to be those that triggered movements. The novice teachers inspired movements that were evocative of the shape and movements of newspaper. However, the expert teachers taught students not only to imitate the physical movements of newspaper, but also to draw upon and consider the plasticity and characteristics of newspaper. That is to say, the expert teachers made teaching materials according to their understanding of these aspects of newspaper. In the scene for evaluating movements, important teaching points were those that reinforced movements. The expert and novice teachers focused on 10 qualities of movement to reinforce: movement quality, dramatic movement, use of the entire body, use of floor space, change of tempo, change of power, variety of movement, sequence of movements, originality, and evocation of the subject (in this case, newspaper). These points are educational principles of dance and are not limited to teaching materials. Although the novice teachers' teaching points included use of the entire body and floor space, which are easily grasped, the expert teachers' teaching points also included change of tempo, change of power, and variety of movement, which are more difficult to grasp. The results of this study indicate that teachers must consider perspectives of triggering and reinforcing movements when teaching improvisatorial movement. Teachers also must have a clear practical image of the interpretation of teaching materials, movements learned in a given dance, and the learning of movements through teaching materials.
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  • Kazuto Yoshida, Koshi Yamada, Sho Tamaki, Hisashi Naito, Masaru Kaga
    2014 Volume 59 Issue 1 Pages 227-236
    Published: 2014
    Released: June 13, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: April 21, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
      The rotation speed of the ball spin has been considered a key factor in winning table tennis matches. This study quantified the rotation speed (rotations per second: rps) of service balls delivered by quarter-finalists in the 2009 World Table Tennis Championships. Ball services were recorded during the quarter-finals of both the men's and women's singles, involving 4 matches and 8 players per gender, using a high-speed video camera (1000 fps) for calculation of the rotation speed, and a standard video camera (30 fps) for distinguishing players and aces (including those touched by the receiver). Eventually, the rotation speeds of 329 services were calculated, and these ranged from 13.7 to 62.5 rps. For men, 50-60 rps was the most frequent (40.0%) range of the rotation speeds, while for women, the corresponding range was 40-50 rps (43.8%); the average (±SD) rotation speed was significantly greater for men than for women (46.0±9.0 vs. 39.2±9.3 rps, p<0.001). The fastest rotation speed was 62.5 rps for both genders. Chinese men produced a slower rotation speed than did other men (43.5±8.9 vs. 51.0±6.8 rps, p<0.001). For women, however, the rotation speed was similar between Chinese players and the others (39.9±10.2 vs. 38.5±8.2 rps). The rotation speeds of aces were scattered over a wide range of 37.0-58.8 rps for men and 27.8-62.5 rps for women, implying a weak association between aces and fast rotation. These pioneering data may help clarify some of the technical and tactical aspects of table tennis, and can be used to develop training and game strategies for successful performance.
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  • Hirofumi Shimojo, Yasuo Sengoku, Shozo Tsubakimoto, Hideki Takagi
    2014 Volume 59 Issue 1 Pages 237-249
    Published: 2014
    Released: June 13, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: April 24, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
      This study clarified the differences between swimming performance in a water flume and in a pool by comparing kinematics and kinesthesia during dolphin kick swimming in both conditions. Seven national-level male college swimmers (age 20.4±1.5 years, height 1.73±0.06 m, weight 68.1±6.0 kg) swam using prone dolphin kicks in a water flume channel and in an indoor pool. The target speed was set at 95% of maximum effort. In the pool, we controlled swimming speed by using metronome sounds to change the swimmers' kicking frequency gradually. For data collection, seven anatomical landmarks were marked on the swimmers' bodies using active LED lights. We obtained kinematic data on the swimmers' motion using two-dimensional direct linear transformation (2D-DLT) and investigated their kinesthesia by administering a questionnaire. Although swimming speed (p=.73) and kicking frequency (p=.45) showed no significant difference under both conditions, kicking amplitude was significantly greater in the flume (33.09±2.80%@height) than in the pool (30.45±2.01%@height, p<.05). The kinesthesia questionnaires revealed that the swimmers paid more attention to somatic sense (pool: 9.71±3.50 points, flume: 12.29±3.35 points, p<.05) and vision (pool: 1.14±0.38 points, flume: 2.14±1.21 points, p=.06) in the flume than in the pool. These results suggest that swimmers adapt their motion and kinesthetic awareness purposefully because the water flume presents different conditions. Researchers and coaches should be aware of these differences when they use the water flume.
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  • Hideaki Kumahara, Junichi Nishida, Yoko Sakai, Mayumi Kanehira, Keiich ...
