This study examined the influence of differences in take-off surface hardness on rebound drop jumping skills and jumping movements, involving gymnasts and field jumping/combined athletes. The participants performed rebound drop jumps from a 30-cm-high platform with a hard surface using (spring) or not using (non-spring condition) a springboard, and their movements were measured with an optical three-dimensional motion analysis system (Mac3D) and a multi-component force plate. The jumping height and the RDJ index were significantly greater under the spring than the non-spring condition (p<0.01). Under both conditions, the jumping/combined athletes showed markedly higher jumping height than the gymnasts (p<0.05), the gymnasts showed a markedly shorter contact time than the jumping/combined athletes (p<0.001). Furthermore, under the spring condition, there were no significant differences in RDJ index values among the events. These results show that RDJ index-related factors under the spring condition varied among the events. In addition, gymnasts have mastered an effective jumping motion in order to effectively store elastic energy in the spring from the surface by increasing their leg stiffness. On the other hand, jumping/combined athletes have mastered an effective jumping motion in order to effectively store elastic energy in the lower limbs through the bending and stretching motion of their lower limbs.
Participation in outdoor recreation has declined in Japan, especially among adolescents. For example, in 2013 no outdoor recreation activities were ranked in the top 20 most frequently participated sports by Japanese adolescents. Conversely, in Canada where sport promotion policies are well established, participation in outdoor recreation increased slightly between 1992 and 2005. To better understand an individual's level of leisure participation, his or her motivations and constraints should be jointly examined. Having said this, however, to date the concept of constraints has been overlooked in Japanese leisure studies and sport sociology. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to examine: (a) cultural similarities and differences in motivations for and constraints to outdoor recreation participation between Japanese and Euro-Canadian adolescents; and (b) how motivations and constraints affected individuals' frequency of participation in outdoor recreation within each culture. To address these purposes, an on-site questionnaire was employed at Kobe University and the University of Alberta. In total, 255 Japanese and 228 Euro-Canadian undergraduate students provided useable data. Results of Hotelling T2 tests and follow-up t-tests indicated that Japanese participants reported significantly lower independence/autonomy motivation and higher intrapersonal constraint than their Euro-Canadian counterparts. Hierarchical multiple regression results revealed that Canadian independence/autonomy motivation positively predicted participation in outdoor recreation, whereas both Japanese and Canadian intrapersonal constraint negatively predicted participation in outdoor recreation. These analyses also indicated that adding constraints, after controlling for motivations, significantly increased the coefficient of determination (R2) in both cultures. This cross-cultural study has both theoretical and practical implications. In regard to the former, it: (a) addressed reported inadequacies in the existing body of cross-cultural knowledge on leisure behaviours; and (b) indicated that not only motivations but also constraints are key variables in explaining outdoor recreation participation in both Japan and Canada. In regard to the latter, this study's results suggests that negotiating constraints, particularly intrapersonal constraints, could play a prominent role in promoting outdoor recreation participation among Japanese adolescents. By conducting cross-cultural research, North American leisure theories and knowledge can be applied to Japanese culture if cultural similarities and differences have first been considered, measured, and evaluated.
High/low alcohol tolerance is determined by genetic polymorphisms of ADH2 and ALDH2. Currently, operators conduct ethanol patch testing for assessment of alcohol tolerance in a subjective manner; therefore, the test results may vary among individuals. The present study was designed to verify the reliability of ethanol patch testing, with a focus on changes in skin color due to seasons. Two operators were assigned to perform ethanol patch tests, and alcohol-related genetic polymorphisms were evaluated to verify the results. The study included 129 healthy students from Utsunomiya University (age range: 21-24 years). These students were selected because they met the eligibility criteria for the study (all necessary information had to be available, i.e. results for all questionnaire items and patch tests, as well as genetic analysis). Alcohol-related genes tested in this study were ADH2 and ALDH2. During the ethanol patch tests, two operators examined the subjects' cutaneous reactions immediately after lint pad had been removed from their skin, and at 10 min after removal. Ethanol patch test to the subjects was performed twice: once in summer and once in winter. We also administered a questionnaire to assess the students' views on alcohol and drinking habits. According to the cutaneous reactions examined at 10 min, there was significant concordance between the results of ethanol patch tests and ALDH2 genetic polymorphisms. The results of the patch tests performed by the 2 operators (A and B) in summer showed that the concordance rate between the operators was 93.8% (κ coefficient: 0.889; 95% confidence interval: 0.815-0.962, p<0.001) for the cutaneous reactions at 10 min after lint pad removal. Moreover, the same operator's data showed that the concordance rate between the results of the summer and winter patch tests was 70% or higher. These findings suggest that ethanol patch testing is a reliable assay of alcohol tolerance, although the results may be influenced by seasons and individual operator subjectivity. Therefore, during ethanol patch tests, it is important to take into account test conditions such as the time of year and skin color, and to evaluate the results comprehensively.
