The aim of this study was to clarify the point of attention and determine an effective method for the vertical single-leg rebound jump (VSJ) and horizontal single-leg bounding jump (HSJ) in plyometrics by investigating the differences and relationship between the two jumps with respect to take-off movement and joint kinetics. 11 male track and field athletes performed the VSJ, 50%HSJ, 75%HSJ, and HSJ. The kinematics and kinetics during the take-off phase were recorded using a high-speed video camera (300 Hz) for movements in the sagittal plane and force platforms (1000 Hz), and then analyzed. The results are summarized below: 1. According to a spring-mass model, the vertical velocity of the center of gravity in the VSJ was attained by using shortening-lengthening movements. However, in the HSJ, most of the horizontal velocity of the center of gravity was due to rotational movement. This velocity increased with increasing jump distance. 2. The extension torque of the knee and hip joints during the former phase, the negative torque power of the knee, and the positive torque power of the ankle and hip joints in the HSJ were greater than those in the VSJ. However, the ankle joint torque during the former phase and the negative torque power in the HSJ were smaller than those in the VSJ. 3. The jump distance for the HSJ was correlated with the RJ-index for the VSJ. Moreover, there was a correlation between the HSJ and VSJ with respect to negative joint work and joint contribution. These results suggest that there are differences in take-off movement and joint kinetics between the VSJ and HSJ; however, both jumps show similarities in the recruitment characteristics of the take-off leg muscle during the former phase.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between motion and ball spin in tennis serves. Ten male university tennis players participated. The three-dimensional coordinates of the players performing flat, kick and slice serves were collected using a motion capture system with 8 cameras (250 Hz). Similarly, the three-dimensional coordinates of reflective markers on the ball were also collected (500 Hz). The primary variables computed were: racquet face velocity and direction at impact, velocity and angular velocity of the ball after impact, hitting point, angles of the upper limb joints, and segment angles of the upper trunk. The differences in racquet face velocity among flat, kick, and slice serves were divided into the following terms: 1) ΔVposture: A difference in velocity resulting from a change in upper trunk posture, 2) ΔVswing: A difference in velocity resulting from a change in arm swing (kinematics of the upper limb), 3) ΔVutrk: A difference in velocity resulting from a change in upper trunk translational and rotational motion. Repeated measures ANOVA (p<0.05) with Bonferroni multiple comparison was used to evaluate the effects of changes in form (with differences in ball spin) on each parameter. The findings are summarized as follows. 1) The impact point and swing direction were mainly controlled not by a change in arm swing motion, but by a change in upper body posture. 2) To generate ball spin, it is necessary to avoid a head-on collision between the ball and the racquet (a normal vector of the racquet face is parallel to the racquet face velocity vector). Therefore, players decreased the amount of upper trunk leftward rotation in kick and slice serves at the point of impact so as to swing the racquet more laterally. 3) It is necessary to swing the racquet more vertically in order to lean the rotation axis of the ball. Therefore, players controlled the upper trunk leftward-rightward and forward-backward leaning in a kick serve at the point of impact. 4) Changes in upper body posture cause changes in the direction the racquet faces. Therefore, players mainly controlled their elbow pronation-supination angle in order to maintain a racquet face direction that satisfies a legal serve.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the kinetic features of the upper limbs at different hitting-point heights (high, middle, and low) during baseball tee-batting. Twenty-three collegiate male baseball players (age: 19.8±1.3 yr, height: 1.74±0.04 m, weight: 74.1±6.2 kg, athletic career: 12.0±2.1 yr) participated. Three-dimensional coordinate data were captured using a VICON-MX system (12-camera, 250 Hz), and kinetic data for each hand were collected using an instrumented bat equipped with 28 strain gauges (1000 Hz). Three tee-batting heights were set for each subject based on the upper and lower limits of the strike zone according to the rules of baseball. Kinetic variables for the upper limbs, such as joint torque, joint torque power, and mechanical work, were calculated. The period of forward swing motion was divided into down-swing and level-swing phases. The results are summarized as follows: 1) The extension torque and positive torque power at each individual shoulder joint were significantly greater at the low hitting-point height than at other heights. 2) The positive torque power for extension torque at each individual elbow joint in the last half of the down-swing phase was significantly greater at the low hitting-point height than at other heights. 3) Negative power for adduction/abduction torque at each individual shoulder joint in the level-swing phase was observed at the low hitting-point height. 4) The mechanical work done by joint torque about the flexion/extension and adduction/abduction axes at the shoulder, the flexion/extension axis at the elbow, and the palmar/dorsal flexion and radial/ulnar flexion axes at the wrist showed large and positive values, and differed significantly among hitting-point heights. These results indicate that 1) the flexion/extension torque at each individual shoulder joint contributes greatly to adjustment of the translational movement of the bat in the vertical direction during the down-swing phase, 2) the adduction/abduction torque at each individual shoulder joint exerts a larger proportion of the longitudinal force of the bat to withstand centrifugal force at a low hitting-point height than at other heights in the level swing phase, and 3) consequently, it tends to be more difficult to adjust the bat to the hitting-point at a low height in comparison with other heights.
Introduction: An increase in the level of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) may be a factor related to coronary artery disease, which can be a cause of sudden death during exercise. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a difference in the ratio of low-density (LDL-C) to high-density (HDL-C) lipoprotein cholesterol (L/H ratio) might affect the PAI-1 level during acute strenuous exercise. Subjects and Methods: Thirteen healthy trained men aged 19 to 23 years participated. Seven were categorized as having a L/H ratio of <2.0 (L/H <2.0 group), and 6 as having a L/H ratio of ≧2.0 (L/H ≧2.0 group). Venous blood samples were collected from the subjects before and after they had performed the Cooper 12-min test (running as far as possible within 12 min). LDL-C concentration (mg/dL), HDL-C concentration (mg/dL), and PAI-1 level (ng/mL) were measured using blood samples. Results: The PAI-1 level before (30.4±1.9 ng/mL) and after (25.8±3.4 ng/mL) exercise did not change significantly in the L/H <2.0 group, whereas it increased significantly in the L/H ≧2.0 group (41.1±10.0 ng/mL to 61.8±11.7 ng/mL, p<0.05). Conclusions: The present study revealed that the PAI-1 level increased significantly after acute strenuous exercise only in the high L/H ratio (≧2.0) group.
