Individuals with spinal cord injury have a reduced afferent input to the thermoregulation center and lack
both sweating capacity and vasomotor control below the level of the spinal cord lesion. A loss of heat loss capacity
results in an excessive rise in core temperature, which in turn decreases exercise performance and increases the
risk of heat-related illness. To prevent hyperthermia and improve exercise performance during exercise in hot
environments, a popular strategy, body cooling, has been proposed. However, despite the interest and vast array
of research into cooling strategies for able-bodied humans, less is known about the application of these cooling
strategies for individuals with thermoregulatory impairment due to spinal cord injury. The purpose of this review
was to investigate effective cooling strategies for attenuating the increase in body temperature in humans with
spinal cord injury exercising in a hot environment. Cooling strategies for individuals with spinal cord injury
involve external cooling such as water immersion and use of sprays, and cooling garments and internal cooling
by ingestion of cold fluid. We addressed the practical issues associated with each of these methods. We concluded
from our review that external cooling has been criticized for its impracticality during sporting competitions,
although water immersion and the application of cooling garments do reduce the core temperature in individuals
with spinal cord injury. However, ice ingestion has recently received considerable interest in studies of able-bodied
humans. Therefore, we propose that ice ingestion could be an effective strategy for individuals with spinal cord
Japan will host the 2019 Rugby World Cup, the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games, and the 2021 Kansai World Masters Games. To ensure the success of these events, understanding each event’s impact is extremely important for governments and organizing bodies. However, the structure and influencing factors of event impact are poorly understood in Japan, despite research on event impacts conducted previously in western countries. Additionally, no previous studies in Japan have ever attempted to review and evaluate the literature on event impact. The present study reviewed the literature on the impact of sporting events. Event impact in a sports context can be divided into 3 categories based on the Triple Bottom Line approach (Fredline et al., 2005), namely (1) the economic impact, (2) the social impact, and (3) the environmental impact. For our systematic review, data were selected through electronic searches of several computer databases (SPORT Discus with Full Text, Science Direct, CiNii, and Google Scholar). Based on the studies by Deery and Jago (2010) and Deery et al. (2012), this review focused on 3 aspects: 1) the construct of impacts, 2) the theoretical approach, 3) methodology and 4) the relationship with other constructs. The main conclusions were as follows. First, with regard to economic impact, positive impacts included effects on employment, infrastructure that helped in development and improvement, and increased investment. However, negative impacts were also confirmed, including price increases, construction costs, crowds, and social issues. Second, with regard to social impact, positive impacts mainly included cultural development, awareness and image improvement, new opportunities, increased interest in different cultures, and so on. Negative impacts included increased traffic jams, rising crime rates, and an increase in prostitution. Third, with regard to environmental impact, positive impacts included motivation for conserving the environment and historical buildings, promotion of environmental education, conservation of resources and ecosystems, and environmental improvement for sustainable development. Negative impacts included the destruction of the environment. This research has highlighted practical implications and areas for future study for the development of event impact in Japan.
This study examined the possibility of regarding Physical Education as “Semantic Generation”. First, the educational theory of Yano was examined, in order to consider the concept of the body. And this study considers the advisable body in the Physical Education as “Semantic Generation”. Second, the special experience of the general physical movement (i.e. “melting into the world”: yokai taiken) was examined. It was argued that the sympathetic and interconnected relationship between one’s own body and that of another (intecorporéité) can give rise to a special experience (yokai taiken). The results of this examination were as follows: 1)Yano claimed that Physical Education was not a means of treating the activity of the body as an educational subject. The body is not a physiological or corporeal object. He considered the living body to have existential identity and that it interacted with the world, and that this type of existence was an essential experience for humans. The body that takes place the special peak experience is hoped in the Physical Education as “Semantic Generation”. 2) The general physical movement of the same body creates a special experience (“melting into the world”: yokai taiken). In the practice of general physical movements, the body schema synchronizes with the movements of others’ bodies. This body schema synchronization represents resonance, sympathy and interaction with the bodies of others: in other words, special experience. 3)The resonant and interactive relationship between an individual body and the bodies of others is known as “intecorporéité”. Behavior matching and interactional synchrony appear in this relationship. This matching and synchrony of bodies deepen interactive mutual understanding. The resonant and interactive movement of the body, for example, creates “the experience of connection by the body”, and this represents the special experience (yokai taiken). 4) Physical Education as “Semantic Generation” can aid in development of educational potential through nurture of the body that creates a special peak experience and resonance, as well as sympathy and interaction with the bodies of others. That is to say, Education in bodily experience of relations between a subject and an object (i.e. “intecorporéité”) is important.