The purpose of this study was to focus upon the campaign against participation in the tenth Far Eastern Championship Games (FECG) in Japan, and also to examine its historical meaning. The FECG was canceled due to the conflict between Japan and China over the “Manchukuo” problem in 1934. The Japan Amateur Athletic Association (JAAA) negotiated with China and the Philippines about this problem, but China never recognized it. Consequently, “Manchukuo” was unable to participate in the tenth FECG. At that time, those who were involved in “Manchukuo”, and also a right-wing political party, criticised the JAAA and actively protested against it, demanding that the Japanese national team should not participate in the games. But, the JAAA declared that the team would participate. Those who were involved in “Manchukuo” and the right-wing political party attacked the Japanese national team, intending to prevent them from participating in the games. Manchukuo, which was founded as a result of the Manchurian Incident, was supported by many Japanese citizens, and its impact spread to sports. The present study was able to clarify the tension between politics and sport, resulting from Japan's enthusiastic support for Manchukuo.
The purpose of this study was to compare the kinematics of the lower limb and trunk motion of infielders with different skill levels while fielding grounders in baseball, and to make suggestions for coaching. Subjects were divided into a Superior Group (SG, n=10) and an Inferior Group (IG, n=10) according to fielding ability. Trials involved 2 patterns, i.e. fielding a normal grounder and fielding a bad hop. The fielding motions were videotaped with 2 high-speed video cameras (300 Hz). Three-dimensional coordinates of the segment end-points, the glove and the ball were obtained using the DLT method. The angles compared between the 2 groups were flexion-extension, abduction-adduction, and internal-external rotation for both hips, flexion-extension for both knees, dorsa-plantar flexion for both ankles, tilt backward-forward for the trunk and the center of gravity of the body (CG). The sequential data were normalized with the time from the point when the right foot made contact until catching, and then averaged. The results can be summarized as follows: (1) the SG showed a significantly earlier the point of right foot contact in catching than the IG. There was no inter-group difference in the motion time from catching to release. (2) In catching a normal grounder, the SG showed significantly larger right hip flexion (20% time), adduction (100% time), and trunk tilt backward (0-20% time) than the IG (p<0.05). The SG showed significantly smaller displacement of the CG in a leftward direction (50-100% time) than the IG. (3) The SG showed a smaller change of catching posture between dealing with a normal grounder and a bad hop than the IG. These result suggest that it is important for infielders to bend the right hip and reduce the change in their catching posture in order to accurately field a batted ball.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinematics of the throw with the competition hammer (7.26 kg) and the heavier hammer (8.0 kg). Sixteen male hammer throwers threw hammers of both weights at maximum effort. Utilizing 3 high-speed video cameras (300 fps), three-dimensional coordinates of the hammer head and 25 landmarks on the body were obtained by the direct linear transformation method. Hammer head velocity and distance thrown with the heavier hammer were significantly lower than for the throw with the competition hammer. Durations of the turn and double support phase (DSP) in the throw with the heavier hammer were significantly longer than with the competition hammer. Focusing on changes in the velocity of the hammer head, the duration of acceleration with the heavier hammer during the 1st and 2nd turns was longer than for the competition hammer. The Y component of displacement of the center of gravity for the heavier hammer was longer in every phase than for the competition hammer. These results suggest that the throw with the heavier hammer can be an effective training method for acquiring a longer movement of the center of gravity toward the throwing direction during the DSP and longer acceleration of the hammer head.