This article reports an application of the contingent valuation method for estimating the monetary value of elite sport policy in Japan. In particular, we tested the temporal reliability issue, which is one of the main limitations reported in the literature, by using a longitudinal survey design. A series of longitudinal questionnaires were administered via an internet-based survey to a sex- and age-stratified random sample of 850 adult Japanese respondents. Baseline assessment took place immediately before the 2012 Summer Olympics (T1: July 2012), with post-assessment (T2: August 2012) and a follow-up 6 months later (T3: February 2013). In each survey, the respondents were asked to state their willingness to pay (WTP) for elite sport policy, which aims to achieve the official target of ‘The Sports Basic Plan’ (i.e. ranking in the top five for the total number of gold medals won in the Summer Olympics and the top ten in the Winter Olympics) in a hypothesised scenario. WTP was elicited using a double-bounded dichotomous-choice approach. Statistical analysis of 613 respondents who completed the entire survey revealed that there were no significant changes in the WTP between the time points. Consequently, the total WTP was reliably estimated to be within the region of ¥50.9-59.3 billion, which was two and half times higher than public elite sport expenditure (around ¥22.7 billion).
This paper focuses on “bodily experience” and “bodily dialogue” in physical education with the aim of clarifying the domain of bodily experience and bodily dialogue, and discusses the significance of physical education as “education in intercorporeality” by showing that bodily experience and bodily dialogue foster a vital sense of “we” in modern Japanese children. First, the author examines bodily experiences in the context of physical education. Bodily experiences are central to other experiences (experiences of the self, experiences from the others and experiences of the things) in physical education, and elicit “bodily feelings”, which can be regarded as Gestalts that we perceive from the subject's viewpoint. The Gestalts consist of feelings of the self body, feelings from others' bodies, and the feelings of things for both the self and the others. The bodily feelings as Gestalts form the core of bodily experiences, and this underlies our experiences in physical education. Secondly, the author considers the essence of bodily dialogues, through which we perceive the others by bodily feelings. Therefore the domain of bodily dialogues involves both bodily experiences and experiences from the others. The domain of bodily dialogues extends to that of “mental dialogues”, but the two are distinct because the latter is involves mental, not bodily, feelings. Also the latter promotes the restoration of corporeality by acquiring mental feelings, whereas the former promotes the formation of the latter by acquiring bodily feelings. Finally, it can be said that the self and the others share bodily rather than mental (emotional) experiences in physical education. In other words, instead of having mental dialogues through mental feelings, we experience bodily dialogues thorough bodily feelings. In our everyday lives, we nurture “intersubjectivity” through mental dialogues, but we also nurture “intercorporeality” through bodily dialogues when practicing physical education. This makes it possible for us to recognize ‘we’ as bodily feelings. Therefore, physical education is essential for the development of modern Japanese children, who allocate too much time to intellectual training and need to education in intercorporeality.
This study focused on the defensive strategies employed in Japanese competitive basketball in the 1920s and 1930s with the intention of clarifying the process through which the “five-man two-line defense”, a type of man-to-man defense, became a mainstream tactic after first examining the factors behind the decline in the number of teams employing the “3-2 zone defense”, a defensive strategy first introduced by Waseda University. The study results can be summarized as follows. 1. The 3-2 zone defense was introduced in Japan in 1924 and proved highly effective at the time; however it gradually fell from favor. The reasons for its decline included the use of high post play, an offensive strategy that proved effective against a 3-2 zone defense, an increase in the size of the court, and the fact that there were fewer leaders who could teach team members the difficult-to-learn 3-2 zone defense. 2. Teams employing a five-man two-line defense man-to-man variation as a substitute for the 3-2 zone defense began to emerge in Japan from around 1926. However, this latter tactic had drawbacks due to the role of each position. For this reason, many teams adopted a five-man two-line defense zone defense formation, which is essentially the same as the nearest man-to-man defense, as it was able to eliminate the drawbacks of the five-man two-line defense man-to-man variation. The five-man two-line defense zone defense formation was a defensive strategy that was not significantly affected by high post play or the expanded court size, and that could be learned easily even when few leaders were available to provide complex tactical directions. As a result, the five-man two-line defense zone defense formation overcame the factors that rendered the 3-2 zone defense ineffective, and was widely adopted by domestic teams.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics of fair play in the pre-modern era, targeting pugilism in the 18th century, by focusing on the essence of gambling-oriented spectator sports. Specifically, this study employed the following processes. First, it analyzed the practice of gambling-oriented spectator sports from the perspective of the concept of figuration, and clarified the process of development of order (rules) in spectator sports as well as the characteristics of fair play. Second, it analyzed Broughton's Rules of pugilism from a figuration perspective to identify their function and the characteristics of fair play reflected in them. Third, it examined the process by which fair play was transformed during the transition from the pre-modern to the modern era by exploring the impact of the revision of Broughton's Rules as the London Prize Ring Rules. The following findings were established. First, the main function of Broughton's Rules was not to promote a moral attitude, but rather to guarantee interesting bouts and the viability of gambling. The fair play in spectator sports conducted in accordance with these rules manifested itself in the “performance” of a bout that, fought skillfully and carefully right to the end, embodied the qualities of manliness, courage, and endurance while being free of unnecessary accidents and injuries. Second, in the 18th and early 19th centuries, amid changes in the interpersonal networks connecting the people involved in gambling-oriented spectator sports, fair play in pugilism evolved under the influence of an emphasis on greater clarity. As a result, conduct that had previously been permitted came to be prohibited under the London Prize Ring Rules. The present findings clarified that standards used for judging the fairness and desirability of conduct fluctuated in accordance with changes in interpersonal networks.