Various studies have investigated the act of spatiotemporally matching one’s motion with that of a moving object: a process known as “interceptive action”. The angle between a target and the action performer is referred to as the Bearing Angle (BA). Accurate interceptive actions can be implemented by maintaining the BA (Constant Bearing Angle Strategy: CBA strategy). However, factors affecting the completion of interceptive actions based on the CBA strategy have not been investigated to date. The purpose of this study was to examine how prediction of changes in target velocity can affect the strategy of interceptive action. We also examined the characteristics of head rotation during interceptive action. Participants (N=15) were required to watch a target, move from the starting point to the interception point as linearly as possible, match the time of target arrival, and complete their movement as close to the target as possible. Two conditions were presented randomly: a control condition under which the target moved at a constant velocity (NC condition) and a random condition under which the target moved at an irregular velocity (I+NC condition). The two conditions were compared using δCBAH and %HDA. δCBAH is defined as a measure of coordination between a target and a participant during an interceptive action, whereas %HDA is defined as a measure indicating where the head orientation of the participant is located between the target and the arrival point. These measures were analyzed from the perspective of velocity and angle, target presenting conditions, and movement intervals. The main results indicated that the δCBAH error increased under I+NC relative to the NC condition for low-velocity tasks with a BA of 45 degrees. Furthermore, %HDA showed that the I+NC condition directed the arrival point to a greater degree than the NC condition. These findings suggest that it is difficult to maintain the CBA strategy under conditions where prediction is made when the distance to the target is shorter and the velocity lower. Therefore, it is suggested that the task may be conducted by preceding the direction of the head arrival point using peripheral vision.
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact conditions that enable a batter to hit a pitched ball toward the opposite field. Three-dimensional finite element analysis was used to construct a model for the impact between a baseball and a wooden baseball bat, and a series of simulations were conducted with various bat angles and under-cut distances. The bat angle at ball impact was set in a horizontal range from -31 to 20° and a vertical range from 0 to 51° with a 3° interval. The under-cut distance was altered by changing the vertical angle of the line of impact in a range from 0 to 30° with a 5° interval. The velocity and angle of projection of the batted ball were determined for each simulated condition. The simulation model was validated by comparing the simulation outcome with the corresponding experimental data obtained from opposite-field hitting practice performed by collegiate baseball players. The results showed that when a batter intends to hit a ball toward a given horizontal angle in the opposite field with the highest speed, the batter should impact the ball with the bat facing about 60% of the horizontal angle toward which to launch the ball and with the line of impact angled upward at 5~10° from the horizontal plane. In addition, the horizontal angle of the batted ball and the velocity of the batted ball were found to change systematically when the vertical angle of the line of impact and the vertical bat angle were altered: For a given horizontal angle toward which to launch the batted ball, there was a trade-off relationship between the vertical angle of the line of impact and the vertical bat angle.
[Objective] It has been reported that everyday physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness in older adults affect their cognitive function. However, to our knowledge, no empirical evidence of this effect has yet been reported in convalescent patients with cognitive impairment after cerebrovascular disease. Therefore, it is important to clarify this point for patients with cerebrovascular disease, in order to efficiently improve their cognitive impairment during rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to estimate the amount of total energy expenditure during hospitalization, and to investigate the association between total energy expenditure and cognitive function in patients convalescing after cerebrovascular events.
[Methods] We recruited 24 patients (16 men and 8 women; mean age 68.8±10.6 years) with cerebrovascular disorders. The total energy expenditure per day was estimated for each subject by the factorial method for 5 months. Cognitive function was assessed using items of the Functional Independence Measure (FIM).
[Results] Both total energy expenditure and cognitive items on the FIM increased significantly (p<0.001) during the 5 months. A significant correlation was found between them (r=0.294, p=0.001), and also a significant partial correlation between them (r=0.221, p=0.016) in determining weight as a control variable. Moreover, there was a significant partial correlation between gain in total energy expenditure and gain in the cognitive items of the FIM in determining the baseline scores of cognitive function as a control variable (3 months: r=0.466, p=0.044; 5 months: r=0.485, p=0.035).