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of self-efficacy and self-regulated learning strategies related to physical education classes in the context of university students' adjustment to physical education. Four hundred twenty university students (male=248, female=172, mean age=18.70 years, SD=1.23 years) completed a questionnaire on self-efficacy and self-regulated learning strategies related to physical education classes and their adjustment to them. First, a physical education class self-efficacy scale was developed, and its reliability and validity were examined. The results indicated that the reliability (internal consistency and reproducibility) and validity (construct and criterion-related validities) of this scale were optimal. Next, a hypothetical model of the influence of self-efficacy and self-regulated learning strategies on adjustment to physical education classes was examined using covariance structure analysis. The results revealed that (a) the hypothesized model had an acceptable fit (GFI=.947, CFI=.967, RMSEA=.078), and that physical education class self-efficacy (b) had a direct positive effect on adjustment, and also (c) had a positive effect on adjustment through self-regulated learning strategies. These results showed that physical education class self-efficacy directly influenced adjustment to physical education classes as well as indirectly promoting it through self-regulated learning strategies.
The timing at which ice is ingested prior to exercise may be important for optimizing internal pre-cooling effects. However, previous reports have not evaluated the influence of timing of ice ingestion on internal pre-cooling in the heat. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of differences in the timing of ice ingestion on endurance cycling capacity, body temperature and perceptional sensation during heat stress. Seven healthy males [age=26±2 yr, height=1.71±0.04 m, body mass=63.6±2.8 kg, surface area=1.74±0.03 m2, VO2max=49.7±4.4 ml･kg−1･min−1] ingested ice for 30 min before exercise under 3 separate conditions: ice ingestion at 30-(30D), 15-(15D) and 5-(5D) minute intervals. The total volume of ice ingestion was identical during 30D, 15D, 5D and was divided equally by the number of times drunk in each experiment. Subjects performed cycling to exhaustion at 70%VO2max in a hot environment (35℃ room temperature and 30% relative humidity). Rating of thermal sensation was lower in the 5D group at 15 min period during exercise than those under the other conditions (p<.05). Rating of perceived exertion was lower in the 5D group at 20 and 25 min periods during exercise than those under the other conditions (p<.05). There were no significant differences in rectal temperature, mean skin temperature or exhaustion time between the 3 conditions. These results suggest that there are no significant differences in exhaustion time or rectal temperature if the total volume of ice ingestion is identical, although ice ingestion until just before exercise attenuated the perceptual sensation of heat during exercise in a hot environment.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the function of torques exerted by the joints of the lower trunk during maximal velocity sprinting. Eight male track and field athletes volunteered, and sprinted 60 m from a standing start position. The ground reaction force of the support leg was determined using a force platform (1000 Hz), which was placed at the 50-m mark from the start position. Simultaneously, 3D coordinates were recorded with a motion analysis system (250 Hz) using 20 cameras (MX-T20). The joint torques were calculated using inverse dynamics. The contribution of joint torques to the right and left hip joint forces, and the torso joint force, was calculated by a method that simultaneously solves equations of motion for each segment and equations of constraint conditions for adjacent segments connected by a joint. The main results were as follows: (1) During the terminal support phase (80-100% normalized time), the angular velocity of anterior rotation of the pelvis decreased and participants in whom this angular velocity decrease was diminished ran faster (p<0.10). (2) During terminal support, the hip joint adduction torque of the support leg and the anterior rotation torque of the torso joint rotated the pelvis forward. The moment of the right and left hip joint forces rotated the pelvis backward. (3) During terminal support, the hip joint force of the support leg was generated by its hip joint flexion and adduction torque, the hip joint extension torque of the recovery leg, and the anterior rotation torque of the torso joint. In contrast, the hip joint force of the recovery leg was generated by the hip joint flexion and adduction torque of the support leg, and the anterior rotation torque of the torso joint. (4) During terminal support, the hip joint flexion torque exerted by the support leg rotated the pelvis backward. The hip joint adduction torque of the support leg and the anterior rotation torque of the torso joint rotated the pelvis forward. Previous studies showed that the hip flexion torque drives the leg forward from the hip joint extension position. This present study has clarified that the hip joint adduction torque of the support leg and the anterior rotation torque of the torso joint nullify backward rotation of the pelvis due to the hip joint flexion torque exerted by the support leg.