This paper focuses on the position of “Ju-ken” matches and their promoter, Kenji Kano, in Japanese boxing history. A “Ju-ken” match was a match between a judoist and a boxer, and such bouts were held from the middle of the Taisho era to the early Showa era in Kobe, Tokyo and Osaka. The main organizer of these matches was the “International Ju-ken club”, whose owner Kenji Kano was the nephew of Jigoro Kano. This study divides the history of Ju-ken into three periods, each with respective features. The first period was from October 1919 to April 1921. Ju-ken at this time was intended to reform judo into a competitive sport through fighting with boxing. Although judo had been well established at that time, it was facing a challenge due to loss of its spirit and form as a martial art during the process of sportification. Jigoro Kano, the founder of Judo, was unhappy with this change. By studying boxing, karate, aikido, stick fighting and other martial arts, he aimed at creating a ‘Martial Art Judo’. His nephew Kenji Kano pursued martial art-oriented judo as well, but his approach to reconstructing judo as a martial art was through mixed martial arts games, the “Ju-ken match”. The middle period was from May 1921 to March 1925, when Ju-ken evolved into a spectator sport that encapsulated the struggle for superiority in terms of nationality and ethnicity. Because Kodokan prohibited their members from participating in any mixed-martial arts match from April 1921, Ju-ken became a spectator sport. In addition, after charity matches following the Great Kanto Earthquake, in order to bring more excitement to the game, Ju-ken heightened the opposition and rivalry based on the nationalities and ethnicities of the athletes. The final period was from April 1925 to August 1931, when Ju-ken changed into a show that was intended to provoke nationalistic emotions among the audience. After the development of “normal” boxing, Ju-ken held normal boxing matches in their games and adopted new boxing-like rules. These new rules and the point systems put foreign boxers at a disadvantage when fighting against Japanese judoists, ensuring that Japanese would always defeat foreigners. Finally, through assimilation of knowledge and focusing on boxing, this study argues that Ju-ken matches created a background for localization of modern boxing in Japan.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between culture and the formation of athletic self-identity in female athletes in Japan and China. The participants were 181 female athletes from Japan (collegiate level 145, high school level 36) and 168 from China (collegiate 97, high school 71), who completed the Scale for Independent and Interdependent Construal of Self and the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS). The reliability and validity of both scales were confirmed by Cronbach's alpha and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), respectively. The results indicated that there were significant differences in athletic identity between Japanese and Chinese female athletes (t=2.69, p<.001): those in Japan demonstrated higher values of athletic identity than those in China. Multiple regression analysis showed that Japanese female athletes demonstrated only causal relationship of independent cultural self-awareness in predicting athletic identity (β=.19, p<.05) and that Chinese female athletes demonstrated causal relationships of the both cultural self-awareness in predicting athletic identity (independent self: β=.22, p<.01; interdependent self: β=.29, p<.001). The present findings suggest that cultural background has an influence on individual identity, i.e. identity as an athlete in this context.
With the enforcement of various sport policies with a focus on strategic and comprehensive community sport clubs promotion, debate over the management form of extracurricular activities in Japan has been more focused on the trend of relationship-building both inside and outside of school. In this study, we discuss the validity of the club management form that is centered on activities inside the school, in an attempt to critically consider relationship-building trends. For this, we examine cases where a relationship has been initially formed, but then dissolved, by means of an interview survey with some teachers involved. The relationships formed in comprehensive community sport clubs and extracurricular activities were achieved through the aggressive behavior of a single health and physical education teacher. Many school teachers in Japan feel responsible for the day-to-day club guidance. Therefore, cooperation with school sport activities outside the school is also open to other teachers. However, with regard to relationships with out-of-school activities, the consciousness of teachers began to change. In this study I confirmed the occupational culture of teachers, which involved “complicated efforts to build up relationships with local residents”, “a sense of extracurricular activities in school education,” and “indifference to out-of-school activities”. In fact, building relationships between comprehensive community sport clubs and extracurricular activities ended in failure. Thus study has highlighted a drawback of current sports policy content in Japan. Current sport aims at the creation of a sports environment in all regions, including schools. However, no consideration seems to be given to the viewpoint of teachers who have supported sport in school. As long as there is no form of club management where teachers are indispensable, the situation in Japan would appear to be difficult.