[Discussion] We conclude that there is a relationship between total energy expenditure and cognitive function in patients convalescing after cerebrovascular events.
The purpose of this study was to develop a self-perceived soccer-specific competence scale for youth players and to investigate the effects of coach feedback on the soccer competence of these players in actual competitive sport settings. Firstly, in order to develop the scale, the total of 611 Japanese male youth soccer players completed a questionnaire, which was composed of 60 items selected from a preliminary study. Participants were also asked to score their own ability as a soccer player out of a hundred. The players’ scored assessment of their own ability was used as a criterion variable. Exploratory factor analysis revealed that soccer competence of youth players consisted of 9 sub-scales: passing and ball control with proper decision making, speed, motivation, endurance, dribbling skill, heading skill, defensive skill, physical strength and leadership. As the scale included individual ball techniques and group skill, physical fitness and mental fitness, which are essential elements of competitive soccer ability, it was considered to represent an adequate evaluation of selfperceived soccer competence in youth players. Additionally, players who had lower soccer ability scores showed significantly lower evaluation on the soccer competence scale than players who displayed higher scores. These results indicate that the soccer competence scale would provide a multi-dimensional and precise reflection of soccer competence in Japanese male youth players. Secondly, in order to investigate the effects of coach feedback on youth players’ soccer competence, one coach and 15 male junior youth soccer club players participated in this study. The coach’s feedback to the players was recorded for 7 months using VTR and subsequently categorized into seven domains: (1) positive, (2) negative, (3) instructive, (4) questioning, (5) organizing, (6) friendly, and (7) other. Both before and after the observation period, players were asked to complete the soccer competence questionnaire derived in the first study. This revealed that competence related to passing and ball control with proper decision-making and dribbling skill increased significantly throughout the observation period. However, coach feedback did not significantly affect the longitudinal change in soccer competence. On the other hand, with regard to defensive skill, although no significant longitudinal change was confirmed during the observation period, there was a negative association between the frequency of negative feedback and the defensive skill score. Finally, the limitations of this study and future issues were discussed.
Attaining refinement and stabilization of motor skills is indispensable to advanced performance in athletics training. When coaches lead gymnasts to a higher performance level, they need to have a flair for fine coordinated movement; in other words, there is a need for kinesthetic information on high-performance movement.
However, no previous studies have clarified the characteristics of kinesthetic genesis and structure during the learning process in advanced classes.
This paper focuses on the genesis of kinesthetic sensations centering on the somersault techniques of advanced gymnasts. Therefore, phenomenological transcendental static analysis was employed to clarify the kinesthetic sensations related to “swing backward to double sault forward tucked” on uneven bars.
This analysis clarified the typical structures of the kinesthetic consciousness of gymnasts who have attained the refined and stabile movement form of “swinging backward to double sault forward tucked” on uneven bars, and the present results may serve as a guide for coaching to attain fine coordination and stabilization.
The aim of this study was to clarify the establishment and development process of Dai Nippon Kyudo Kai (DNKK), which existed from the Meiji to the pre-war Showa era, and its organizational forms. The tasks of the study were to elucidate the establishment and developmental process of the DNKK based on the historical characteristics of the organization, which can be divided into 6 periods. The organizational forms were examined based on the articles of incorporation, and the trends of membership and branch distribution were also clarified.
The results were as follows:
1)The DNKK was established as Seinen Kyujutsu Kai under the Toshizane Honda school in 1909, and shortly renamed the Dai Nippon Kyujutsu Kai. When it became an incorporated foundation in 1919, it was renamed the DNKK. The kyudo philosophy of Kako Neya was strongly reflected at the time of its foundation．
2)The DNKK increased its membership by developing its publishing arm, and promoted kyujutsu and kyudo as part of the regular curriculum in the school.
3)Division among DNKK members in 1915 and the death of Toshizane Honda in 1917 led to a schism of Toshizane Hondaʼs pupils, which resulted in diffusion of the Toshizane Honda method among kyudo players.
4)The DNKK was renamed kyudo from kyujutsu when it became an incorporated foundation in 1919. They considered kyujutsu to be a subject within kyudo.
5) The massive promotion of the DNKK was financially supported by kyudo shops.
6)Analysis of the articles of incorporation showed that the kyudo philosophy of Kako Neya was strongly reflected in the policy of the DNKK through a mechanism based on the opinions of the board of councilors.