The purpose of this study was to clarify how psychological pressure impacts on perception, motor planning and performance. Fourteen male college students (mean age 21.5, sd=1.6 years) performed 2 tasks in succession under both no-pressure and pressure conditions; the perception task required them to judge the perceptual distance to the target, while the action task required them to putt a golf ball, aiming for the perceived target location. We measured the perceived target distance (subjective perception), displacement and maximum velocity of the club head (motor planning), and putting distance (motor performance) during the tasks; the target was created using Müller-Lyer illusion figures that induced distorted depth perception. While this form of pressure did not affect subjective perception, the illusion influenced subjective perception, i.e. F (1, 13)=24.25, p<.01, ηp2=.65. Despite the fact that the target distance never changed physically during the task under both conditions, the participants perceived the distance to be closer or further when the Müller-Lyer figures were presented. Moreover, the maximum velocity of the club head during the putting movement changed depending on the perceived distance to the target that was distorted by the Müller-Lyer figures, i.e. F (1, 13)=7.58, p<.05, ηp2=.37. A similar result was observed in terms of putting distance, i.e. F (1, 13)=10.23, p<.01, ηp2=.44. In other words, both subjective perception and motor planning were biased by the illusion, and these biases influenced subsequent performance. The study results suggest that if perception is distorted by psychological pressure, then the motor planning based on this distorted perception results in a change of performance under pressure.
Purpose: This study analyzed the status of sport for the disabled and identified factors for increasing volunteer participation in disabled sport. Method: The 548 respondents of the study were registered with an internet research company and the data generated from their responses were analyzed. The focus of our investigation included “subject attributes,” “recognition of disabled sports events,” and “degree of interest in watching or participating in disabled sports” as factors related to volunteer motivation. Covariance structure analysis using Amos was performed for the purposes of the study. Results: The statistical data revealed that the score for watching and participating in disabled sports was strongly related to prediction of volunteer motivation. It explained the dependent variable 60% in these 2 factors. Conclusion: As noted earlier, participation in disabled sports events was strongly related to volunteer motivation. This has a good effect in terms of understanding and self-understanding the experience with disabled persons directly rather than indirectly. Specifically, direct experience of disabled sports activity is effective for establishing a symbiotic relationship, and a heightened level of awareness of the special needs that a volunteer can readily address. Supporting this aspect is necessary in order to motivate a positive and independent volunteer spirit.
This study aimed to clarify gaze shift patterns in gymnasts during a jump with a half turn by measuring horizontal eye-head movements. We also compared the gaze shift patterns of skilled gymnasts with those of non-gymnasts to examine the patterns characteristic of gymnasts. The participants were 10 skilled male gymnasts and 15 male non-gymnasts. Each participant performed a jump with a half turn, which is an aerial movement with a 180-degree longitudinal axis rotation. Eye movement during the jump was measured using electrooculography. The jump was recorded simultaneously with 2 high-speed digital cameras to determine angular horizontal head movement. Gaze was determined by combining eye and head movement data. The results showed that both gymnasts and non-gymnasts used 2 gaze shift patterns during the jump. In both of these patterns, gaze stabilized before takeoff and immediately before landing. However, in one pattern, termed the single-step gaze shift pattern, gaze moved directly from front to back, whereas in the other pattern, termed the multi-step gaze shift pattern, gaze shift toward the direction of rotation stopped several times even during midair rotation. The single-step gaze shift pattern was used more by gymnasts than by non-gymnasts. Taken together, these results show that gymnasts employ 2 gaze shift patterns when performing a jump with a half turn, but that the single-step gaze shift pattern may be more useful to gymnasts for controlling their movement than other gaze shift patterns.