The objective of the present study was to investigate the influences of psychological pressure on initial posture and anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) when performing a single forward step movement. Fourteen participants performed a single step toward a circular target (10 cm in diameter) in response to a beep sound. The trials were conducted under non-pressure and pressure conditions, with 10 attempts for each. In performing the task, participants were required to respond rapidly to the beep sound, to be as brief as possible with the stepping movement, and to place their foot accurately in the landing position on the target. Pressure was induced by a small audience and false instructions of starting over the same experiment on another day and the presentation of video-taped performance in a sports science lecture if performance does not reach a criteria. The results showed that state anxiety (state-trait anxiety inventory: STAI Y-1) increased from 42.4 (±7.0) to 53.7 (±8.7) and that heart rate also increased from 76.2 (±7.0) bpm to 83.4 (±9.3) bpm when the participants were under pressure. Significant increases in mean radial error and bivariate variable error were found, indicating that accuracy of stepping in the landing position was reduced under pressure. Kinematic analysis showed that, in the initial posture phase, significant trunk inclination was observed under pressure. Kinetic data obtained using a force plate showed that mean and maximal force in the posterior direction increased when under pressure. Furthermore, the EMG activity levels of the tibialis anterior muscles increased under pressure. These results indicate that pressure affects both the initial posture and APA when performing a single forward step movement.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the norm for supporting play by athletes in team sports, which has so far lacked implicitness, having been regarded spontaneity. The investigation involved analysis of the “authority” of Michael Jordan (hereinafter shortened to “MJ”), who has had a reputation as being one of the best athletes in history. Initially we tried to extract a sense of values from MJ himself and references to his reputation. From this, we clarified a standard of value judgments, and then finally produced a suitable universal normative principle common to all athletes. Although there were insufficient data to draw firm conclusions, the sense of values derived by an athlete appeared to be derived from evaluation of “whether one can utilize one's own talents.” It became clear that while this leads to “correct” play, this evaluation standard contributes to the formation of an “independent strong self” that can “exert positive freedom.” On the other hand, it was also concluded that not only did this “positive freedom” control the evaluation standards of athletes, but also functions as the “normative principle” that one should acquire by forming one's own creativity and identity. At the same time, it was suggested that “positive freedom” is the driving force that allows athletes to become “ignorant” through independent and strong self-belief, The present findings indicate that disregarding any mystique or secrecy about the underlying ability in athletes, and transcending the rule of thumb can contribute to execution of play by athletes in team sports, acting as a signpost when confronting any problem that is complicated, erratic or filled with uncertainty.
Kitaru Asahi studied dance education in the USA from 1918 to 1919, and after returning to Japan he introduced American dance teaching materials, which he recommended to Japanese physical education teachers through publications and courses in dance education. The present study attempted to clarify how the idea of recommending Gymnastic Dance was realized through the dance teaching materials. First, we analyzed the characteristics of exercise consisting of steps and movements in the dance teaching materials that were introduced by Asahi. We then analyzed the relationship between the rhythm of the exercises and the rhythm of music through reference to these materials. The results were as follows: It was found that the teaching materials introduced by Asahi described various combinations of steps and movements in the dance exercises. These included walking, circling, hopping, jumping, stamping, pointing or twisting. When students exercised using the dance teaching materials, these combinations of steps and movements created active, dynamic and nimble sensations in the students through up and down, sideways, forward and backward changes in body position. It was found that these combinations of steps and movements changed the timing and direction of the exercises many times. Asahi's idea of recommending Gymnastic Dance was reflected in these characteristics of steps and movements. Also in the relationships between the rhythm of the exercises and the rhythm of music, active, dynamic and nimble sensations were evident, helping the students to perform powerful jumps. Various combinations of different exercises and music were able to change the dance rhythm to a more dynamic, high-energy form. If these different exercises and music were performed in contrasting rhythms, each component would appear to be more dynamic and singular. It appears that Asahi's idea to recommend Gymnastic Dance to Japanese physical education teachers was based on these relationships between the rhythm of exercises and that of music. Asahi expected that students in the 1920s who studied Gymnastic Dance would incorporate these active steps and movements when they danced together with classmates, and that this would assist them in realizing their goals in Physical Education.
This study examines the transformation of the do-waza (techniques for striking the opponent's torso) in kenjutsu motivated by a philosophy of physical education rooted in medical rationalism. This transformation was initiated with the goal of fostering balanced physical development. The study materials were do-waza-related descriptions in representative kenjutsu manuals published around 1900, and handed down from person to person. Through examination of do-waza in modern Japan, it was concluded that bujutsu-taisoho (martial art exercises) were introduced and endorsed by Unosuke Ozawa, Kenzo Nakajima, Tokuichiro Nakano, and others in their attempt to incorporate kenjutsu teaching materials into regular physical education in schools. This was the point when standard kenjutsu instruction techniques shifted from one-to-one to group-exercise instructions. Results obtained in this study can be summarized as follows: 1. The core contents of do-waza in representative kenjutsu textbooks published between 1884 and 1897 only describe methods for striking the migi-do (right do or right torso) but not the hidari-do (left do). Shingoro Negishi (1884) states that it is better to strike the migi-do in preference to the hidari-do, while Daijo Kameyama (1895) and Minoru Yoneoka (1897) state that only migi-do strikes are rationally acceptable from a technical perspective, whereas hidari-do strikes are strictly unacceptable. 2. Between the late 1890s and 1900s, Unosuke Ozawa, Kenzo Nakajima, and Tokuichiro Nakano developed the bujutsu-taisoho with the aim of implementing bujutsu (martial arts, i.e., kenjutsu) as part of the regular school curriculum. This became a key opportunity to shift kenjutsu instruction from one-on-one to group instruction. Simultaneously, the training came to present do-waza methods for striking both the migi-do and the hidari-do (Ozawa, 1897; Shizuoka Prefecture Teacher's School, 1902; Nakayama and Nakano, 1906). 3. The do-waza in the bujutsu-taisoho as proposed by Ozawa, Nakajima, and Nakano effectively gave hidari-do strikes, which had been previously rejected in the field of kenjutsu, equal standing with migi-do strikes, with the aim of achieving balanced physical development on both sides of the body. The motivation for this revised do-waza was a physical education philosophy founded upon principles of medical rationalism.
This study examined the possibility of changing naive conceptions regarding volleyball overhand pass skills with the aim of improving performance. For this purpose, a Peer Teaching model was introduced, in the unit. Peer Teaching involveswhereby students teaching each other based on the class content set by the teacher. The participants were 43 seventh grade students who took part in a 10-hour PE volleyball unit. Each participant completed the Naive Conception Questionnaire to rate the degree of importance of various movements (DIM) in the overhand pass and to identify technical problems in skill performance (TPI). The questionnaire was administered pre- and post-unit. Furthermore, the control group for this study was the baseline class (n=38), which included data collected previously. The students allowed for a comparison of the DIM and TPI between the control group and the intervention class. The results showed that; 1) DIM scores increased significantly in the post-unit with the intervention classes. DIM No. 4 [Bringing the ball down to the forehead] scores increased significantly in the post-unit as students were not able to execute this skill prior. TPI scores also increased significantly in the post-unit on the intervention classes. 2) The DIM scores increased in the baseline and intervention classes. Additionally, it was noted that the TPI scores increased significantly with the intervention class when compared with the baseline class. These results suggest that Peer Teaching is an effective strategy for improving cognition of volleyball overhand pass skills.