7) The conflict with Dai Nippon Butoku Kai over kyudoyosoku resulted in further expansion of the DNKK because of the massive promotion program against them, and a medically negative interpretation to kyudoyosoku evident at the Tokyo Provisional First Army Hospital.
8)Kako Neya decided to step down in 1943, and the activity of the DNKK was substantially terminated in 1944 due to the influence of war.
9)The cumulative total DNKK membership was 22,769 between June 1912 and October 1943. The membership trend was affected by various external factors.
10)A total of 426 branches were established domestically and internationally. The trend of branch establishment was similar to that of membership, and 75% of branches were located in Eastern Japan. The DNKK aggressively promoted overseas expansion.
The aim of this study was to examine the validity, reliability, and utility of a method for evaluating the characteristics of the counter movement jump. Fifty-two male track and field athletes (sprinters or decathletes) jumped from a 30-cm platform and consciously changed their counter movement times. This study determined the counter movement time required to achieve the highest jump.
The results are summarized as follows:
1. The waveform between the counter movement time and jumping height was an inverted U-shape.
2. It is normally accepted that the optimum counter movement time is determined via the jump test.
3. There was a significant correlation between the first test and the re-test in terms of the counter movement time.
4. Participants were classified into 5 groups based on their optimum counter movement times and highest jumping heights.
These results suggest that the newly developed jumping test discussed in this study is a valid method for evaluating the characteristics of counter movement.
The aim of this study was to clarify the motivation of the Hamaguchi Cabinet in creating the Council for Physical Education, which was established on July 2, 1929 (Showa 4), by examining the formulation of the Cabinet’s social policies and the legislative position of the Head of Physical Education in the Ministry of Education. The findings were as follows.
1）The Cabinet was formed during the chronic recession of the 1920s, for which the Prime Minister had announced a 10-point policy program. Therefore, the Cabinet connected various policies with economics at their core. Social policies were designed to support economic policies that caused public anxiety. The Council for Physical Education was established as a social policy.
2）The Minister of Education, Ichita Kobashi, used social policies to actualize plans that would give people moral instruction; these subsequently led to the formation of various political activity groups. The sports policies were similar to these plans.
3）Kobashi appointed Ken Yamakawa as the Head of Physical Education. He advanced the sports group organization, which led to the establishment of the Council for Physical Education. Yamakawa’s initiatives were in line with the social policies of the Hamaguchi Cabinet and Kobashi. The results of this analysis can be summarized as follows.
The intention of setting up the Council for Physical Education promoted the organization of sports group and their incorporation into the Hamaguchi Cabinet’s social policy objectives. The forces responsible for the Council of Physical Education were the formation of the Cabinet and the relationships between the Minister of Education, Kobashi, and the Head of Physical Education, Yamakawa. Kobashi and Yamakawa were from the Home Ministry that combined national policy with sport policy.
Mailing programs involve indirect supervision and are designed to enhance adherence to longterm exercise in older adults. However, it is unclear how such mailing programs help older adults to overcome barriers and adhere to an exercise program. The purpose of this study was to extract the effective factors of a mailing program based on mixed-method research. Community-dwelling adults aged 65 years or older (n = 78) participated in a 3-month exercise class that aimed to develop skills for behavior change, followed by a 12-month mailing program. During the 15-month study period, the participants were consistently advised to practice brisk walking, muscle strengthening, and stretching according to a self-determined schedule. They were also advised to set a monthly exercise goal, exercise daily, and record it in an exercise diary. At the end of each month, the participants mailed the exercise diary to instructors who provided feedback that included praise, suggestions, answers, recognition, sympathy, and encouragement. The instructors would return the diary to the participants along with an exercise newsletter consisting of scientific information on exercises, names of participants who had achieved their exercise goals, and comments from the participants themselves. The newsletter was designed to expand the participants’ knowledge about exercise, to provide social support, and to strengthen self-efficacy. For qualitative evaluation, 18 participants with various exercise adherence levels were invited for focus-group interviews and their comments were recorded and analyzed. Fifteen factors related to the mailing program (e.g., satisfaction about record-keeping, self-reflection, information obtained, praise, and advice) were extracted. The participants’ comments well reflected the goals needed for developing behavior change skills that were emphasized during the exercise class and the mailing program. For quantitative evaluation, a questionnaire was administered to understand the participants’ perception of the mailing program, and 60 of them responded. The results indicated that daily recording in the exercise diary (95%) and gaining knowledge through the scientific information provided in the newsletter (93%) were perceived as effective factors of the mailing program. In conclusion, our qualitative evaluation of the effectiveness of the mailing program revealed 15 factors that were congruent with behavior change skills. Quantitative evaluation revealed that the majority of older adults considered the mailing program to be effective for enhancing their long-term adherence to exercise. Therefore, the mixed-method approach used in this study contributed to knowledge on factors that support exercise adherence among older adults.