The purpose of this study was to identify the biomechanical factors limiting distance and the jump technique in the maximum effort standing long jump. The limiting factors and jump technique were identified through an analysis of the relationship between patterns of joint powers in the propulsion phase of the standing long jump and maximum isokinetic strength of the lower limb. The participants were 11 male athletes specializing in different events. Isokinetic strength of the extensor muscles at the ankle (30 and 90 deg/s), knee (60 and 180 deg/s), and hip (60 and 180 deg/s) joints was evaluated by dynamometry. Joint powers in the propulsion phase of standing long jump were calculated by inversed dynamics methods using digitized two-dimensional coordinate data (50 Hz) and ground reaction force data (500 Hz). Pearson's product-moment correlation analyses were used to assess the relationships between jump distance, joint powers over the propulsion phase, and isokinetic strength of the lower limb joints. The results indicated the following. 1. The magnitude of the body center of mass velocity and whole body mechanical energy at toe-off were correlated with jump distance (velocity: r=0.857, p<0.01, energy: r=0.926, p<0.01). 2. Peak powers at the knee and hip joints over the propulsion phase, normalized to body mass, were correlated with jump distance (knee: r=0.767, p<0.01, hip: r=0.723, p<0.05). 3. Isokinetic extensor strength at the ankle, knee and hip joints, normalized to body mass, did not correlate with peak power at the corresponding joint over the propulsion phase. Also, only knee extensor strength at 60 deg/s was correlated with jump distance (r=0.652, p<0.05). 4. Knee extension torque at maximum knee flexion, which is used as an index of countermovement, was correlated with jump distance (r=0.836, p<0.01) and peak knee power (r=0.765, p<0.01). In one participant who had the highest ratio of peak powers over the propulsion phase to isokinetic strength, knee extensor power was enhanced by increasing the knee extension torque with countermovement and coupling of the arm swing to knee extension during the propulsion phase. Therefore, although the jump distance depended on the lower limb joint powers over the propulsion phase, the power was not directly modulated by isokinetic strength. This phenomenon might be derived from strategies that enhanced lower limb power with countermovement and coupling of the arm swing to lower limb motion.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the pattern of muscular activity in the trunk, thigh and lower leg during the underwater dolphin kick in elite female competitive swimmers. The participants were 9 national-level competitive female swimmers who performed underwater dolphin kick swimming for 15 m at maximum effort. Sagittal movement was recorded for 2-D motion analysis, and surface electromyographic (EMG) data were recorded from 6 muscles: rectus abdominis (RA), elector spinae (ES), rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA), and gastrocnemius (GAS). The EMG data were used to investigate the active phase during one kick cycle. Furthermore, the co-active phases between the agonist and the antagonist in the trunk, thigh and lower leg were evaluated in terms of estimated muscular coordination. The kinematic results indicated that the average swimming velocity and the strouhal number for these swimmers were similar to those for Olympic swimmers in a previous study. Furthermore, a whiplash-like action was observed in their underwater dolphin kick movement. The EMG results indicated that the active phases of all subjective muscles during one kick cycle were approximately 60%. Co-active phases were observed in all pairs (RA-ES: 24.1±10.1%, RF-BF: 23.2±5.5%, TA-GAS: 45.5±20.2%), and the co-active phase of TA-GAS was significantly larger than for the other pairs (p<0.05). From these results, two main findings emerged with regard to the muscular activity pattern during the underwater dolphin kick in elite female competitive swimmers: (1) the muscular activity patterns in the trunk and thigh muscles were reciprocal; (2) the co-active phase for the lower leg muscles was larger than for the other parts and occurred during the first half of the upward kick phase.