Perception and management of risk by high altitude mountain climbers were investigated by qualitative analysis. Reports of high altitude mountain climbing collected from 3 books and 15 articles from mountaineering magazines were analyzed by the KJ method and transcripts derived from semi-structured interview of 6 distinguished Japanese expert mountain climbers were analyzed by M-GTA. The results indicated the following trends: 1) The desire for more fascinating high altitude mountain climbing routes inevitably leads climbers to face difficult and uncertain situations. 2) Such climbers are highly aware of the uncertainty derived from the high altitude environment and the exertion of climbing. 3) Because they are aware of this uncertainty, their decisions always waver between challenge and safety, and they always attempt to reduce the degree of risk. 4) Such efforts consist of two phases: risk reduction prior to the climb, and on-site avoidance of risk, each being characterized by mental simulation, avoidance of uncontrollable situations, and endeavours to salvage a positive result. 5) After the climb, ambivalent cognition between reflection on their optimism and achievement also emerges. Among all, mental simulation primed by on-site signs of risk, and risk evaluation from the viewpoint of controllability were regarded as keys to staying alive in high risk situations during high altitude mountaineering. Through this risk perception and management process, high altitude climbers possess a contradictory sense of “controllable risk” that enables them to engage in high risk activity. Overall, the characteristics of risk perception and management were similar among the materials obtained from books/magazine articles and interview transcripts. The characteristics of climbers' perception and risk management were rationalized by the characteristics of the natural environment in which they were climbing, and also from the viewpoint of the situated action. The possible application of these findings to risk management in outdoor sports was also discussed.
The purpose of this study was to examine kinesthetic after-effects on shot-put performance. In experiment 1, involving 22 male university students, it was examined whether any kinesthetic after-effects would be evident in terms of throwing distance when shots of different weights were thrown. The results demonstrated a kinesthetic after-effect: the participants felt that it was easier to throw a standard-weight shot (4.0 kg) after throwing a heavier shot (5.45 kg), and they performed better in terms of throwing distance. However, no difference in throwing distance was evident when the standard-weight shot was thrown after throwing a lighter one (2.72 kg), although a kinesthetic after-effect was observed. In experiment 2, involving 16 male university students, it was examined whether any kinesthetic after-effect or improvement of throwing distance would result from throwing different weights of heavier shots (5.0 kg and 6.0 kg) before throwing the standard-weight shot (4.0 kg) 5 times. Kinesthetic after-effects and improvements in throwing distance were observed. However, there was no difference in the distances of the five throws corresponding to the weights of the shots. In experiment 3, involving 27 male university students, it was examined whether any kinesthetic after-effect or improvement in throwing distance would be evident when there was a difference in time interval after throwing a heavier shot (6.0 kg). Although kinesthetic after-effects and improvements in throwing distance were observed, there was no difference according to time interval. The above results suggest that shot-put performance would improve due to after-effects caused by throwing heavier shots. This improvement in performance might be explained by ‘post-activation potentiation’ and ‘perceptional illusion’ resulting from throwing heavier shots.
The present study was undertaken to argue that habit is a psychological construct, and that habit strength can be measured in terms of the psychological processes of habitual behavior. Two studies were conducted in an attempt to develop an Exercise Habit Strength scale (EHSS), and to examine its reliability and validity. In the first study, we used the original version of the EHSS (Grove and Zillich, 2003) translated into Japanese. Exploratory Factor Analysis using college student data revealed a factor structure of 4 components corresponding to the psychological processes in the original (Patterned action, Automaticity, Cue driven, Negative consequences if not done). Patterned action and Automaticity means the behavior is performed in a patterned and semi-automatic manner. Cue driven means increasing the extent to which the behavior is cued by specific stimuli in the environment. Negative consequences if not done means the development of negative psychological states if the behavior is not performed. The EHSS showed sufficient internal consistency and an acceptable test-retest reliability coefficient. In addition, the 4 factors model with 15 items was tested by confirmatory factor analysis. The results indicated a good fit between the model and the data, and the 4 factors model was accepted. The scale was demonstrated to be valid with moderately strong positive correlations between the composite index and several different dimensions of exercise behavior. The second study performed using data for middle-aged and older individuals supported the results of first study. The conceptualization and measurement of exercise habit in this study will aid further understanding of exercise behavior.
The Young Men's Association (YMA) was an education institute that provided business programmes and further education for young men. It aimed to train both mind and body, and valued sporting activities. However, there has been little knowledge about the state of sporting activities provided by the YMA. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the state of the sporting activities at Fuchu YMA in Tokyo. For this purpose, the study used Fuchu-sport bulletins which specialized in such sporting programmes during the Taisho era and pre-war Showa era. The main findings are summarized as follows. 1) Fuchu-sport was modeled on a specialized magazine, Asahi Sports. The publication of Fuchu-sport was an indication of the high interest in sport during the Taisho era. 2) After the Ministry of Home Affairs and the Ministry of Education announced their first and second instructions, the Tokyo government independently ran conferences aimed at the development of sport and physical education at Tokyo YMA. Accordingly, Tokyo was one step ahead of other areas in Japan in setting up athletic clubs for the YMA. 3) The organization of kyogi-bu was supported mainly by Fuchu YMA, but also funded by the local authority and by Fuchu ordinary and higher elementary school, the latter being also committed to conducting actual sporting activities. 4) University students were recruited as coaches, and thereby the kyogi-bu provided successful programmes that led to an improvement in competitive level. However, this improvement resulted in elimination of some of the members. 5) The remarkable successes of the kyogi-bu and its development in Fuchu were accomplished by collaborating with the local educational institutions. The relationship between the YMA and school athletic clubs was another significant factor in running the sporting programmes. The present study has provided deeper insights into the nature of sporting activities held by the YMA during the Taisho era and pre-war Showa era.