The purpose of this paper is to extend understanding of Richard Shusterman’s somaesthetics to education. In order to do so, John Dewey’s pragmatism will be placed in between somaesthetics and education. Dewey played an essential part in the development of somaesthetics――not only its genealogy but also its fundamental concepts, for instance, “body”, “practice”, and “body consciousness”. Examining Shusterman’s understanding of Dewey’s pragmatism will help to clarify the pragmatic aspects of somaesthetics.
To examine the possibility of extended understanding of somaesthetics for education, the philosophy of physical education will be considered. Somaesthetics provides pragmatic viewpoints on the philosophy of physical education. From this viewpoint, the philosophy of physical education sould be based on live somatic experience rather than on foundationalism.
The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of lower extremity joint kinetics during the drop clean based on the plyometric theory. Twelve male track-and-field athletes performed the drop clean under four conditions. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected using a Vicon motion system (250 Hz) and force platforms (1,000 Hz). The results of these analyses were as follows:
(1)The peak vertical ground reaction force, joint torque of the ankle joint, and torque power of the hip and ankle joints during the drop clean were significantly greater than those during the hang power clean.
(2)During the drop clean, force development was achieved mainly by the hip joint during the descending phase and by the ankle joint during the ascending phase.
(3) The joint torque of the ankle in the descending phase, and the joint torque and joint torque power in the ascending phase were increased when the total mechanical energy was increased by the mass factor. The joint torque and joint torque power of the ankle in the descending phase were increased when the total mechanical energy was increased by the velocity factor.
(4)Even if the magnitude of the mechanical energy was the same, the vertical ground reaction force in the descending phase during the velocity-type drop clean was larger than that during the mass-type drop clean. The ground reaction force, joint torque of the hip, and joint torque power of the hip in the ascending phase during the mass-type drop clean were larger than those during the velocity-type drop clean.
The importance of students’ conceptions of learning has been highlighted as a way of thinking that affects learning behavior. Because physical education is motor learning, it is assumed that learners construct learning concepts that are unique to physical education. However, no study has yet investigated the essence of such learning concepts and the relationship between learning concepts and strategies. To elucidate the relationship between learning concepts and strategies in physical education, this study focused on junior high school students and developed a scale to evaluate learning concepts and learning strategies in junior high school physical education. After a preliminary survey, a major questionnaire survey targeting 2,498 students in public and private junior high schools nationwide revealed the following:
1) 5 factors were extracted as learning concepts: “learning motor skills”, “cultivating communication skills”,
“acquiring knowledge on body and movement”, “feeling the attraction of physical activities”, and “improving
physical capacity”. Students’ learning concepts showed a tendency similar to the domain of the physical education
2) 7 factors were extracted as learning strategies: “emphasis on learning discipline”, “cooperative effort
with peers”, “creation of fun”, “challenging work”, “fair work”, “engagement with teachers”, and “thinking and
judgement”. These learning strategies indicate factors that are unique to motor learning.
3) A review of the differences in grades and gender confirmed that all factors in the 2 scales were more
significant for students in their second or third year of junior high school compared to those in their first year.
Additionally, boys emphasized cooperative effort, whereas girls emphasized the relationship with teachers.
4) A relationship between learning concepts and strategies was revealed, indicating that learners tackle learning
tasks while utilizing their acquired knowledge and skills.