This study analyzed the momentum of the (hetero) sexualization of masculinity through physical culture magazines published during the 1930s-1980s in the United States, and also examined the social conditions caused by the corresponding changes. Since Foucault suggested the “repressive hypothesis” of sexuality, it has been widely recognized that, at some moment in modern history, same sex desire was identified as an inevitable identity, rather than just a deviant act, as considered previously. However, several recent studies have questioned this hypothesis as being oversimplified. By reviewing previous research, this study examined the momentum of segregation between hetero/homosexual desire, which was observed in the 1950s, i.e. much more recently than generally recognized, and the obvious hetero-sexualization of the masculine ideal, which occurred after the 1970s. The method employed was to compare 2 major physical culture magazines. To provide a contrasting perspective with regard to different sexuality, the first (famous) physique magazine, which began to be published in 1951 for potentially homosexual customers, was adopted to comparatively and diachronically examine the representation of male figures on the cover pages. This analysis revealed the following results: 1. During the 1930s-1950s, the ideal of masculinity was not yet hetero-sexualized and exemplified a broad range of desire which was not yet segregated as hetero/homosexual. 2. During the 1950s-1960s, physical culture magazines started to exclude non-heterosexual elements from their representations because of the risk that they could be potentially interpreted as homosexual. 3. The rise of the sexual minority rights movement in and after the 1970s, and the 1980s AIDS panic promoted homosexual visibility and expedited homophobia as a form of counter-action. This advance caused rapid and obvious hetero-sexualization of mainstream physical culture media. In conclusion, the reason for the hetero-sexualization of physical culture magazines was a reaction to the increasing presence of homosexuals. It could be said that the rise of heterosexual self-consciousness itself was, to some extent, a counter to, and paradoxically caused by the creation and increasing awareness of homosexual identity. Moreover, these changes in the masculine ideal, and especially the examples before the 1950s, suggest the possibility of an ideal masculinity shared by hetero/homosexual males, which Sedgwick (1985) suggests is a homosocial continuum—namely, homosociality without discontinuity between homosocial and homosexual desire.
The purpose of this study is to establish the meaning and possibilities of University PE in the bachelor's courses. Diversification of the standards for establishing university courses has stopped separating subjects in liberal arts education from those in specialized education and each university is now given liberty to decide how to set its courses. The concept of the bachelor's course education emphasizes not on specific areas but on the overall programs in each department as a whole. At present, many universities still use the following as their PE purposes and hold PE classes; “understanding health and putting it into practice”, “motivation for sports for life” and “improving physical strength”. However, these are the same as in high schools and they are mere repetitions of high school PE. Furthermore, they can be achieved in private fitness clubs and all the conditions for out-sourcing University PE are well established. Therefore, what should be the purposes and contents of University PE? The conclusions of this study are as follows; 1. University PE should not be exploratory and prerequisite education, but should be integrated into liberal arts education and even into the specialized education. 2. University PE should not remain inside the framework of “physical education”, but should expand to and link up with different areas which deal with human bodies in various ways and should contribute to the development of wider education. 3. Each member of staff engaged in University PE should be able to exercise his/her speciality in sports science in the PE education. 4. It is necessary for University PE to be established in the entire course of a bachelor's degree including both liberal arts education and specialized education, rather than being placed only in liberal arts education.
The present study was conducted to assess specific methods of teaching the “push off and gliding motion from a wall” for acquisition of posture conversion in the preparation phase. We compared teaching methods that employed a kickboard for developing the ability of posture to conversion autonomously, focusing on posture conversion until both legs reached the wall. We tested the effects of learning from a wide perspective, including gliding distance, biomechanical values, evaluation based on observation by a third party, the completeness of the motion, and subjective evaluation by the swimmer himself. The subjects were 18 college students (6 men, 12 women) who majored in sports science and had signed a consent form. We divided them into 2 groups of 9 individuals with the same sex ratio, and with the same ability to achieve a given gliding distance. For one group, the instructor taught the “push off and gliding motion from a wall” to allow the students to acquire posture conversion autonomously (autonomous posture conversion (APC) group), and the other group was taught by the instructor (kickboard assistance (KA) group). We compared the 2 groups before and after the instructor's intervention, and assessed the value of each teaching method from multidimensional aspects, including gliding distance, biomechanical values (joint angle, grounding angle, velocity, time required), observation values (preparation phase, 4 parameters related to partial angle of preparation), and introspection value (4 questions). In both groups, two-way ANOVA revealed significant main effects before and after the intervention, including gliding distance, velocity, and time required. In the APC group we also found significant interaction between the time required until both legs reached the wall after leaving the floor and until release after both legs had left the floor. After the intervention, more than 70% of the third party observers judged that the autonomous posture conversion was acquired successfully. By the observation value, the tasks such as “straightening of the upper body” and “kicking from the ball of the thumb” were accomplished. Moreover, in the introspection value, the intervention improved the consciousness of the swimmers in both groups regarding “holding on just before pushing on the wall”.