    2014 Volume 59 Issue 1 Pages 251-261
    Published: 2014
    Released: June 13, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: May 22, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of acute exercise mimicking boxing on affect and mood states. In a randomized crossover design, 16 adults (35.8±6.6 yrs) underwent both a boxing exercise program based on shadow boxing (Boxing) as well as a boxing program combined with a focus mitts workout (pad work) (Boxing+Mitts). The Waseda Affect Scale of Exercise and Durable Activity (WASEDA) and the Profile of Mood States-Brief Form (POMS-Brief) were administered before and after both exercise programs. There were no gender differences in any psychological scales before and after the programs as well as in heart rate during exercise. The Boxing+Mitts program tended to show a lower exercise intensity, defined as the percentage of the average heat rate reserve (HRR), than the Boxing program (40.4±13.3 vs. 50.4±17.5%HRR, p<0.10). However, both programs were considered to give a moderate level of exercise intensity on average, which is regarded as the minimum intensity required to improve individual cardiorespiratory fitness. The Boxing program significantly improved all 3 scales of negative affect, positive engagement and tranquility assessed by the WASEDA. Moreover, the POMS-Brief showed an iceberg profile after the program, which was followed by significant decreases in the scores of tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, anger-hostility and confusion, and a significant increase in the vigor score. In addition, a composite score of total mood disturbance calculated by summing the subscale scores changed in a positive direction. The Boxing+Mitts program was shown to lead to similar changes in the WASEDA and POMS-Brief. However, no significant program×time interactions (by two-way ANOVA) were observed in any of the scales. These results indicate that acute boxing-style exercise programs would improve negative psychological variables and enhance both feelings of pleasant activation, as well as relaxation. A further study is warranted to explore whether any long-term (chronic) effects on mental health exist, and to compare these programs with other modes of exercise.
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  • Yusuke Shirai, Kieko Shinada, Toshitsugu Yoshioka, Yoshiharu Nabekura
    2014 Volume 59 Issue 1 Pages 263-274
    Published: 2014
    Released: June 13, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: May 27, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
      The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of differences in stroke rate (SR) on energy expenditure during rowing. Oxygen uptake (VO2) was measured under different SR conditions with the same power output. Eight male collegiate rowers (age: 21.6±1.4 yr, height: 171.1±1.8 cm, weight: 68.7±1.9 kg) participated in the study. First, they performed an incremental test on a rowing ergometer to determine power output at the blood lactate threshold (PLT). On other days, they performed 6 different SR trials maintaining their power output at 80% PLT (80% LT test) and 90% PLT (90% LT test), respectively. During the 80% and 90% LT tests, each subject used a triaxial accelerometer sensor placed on the back, and integrals of the absolute value of the accelerometer output from three directions (IAA) were calculated as an index of physical activity level. The most economical SR, at which VO2 was lowest, was found at 80% and 90% LT. In both tests, a higher IAA was observed with increasing SR. Under SR conditions higher than the economical point, there was a significant correlation between the increasing amount of IAA (ΔIAA) and VO2 (ΔVO2) from the economical SR during the 90% LT test (r=0.673, P<0.001). There were strong correlations (r>0.9) between IAA and VO2 in many subjects at a SR higher than the economical point. These results suggest that there is an economical SR point with the same power output during rowing. Additionally, an increasing amount of VO2 associated with IAA at a higher SR than the economical point. This suggests that IAA is useful for estimation of energy expended by the moving body during rowing.
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Practical investigation
  • Zenya Fujita, Yusuke Ishige, Shinsuke Yoshioka, Masaki Takeda
    2014 Volume 59 Issue 1 Pages 275-282
    Published: 2014
    Released: June 13, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: January 23, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
      The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between race performance and cycle characteristics in a 10-km classic-style men's cross-country ski competition. The subjects were competitors in the 89th Japan National Ski Championships. Skiing motions of the subjects on flat stretches (1.5 km and 6.5 km) and uphill slopes (1.7 km and 6.7 km) were videotaped using two high-speed cameras. Cycle characteristics were calculated based on measurement of hip displacement and cycle time. It was revealed that elite competitors (1) performed at high velocity at all measurement points, (2) reduced their velocity in the last half of the race, (3) achieved a high velocity in double poling and diagonal stride, (4) increased their cycle length and cycle rate when employing the double poling technique, and (5) increased their cycle length when employing the diagonal stride technique.
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  • Kohei Nakagaki, Naoki Onoto
    2014 Volume 59 Issue 1 Pages 283-295
    Published: 2014
    Released: June 13, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: January 23, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
      The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of simplified quantification of training in for a Japanese national canoe sprint team using the modified session rating of perceived exertion method. We recorded the team's training using a method that integrates the original weighting factor (WF) and the duration (time) of the training session. Training load was quantified as the product of WF and time. Training monotony was calculated by as the mean daily load divided to the standard deviation of load. Training strain was calculated by multiplying the weekly training load by training monotony. A fitness-fatigue model was applied to the relationships between training load and performance. The model-predicted performance using the training load was significantly correlated with actual paddling performance. The training load and strain were significantly correlated with resting heart rate in the early morning. These results suggest that simplified quantification of training can be used to prescribe training for the improvement of performance and the prevention of overtraining syndrome.