This study investigates the emergence of the concept of “sportification of judo” in Japan, focusing on the process of “student judo” in relation to the competition between the First Higher School (“Ichikoh”) and the Second Higher School (“Nikoh”) in 1918, up until formation of the Association of Judo by the Four Imperial Universities in 1928. Jigorō Kanō, the father of judo, was dissatisfied that Nikoh had overused ground techniques against Ichikoh in 1918, and in June 1924, Kodokan published a revised set of umpiring rules to control the use of ground techniques in student judo. However, Tsunetane Oda, the manager of Nikoh judo club, criticized Kanō, and advocated that ground techniques were a valid combat method. Oda finally compromised, because Takeshi Sakuraba, one of Kanō's best pupils, refuted Oda's proposal. However, it was the first time that Kodokan had been publicly criticized by someone concerned with student judo, and this seems to have been a trigger for student judo to become independent from Kodokan. In parallel with the emergence of the democracy movement after World War I, Judo came to be regarded as extremely outmoded, and judo practitioners began to place more emphasis on theory rather than actual competition. Kanō interceded with the Tokyo Gakusei Judo Rengōkai (Tokyo Student Judo Association, “TGJR”), and in 1924 persuaded the TGJR to let their umpire rules reflect the revised umpire rules. However, the Imperial University of Tokyo (IUT) rebelled against this movement, and left the TGJR. The IUT then appealed to each of the Imperial Universities, and held the Teidai Taikai (the Four Imperial Universities Competition, “FIUC”) to encourage nationwide spread of the Kosen Judo Taikai (National High School and Vocational School Judo Competition, which was hosted by Kyoto Imperial University, “KJT”). The Imperial University Judo Association, which hosted the FIUC, then abandoned the combat characteristics that were advocated by Kodokan, with the aim of representing judo as a “sport”. One of the reasons why Kibisaburō Sasaki criticized Kodokan was that he had been treated coldly by Kanō and Kyūzō Mifune at the Shūki Kōhaku Shiai (a contest between two Kodokan groups) in November 1922, because he had used ground techniques frequently. Moreover, Sasaki as a member of the IUT judo club had experienced the withdrawal of the IUT from the TGJR, and the holding of the FIUC. Therefore, Sasaki criticized Kodokan while student judo was being organized. Sasaki claimed that “sportification” did not confer any new value on the principles of Kodokan judo. Kanō criticized the over-use of ground techniques by KJT and the FIUC, which lacked a combat system. However, Sasaki considered that Kanō's opinion was a long-established custom, and insisted that the FIUC was a sports competition. Thus, the claim made by Sasaki meant that the FIUC had become independent from Kodokan judo.
The purposes of this study were (1) to examine the effect of body contact (BC) on running power, and (2) to evaluate the relationship between physical ability and BC during measurement of both aerobic exercise and intermittent anaerobic running power in 14 male university handball players, all of whom were court players. Significantly shorter running distances were achieved in the yo-yo intermittent endurance test [yo-yo IE] with full BC than without BC, and there was a significant relationship between the final distance run and the degree of BC. Intermittent exercise was measured by the intermittent shuttle sprint test (ISST) that involved eight 20-m shuttle sprints with a 20-s rest period after each sprint. The subjects exhibited a significantly lower retention rate during the 8th repetition of the ISST with BC than during the eighth repetition of the ISST without BC, but there was no significant correlation between the mean retention rates during the 2 tests. A positive correlation between retention rates during the ISST BC and muscle strength and body weight was evident from the first 2—3 sets of the ISST with BC, and a negative correlation was evident between the retention rates during the ISST BC and the yo-yo IE from the first 5 sets of the ISST with BC. These results indicate that intermittent anaerobic running power is important for high aerobic ability. However, for intermittent exercise that includes BC, higher body weight and muscle strength are necessary to prevent any decrease in running power.
This study aimed to clarify the importance of strength and jump ability of both the kicking and supporting legs for increasing the speed of a soccer ball during instep kicks at various approach speeds. Twelve male university soccer players performed instep kicks using different approach lengths (1 m, 3 m, 7 m, and free length). Maximal isokinetic and concentric muscular strength was measured in terms of knee extension/flexion, hip extension/flexion, and hip abduction/adduction using an isokinetic dynamometer. Jump ability was measured using countermovement jump, double-leg rebound jump, and single-leg rebound jump with the kicking leg and supporting leg. For the instep kick, kinematic and kinetic data were recorded using the Vicon T20 system (250 Hz) and force platforms (1000 Hz). The results of the analyses were as follows: 1. The approach speed increased as the approach length increased. Moreover, the time between the moment when the foot touched the ground and the moment of ball impact became shortened, and the ground reaction force at all axes increased as the approach speed increased. 2. Foot speed under all the approach conditions was correlated with hip extension and the abduction strength of the supporting leg. 3. Foot speed for the 3 m, 7 m, and free-length conditions was correlated with the rebound jump ability of the supporting leg. Moreover, foot speeds for the 3 m, 7 m, and free-length conditions was correlated with hip adduction strength of the supporting leg. 4. Similar results were obtained for relative foot speed (calculated by dividing foot speed by the speed of the body's center of gravity at the moment of ball impact). 5. The rate of change in the relative foot velocity (for an approach of 1 m to 7 m) was correlated with the rebound jump ability of the supporting leg. These results suggest that it is important to improve hip extension and the abduction strength of the supporting leg in order to increase the ball speed, regardless of the approach speed. In addition, it is important to improve the hip adduction strength, especially the rebound jump ability of the supporting leg in order to increase the ball speed when a high approach speed is employed.