When a questionnaire survey is conducted to assess a psychological states or conditions in team sports, it is natural that the results would be of interest to not only the researchers who conducted the survey but also many coaches (research collaborators). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to suggest an assessment tool that can be utilized to measure collective efficacy and group cohesiveness in applied settings. We examined the effectiveness of our method using a coordinate plane for assessing the mental state of both a whole group and each individual simultaneously. The survey respondents were 25 athletes who belonged to a women's college basketball team. Questionnaire surveys at 3 time points and longitudinal participant observation were conducted. Consequently, outlying data, which would have been missed in a review of changes in only the mean and standard deviation over time, were found on the coordinate plane. Moreover, it became clear from participant observation records that individual athletes actually had a problem with the group. Finally, the effectiveness and future prospects for this assessment method suggested by our study were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of a soccer teaching program designed to help students improve both individual physical fitness and their attitude towards it, as well as gaining basic understanding. The subjects were 41 junior high school students. Before and after the program, we conducted skill tests (ball juggling) and physical fitness tests (150 m sprint with a change in direction; 6×25-m sprints with direction changes and rest intervals of 30 s). Additionally, we conducted a test soccer game. At the end of each class, a questionnaire was conducted and the subjects' technical skills, physical fitness, and psychological aspects were self-assessed. After completing the program, another questionnaire was conducted regarding skill, attitude, and knowledge, conception and judgment aspects. When the pre-program and post-program test results were compared, the following were observed after completion of the program: 1) The subjects' ball juggling skills had improved significantly. 2) The mean time for the 150-m sprint with a change in direction had improved significantly. 3) The distance subjects were able to run during the test soccer game showed no significant difference. 4) The results of the questionnaire at the end of each class showed that students thought they had improved in terms of outcomes, ball kicking skills, ball dribbling, interception, and positioning. With regard to physical fitness, the subjects felt that their anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity had improved. 5) The after-program questionnaire showed that 94.1% of the subjects had improved their understanding about how physical fitness is related to soccer. These results suggest that this soccer teaching program improved physical fitness levels, knowledge and attitude toward physical fitness among the participating subjects.
The purpose of this study was to identify differences in (1) total skiing time and (2) lap time for different course situations in cross-country skiing (uphill, flat and downhill) between classical-style sub-techniques using classical skis and double poling and herringbone sub-techniques using skating skis. The subjects were 5 college cross-country skiers who performed at maximal effort in 2 different trials: classical-style sub-techniques while wearing classical-style skis (CL), and double poling and herringbone sub-techniques while wearing skating-style skis (DP). Skiing velocity was measured with a global navigation satellite system module and mobile PDA. The sub-techniques employed were recorded with a small video camera. It was found that a strategy using DP (1) significantly increased the skiing time, (2) increased the skiing velocity on downhill and decreased it on uphill, and (3) was associated with a tendency to use double poling on uphill.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the implementation of the health education field in a practical seminar for the teaching profession, which began full-scale application in four-year universities in 2013. We carried out a nationwide mail survey of 158 departments at 152 universities offering courses leading to the junior high school and high school teaching certificate (in health and physical education). The response rate was 43.0% (68/158), and after exclusion of one blank response, 67 cases were analyzed. Among the participants, 71.6% secured time for health education in a practical seminar for the teaching profession. Contents of the class were observed for trial lesson of the health class (62.5%), reflection of the health class in teaching practice (45.8%), contents of health education (39.6%), teaching methods of health education (37.5%), design of teaching plans for health classes (33.3%), and material for health education (27.1%). Styles of the class were observed for the lesson trial (48.7%), practice (48.0%), lecture (33.7%), and others (40.2%). These results would contribute to teacher training and development through the improvement of the health education field curricula in a practical seminar for the teaching profession.