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  • Teruya Watanabe
    2014 Volume 59 Issue 1 Pages 297-314
    Published: 2014
    Released: June 13, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: February 26, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
      Taking off too near the bar in high jumping may cause injuries to the ankle or knee of the takeoff leg and make it difficult for jumpers to utilize their approach speed. These results lead to performance reduction eventually but no methodological approach for solving this problem has yet been presented in the relevant literature. The purpose of this study was to propose a new methodological approach for distancing the takeoff point further from the bar when high jumping using the flop technique, based on phenomenological analysis of two coaching cases in which a new training approach successfully solved this problem. The technical problem of taking off too near the bar might not be solved by relocating the starting point of approach run further back. With such a methodological approach, jumpers often feel a sense of “distance,” which automatically makes them extend their stride length on the approach, so that they take off at the usual takeoff point relative to the bar. Additional relocating of the starting point further back, which is beyond the scope of this automatic adjustment of stride length, prevents jumpers from performing the flop technique. The author adopted a new methodological approach during coaching of a female junior high school student who was facing the above technical problem. This methodological approach consisted of four learning steps. The first learning step was to perform the flop technique using an almost straight approach run from a frontal direction in relation to the bar, and the last step was performing the new target technique with a further takeoff point. The other two intermediate steps were to assist this transition. With this methodological approach, she was able to modulate her sense of distance first, and then she succeeded in distancing her takeoff point further from the bar. This technical change also allowed her to properly utilize her approach speed. During coaching of another female junior high school student who faced the same technical problem, the author adopted almost the same methodological approach, so that she also quickly succeeded in distancing her takeoff point further from the bar. Phenomenological analysis of these coaching processes suggested that this new methodological approach can be used for distancing the takeoff point further from the bar when high jumping using the flop technique.
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Materials
  • Takumi Nakasuga, Yasuo Susaki, Shunsuke Sakata, Aya Kimura, Yoshio Sug ...
    2014 Volume 59 Issue 1 Pages 315-327
    Published: 2014
    Released: June 13, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: March 31, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
      The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between motivational climate and goal orientation in achievement goal theory on the one hand and attitude toward physical education classes on the other.
      We used the following hypothetical model: The presence of two motivational climates (performance and mastery) in physical education classes promotes goal orientation (ego and task), which in turn increases the positivity of students toward physical education classes. The validity of this model was verified using simultaneous multi-population analysis.
      The sample comprised 1263 junior high school students (mean age=13.2±0.9 years). The measures employed were a questionnaire to investigate motivational climate in physical education, a scale assessing goal orientation, and a scale measuring positivity toward physical education classes.
      The simultaneous multi-population analysis demonstrated the validity of the hypothesized model for both boys and girls. All significant paths in the model had positive values. Furthermore, we identified three processes: (1) The mastery climate had a positive influence on students' task orientation, which in turn had a positive influence on attitude toward physical education classes. (2) The mastery climate had a direct positive influence on attitude toward physical education classes. (3) The performance climate had a positive influence on students' ego orientation, which in turn had a positive influence on their attitude toward physical education classes.
      The analysis showed that in both groups, the presence of a mastery climate had a direct positive influence on attitude toward physical education classes. In addition, the presence of a performance climate indirectly promoted a positive attitude toward physical education classes through ego orientation.
      In conclusion, to enhance a positive attitude toward physical education, it is important for teachers to enhance not only the mastery climate but also the performance climate in their classes.
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  • Hiroto Funaki, Hiroshi Aida
    2014 Volume 59 Issue 1 Pages 329-343
    Published: 2014
    Released: June 13, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: April 23, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
      The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of one-on-one play during set-defense in handball, and to gain practical data for development of effective training methods. A total of 447 one-on-one plays were compared with regard to success or failure in blocking the breakthrough at three levels: world class, Japanese elite, and Japanese college level. The one-on-one play was divided in three phases: the first was that when the passer possessed the ball, the second was that when the ball was in the air, and the third was that when the player marked by a defense player possessed the ball. The interactions between plays in each phase and success or failure in blocking the breakthrough were analyzed at each level.
      The main results were as follows.
    1)  Effective one-on-one play was when the defense player aggressively blocked the player with the ball and moved forward with physical contact.
    2)  At the Japanese level it was important to define the guidelines for one-on-one play while the player had the ball, in order to increase the success rate of blocking the breakthrough during one-on-one play.
    3)  At Japanese elite level, effective one-on-one play could not be established while the player marked by a defense player did not possess the ball.
    4)  At Japanese college level, defenders selected one-on-one play around the ball while the player marked by the defense player did not possess the ball, and one-on-one defence failed.
      For consistent coaching in Japan, it was important to adopt one-on-one play around the marking player while the player marked by a defense player did not possess the ball, in order to increase the success rate of blocking the breakthrough during one-on-one play.
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