The purpose of this research was to clarify the technical characteristics of the swinging motion performed by female players by comparing their instep kicking movements with those of male soccer players, as well as to consider technical factors by which female players can increase the ball velocity. Twenty-six participants (13 female and 13 male players) were requested to perform instep kicks with maximum effort, and their kicking movements and corresponding ground reaction forces were captured using a three-dimensional motion capturing system (250 Hz) and force plate (1000 Hz), respectively. The knee joint and hip joint torques during the forward swinging phase were lower for female players than for male players; this is considered to be a factor explaining the lower foot velocities for female players in comparison with male players. Furthermore, the thigh-to-shank energy ratios for female players were significantly lower than those for male players. This suggested that with regard to the forward swinging phase, the technique employed by female players for the kinematic chain of movements related to transmitting energy from the thigh to the shank had less potential than the technique used by male players. This led us to conclude that female players can increase their foot velocities by improving their movement chain technique, which can result in increased ball velocity. Moreover, a forward dynamics simulation using the vertical component of the force at the hip joint as input was performed to consider the effects of the vertical force of the hip joint on swinging velocity. An investigation of the effects of the vertical force of the hip joint on swinging velocity indicated that the latter tended to increase as the vertical force increased. From this we concluded that accelerating the hip joint of the kicking leg in the vertical direction increased the swinging velocity during the instep kicking movements performed by female players. This is considered to be one of the technical factors that can be used by female players to increase the ball velocity.
Combative sports are characterized by skills in rapidly switching from offense to defense, and it is considered difficult to acquire such skills. The purpose of this study was to design a combative sport (Kendo) class unit and examine its effectiveness. Two teaching materials involving a form of exaggeration (game modification) were developed to aid better understanding. The participants were 39 7th grade students (19 boys and 20 girls), one student teacher, and another teacher who had more than 20 years teaching experience. Both teachers were Kendo rank holders. Eleven physical education classes were conducted as the experimental Kendo teaching unit. Qualitative and quantitative data were gathered. The qualitative data source was a journal written by the teachers, sentences written by the students on their learning sheets, comments made by students at interviews about their thoughts during Kendo training, and those made by teacher's colleagues during class observation. The quantitative data source was a motivation questionnaire for formative evaluation of physical education classes developed by Takahashi et al. (1994), and the students' game performance. The motivation questionnaire and student game performance were analyzed by descriptive statistics whereas qualitative data were analyzed by the method of SCAT (Otani, 2007). The results of this study indicated that the student's skill learning motivation and skill acquisition tended to be high, when analyzed through the students' game performance through exaggeration games and mini-games. It suggested that the approach employed in this unit was successful, and that the exaggeration games applied in the unit were effective for concurrent skill acquisition. We consider that modification of games for combative sport training should be developed more actively.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the principal factors related to shot situations that affect the outcome of goalkeeping saves in soccer and to build a regression formula that would predict the difficulty of saving a shot. The samples were 551 shots at goal in the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa. The shots data were collected using game performance analysis. For statistical processing, the principal factors affecting the outcome of a save in soccer were revealed using logistic regression analysis. The principal factors that influenced the results of a save attempt were: the duration between initiation of the shot and when the ball reached the goal, the presence or absence of a defender in front of the shooter, the presence or absence of a defender located lateral or posterior to the shooter, the part of the body used to perform the shot, i.e. the head or the leg, the type of shot, i.e., a liner, a lob, or a grounder, the shot course in a mediolateral direction, the shot course in a vertical direction, the presence or absence of a change in the direction of the shot by other players, the shooter's position angle in relation to the goal line and the line from the goal post to the shooter, and the distance from the center of the goal to the ball when the ball reached the goal line. In addition, a regression formula was constructed to predict the difficulty of the save by combining the odds ratios of the main factors. It was verified that the difficulty in making a save could be accurately predicted using the regression formula (84.8%). As a future task, using our regression formula, it would be practically important to develop predictors for evaluating the ability of a goalkeeper.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between life skills and athletic performance in high school golfers. 251 high school golfers (136 males and 115 females) participating in a major golf competition held in Mie prefecture during August of 2011 were asked to complete a questionnaire—the Appraisal Scale of Required Life Skills for College Student Athletes —before the competition. This consists of 10 subscales: stress management, setting goals, thinking carefully, appreciating others, communicating, maintaining etiquette and manners, always making one's best effort, taking responsibility for one's own behavior, being humble, and maintaining physical health and well-being. Based on the competition results, 173 sets of data from the 251 golfers were separated into 3 groups: a “High Score Group (n=43)”, a “Middle Score Group (n=87)”, and a “Low Score Group (n=43)”. First, the feasibility of applying the life skills scale to high school golfers was supported by the results of confirmatory factor analysis and the fit indices of structural equation modeling using the 251 sets of data. In addition, ANOVA using the 173 sets of data was conducted on the life skills scores obtained before the competition. The ANOVA results showed that the main effects were revealed in four subscales: setting goals, appreciating others, always making one's best effort, and taking responsibility for one's own behavior. Multiple comparisons indicated that the life skills score in the Middle Score Group was significantly higher than that in the Low Score Group in 3 subscales: setting goals, always making one's best effort, and taking responsibility for one's own behavior, suggesting that specific dimensions of life skills are positively related to competition results.
The paper discusses the contents of the Health Education Matriculation Examination in Finland conducted in March 2013. This is the first report in Japan to discuss the actual examination. The author visited Finland in March 2013 to interview Dr. Lasse Kannas, Dean of the Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, the main university in Finland that has a training course for health education teachers. A study of the examination papers for the last five years showed that the exam measured the following six core components of health literacy: theoretical knowledge, practical knowledge, critical thinking, information analyzing ability, self-controlling ability, and citizenship. The examination of March 2013 showed a similar content. The author concludes that the above six core components of knowledge are useful for studies of health literacy training for health education of Japanese high school students.