The effects of psychological pressure on lower limb muscular activity and center of pressure (COP) were investigated in a standing, postural control task. Healthy male participants (N=18) performed a balancing task by standing on a balance disk with their dominant foot. Participants were requested to stabilize their posture for 30 s (one-trial). After acquisition trials, participants performed 2 non-pressure and 2 pressure trials in counterbalanced order for a performance-contingent cash reward, or punishment. Stress responses were successfully induced as assessed by state anxiety, perceived pressure, mental effort, and heart rates that increased under pressure conditions. The results indicated that the rate of co-contraction between the soleus (SOL) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles in the dominant leg increased significantly in association with an increment in the EMG amplitude of the SOL under pressure. Moreover, the COP area in pressure trials was significantly smaller than in non-pressure trials. These functional changes in postural control under pressure could have been modified by internal focus of attention, affective states including anxiety, and movement strategies that enhance muscle and joint stiffness in the lower limbs.
Low scoring within the paint area is the biggest issue for the Japan men's national basketball team, and therefore it is necessary for them to acquire a new approach to shooting that would increase the attacking variations for attempting a higher percentage of shots within this area. This study focused on the validity of the floater shot as a new offensive approach for overcoming this problem, and examined its usefulness and mechanism using three-dimensional motion analysis (VICONMX+). Comparison of the floater shot with the jump shot and lay-up shot revealed that the mechanism of the former involved (1) absence of a shooting posture, (2) a low vertical jump involving a slow step, (3) raising the shooting arm in a vertical direction, and (4) a highly arched ball trajectory with a height roughly the same as that of the top of the backboard. Our examination also revealed that maintaining one's distance from the defense through a weak jump and retroversion of the trunk, upsetting the timing of the blocking shot through release from a non-stopping motion, and shooting the ball over the hand during the blocking shot through the high-arched ball trajectory by elevating the shooting arm in a vertical direction were useful for achieving a high percentage of shots within the paint area, where the influences of height and selective defense are greater. These results are of relevance to not only the Japan men's national basketball team but also any team with a smaller stature when considering how to improve the scoring rate within the paint area.
This paper describes a historical study of “Yamatobataraki”, a form of gymnastics that was devised by Professor Kakei Katsuhiko around 1920 in Japan. The main study aim was to clarify how the practice of Yamatobataraki spread in Imperial Japan from the 1920s to 1930s. The diffusion process consisted of 3 phases. The first was associated with the growth of the Folk High School movement. Around 1924, Kato Kanji introduced Yamatobataraki to the Yamagatakenjichikoshusho, which was the original model of the Folk High School. Kato then transferred to the Nihonkokuminkotogakko, which was the head institution of the Folk High Schools, and introduced Yamatobataraki as part of its educational program. Kato's educational systems, along with Yamatobataraki, were reproduced throughout Japan and Taiwan, because the Nihonkokuminkotogakko helped to found other similar institutions. In the second phase, the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry promoted the foundation of a large number of Nomindojo, i.e. farmers' schools. As a result, 50 farmers' schools introduced Yamatobataraki, because they were modeled on the educational system of the Nihonkokuminkotogakko. In the third phase, the Ministry of Colonial Affairs promoted the policy of agricultural emigration to Manchuria, and delegated the training of the emigrants to Kato Kanji. In 1938, Manmokaitakuseishonengiyugun, a large group of young agricultural emigrants to Manchuria, was institutionalized. Many young emigrants trained under Kato's methods in Uchiharakunrensho, which were formulated for the Manmokaitakuseishonengiyugun. Yamatobataraki as a daily routine was practiced as a matter of course. Thus, as described above, Yamatobataraki spread mainly via farmers' schools and emigrant training all over Imperial Japan due to the promotion of farmers' schools and emigration to Manchuria by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry and Ministry of Colonial Affairs.