Collective efficacy has been identified as a critical determinant of team success in sport. Many studies in sport psychology have focused on the relationships between collective efficacy and psychological variables or outcomes of interest. Although an increasing number of studies on collective efficacy have been conducted in Japan, greater attention should be given to refining the methodology for assessing the construct of collective efficacy. The purposes of this study were to confirm the factor structure and establish construct validity of the Japanese translated version of the Collective Efficacy Questionnaire for Sports (J-CEQS) with revisions to its original version (Short et al., 2005). The participants were 1244 athletes from 48 teams. We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis and found that the J-CEQS showed the same multidimensional factor structure as Short's original questionnaire. To test the construct validity of the J-CEQS, we examined correlations among its subscale scores with the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ, Carron et al., 1985). All the J-CEQS subscales were significantly correlated with the group integration-task subscales. The unity subscale of the J-CEQS was also significantly correlated with all the GEQ subscales. These correlations were similar to those shown in previous studies (Martínez et al., 2011; Short et al., 2005). The present findings provide preliminary support for the utility of the J-CEQS as a measure for assessing collective efficacy in sport teams. We discuss recommendations for future studies using the J-CEQS.
The purpose of this study was to identify the contribution of other individuals to “socialization into wheelchair basketball” of a man with acquired disability, focusing on the specific meaning of “others” in this context. The author examined the contents of recorded interviews with the subject, who had enjoyed basketball before he developed osteosarcoma. Therefore, this was an example of “resocialization into sport.” This case illustrated the types of other individuals who play a valuable role in helping patients with serious illnesses recover their health and return to participation in sports activities. In this context, the present case can be said to be valuable for other studies. The other individuals who contributed to “socialization into wheelchair basketball” of the study subject were as follows: First, until the subject recovered from osteosarcoma, they were the others constructing his “intimate sphere.” That is, they were “irreplaceable others” who gave him a drive to conquer his severe difficulties, “encouraging others” who gave him courage and motivation and “healing others” who provided emotional support. Until the subject was able to apply himself to wheelchair basketball activities, the other individuals were “recruiting others” and “leading others” who attracted the subject to the sport. In addition, they were “associates” in a wheelchair basketball club who supported the subject's activity and also helped him reconstruct his “intimate sphere” of contacts. These “irreplaceable others” and “associates” were similar to those found in a previous study. Although that study had also noted the importance of “leading others,” those noted in the present study had different meaning. The findings of this study should be of help to persons with various degrees of disability to overcome their difficulties.
A number of studies, both in Britain and Japan, have focused on the establishment of modern British football. Several studies agree that in the process of formation of the Football Association (F. A.), six meetings were held from October to December 1863, and that the F. A. was formed at the first meeting held on October 26th. Subsequently, at the sixth meeting on December 8th, two representatives of the club, who loved Rugby Football, left this meeting in protest against the banning of “hacking” and “running with the ball”. Ultimately, clubs that emphasized “kicking” and “dribbling” took charge in formulating the F. A. laws. Researchers in both Japan and Britain have been satisfied with the description given in The History of the Football Association 1863-1953, and they have neglected to take a closer look at the process of deliberation over the formation of the F. A., the formulation of the F. A. laws, and the contents of various decisions. However, Adrian Harvey's Football: The First Hundred Years: The Untold Story has revealed facts that were not included in The History of the Football Association, and it has become possible for us to paint a more accurate picture of the early period of football history that differs from that of the past. Harvey indicated that the roles played by public schools and the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge in the formation of the F. A. were more indirect than initially believed, and that—at that time—the F. A. did not occupy an important position in British football. In this paper, I aim to confirm the facts that were not contained in The History of the Football Association, and reconsider the reasons for the formation of the F. A. and enactment of the F. A. laws 150 years ago, by analyzing in detail Harvey's book and newspaper articles dealing with this issue published at the time. The conclusions of the study are as follows: 1) The F. A. was formed by 14 representatives of 11 clubs that were based in London. 2) The F. A. Committee did not intend to enforce the F. A. laws throughout Britain at the time of formation of the F. A., and tried to reach an agreement with the London clubs that “kicking” and “dribbling” were important. 3) The people who formed the F. A. were youths belonging to the middle class whose occupations included clergymen, lawyers, doctors, government officials, military officials, lawmakers, academics, and rich businessmen involved in commerce and finance.
Block clearance at the start of a sprint is a crucial phase of the race. However, the relationship between the force applied during the block clearance phase and the block clearance movement from the set position has not been entirely clarified. In this study, we examined this relationship by focusing on the behavior of the center of gravity of the whole body during the block clearance phase in a crouching start. Eight sprinters performed a starting dash from a starting block, as would occur in a sprint race. During the block clearance phase, the forces applied to the front and rear starting blocks were measured, and the block clearance movements were analyzed. The force applied during the block clearance phase was evaluated for whether it was close to the horizontal direction on the basis of the BLC (BLC=horizontal component of the impulse applied to the starting blocks/impulse applied to the starting blocks). There was a significant relationship (p<0.05) between the BLC and the angular displacement of the angle of the trunk during the block clearance phase. Also, the BLC was related to the rotational movement in the block clearance phase. In the entire block clearance phase for a high-BLC subject, the extensional movement occurred after the rotational movement. These sequences in movement of the whole body resulted in the center of gravity of the whole body being close to the horizontal direction. Furthermore, there was a significant relationship (p<0.05) between the BLC and the trunk angle at foot strike on the first step. Thus, during the block clearance phase in a crouching start, it is important for sprinters to accelerate their whole body close to the horizontal, applying their force to the starting block. This acceleration may result in horizontal movement of the body with lowering of the torso.