The purpose of this study was to examine within-subject differences in bat-swing trajectory between intentional hitting towards the same field and towards the opposite field. 19 industrial league baseball batters and 16 collegiate baseball batters performed same-field hitting (SH) and opposite-field hitting (OH). The movement of the bat during the swing was recorded with two high-speed cameras (1000 fps) for 3D analysis. At the instant of ball impact, the striking surface of the bat faced towards the same field in SH and towards the opposite field in OH. The bat-head trajectory immediately before impact was directed obliquely upward in SH, whereas it was directed obliquely downward in OH. Throughout the swing, the projection angle of the bat on the vertical plane was greater in OH than in SH, and the ratio of the translational component of the bat-head speed to the resultant bat-head speed was significantly greater in OH than in SH. These results suggest that the characteristics of the bat swing in OH provide a suitable impact condition to drive the ball towards the opposite field, as evidence has demonstrated that (1) a batted ball is likely to travel towards the opposite field when the lower half of the ball is hit by a vertically inclined bat, and (2) the striking surface of the bat is unlikely to turn to face towards the same field when the contribution to the resultant bat-head speed is generated more by the translational component of the bathead speed than by the rotational component.
The present study investigated the historical transition in the shape of the character “武”, which appears in both Japanese budo （武道） and Chinese martial arts （武術）. A review of related studies conducted in Japan and China revealed that previous studies had focused mainly on the original shape and original meaning of “武”and transitions in its usage. Therefore this study can be considered to complement previous research on the character “武”.
The study mainly analyzed the shape of“武”in Jia Gu Wen (inscriptions on animal bones and tortoise carapaces, 甲骨文）, Jin Wen (inscriptions on ancient bronze objects, 金文）, seal script （篆書）, the Chu character （楚 文字）, clerical script （隷書） , and regular script （楷書） through carved stones, tombstones, bamboo slips and other related material. The main results were as follows.
・ The earliest representation of “武”in Jia Gu Wen appeared in the Wu Ding （武丁） period （1250 BC）, while the earliest “武” in Jin Wen appeared in the Di Xin （帝辛） period （1075―1046 BC）. In both Jia Gu Wen and Jin Wen, the character “武” consists of 2 parts: “戈” and “止”. In Jia Gu Wen, the “戈” part is located above “止”, whereas in Jin Wen “戈” is located on the right upper side of “止”.
・ From seal script to clerical script, the character “武” changed to a great extent. Such a change is referred to as clericalization （隷変）. Therefore, the Chu character, which was written on a bamboo slip by hand around the Zhan Guo period （475―221 BC）, was used to identify the consistent shape of the character of “武”. Specifically, most of the curve stroke of “止” and “戈” became a straight line and the third stroke of “戈” dwindled, while the positions of “止” and “戈” were slightly changed.
・ From clerical script to regular script, the character “武” changed further, especially in the “戈” component. Specifically, the second stroke of “武” changed from curved to straight. Another change was that the 1st and 7th strokes in “武” became separated from each other. Chinese martial arts began to exhibit an atheistic aspect from the Tang dynasty （618―907）. The changes that appear in regular script for “武” shows fading of the recognition that “武” is made up of “止” and “戈”, as well as that “戈” represents “weapon” or “combat”. These are considered the reasons why the shape of “武” changed after the Tang dynasty.
Two learning methods for developing high performance and enjoyment in gymnastics were investigated. The participants were healthy undergraduates (n = 38) who were randomly divided into a “model mastery learning group”, for which ideal movements were emphasized, and a “kinesthetic experiential learning group”, for which practice of various movements was emphasized, when performing balance exercises on a gymnastic ball. The psychological effects of the two learning methods were compared using the Intrinsic Motivation Scale, Sport Flow Scale, and Two-Dimensional Mood Scale. Improvements in gymnastic performance were evaluated by timing the durations of balancing on the ball and observations by expert gymnasts.
The results indicated that the participants in the kinesthetic experiential learning group had better balancing times and higher intrinsic motivation, flow state, and pleasure mood scores, whereas the stability of posture on the ball was considered to be higher in the model mastery learning group.
These findings suggest that learning methods using proactive, trial and error learning, and assorted experiences with versatile kinesthesis are more effective for promoting the enjoyment of gymnastics and improving exercise performance.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics required for adjusting the distance of the standing long jump in young children.
First, participants were instructed to jump as far as they could (max-jump task). Next, they jumped to their selfperceived half-distance (half-jump task). The participants’ actual distances and movements were recorded.
It was found that the relative value of the half-jump task was about 60% of the max-jump task in both boys and girls. The half-jump task took about 90% of the moving time of the max-jump task. In the half-jump movement, children took off in a more vertical direction than in the max-jump movement, and landed with their knees extended.
It is concluded that 5-year-old children control their jumping distance by changing the jumping direction in the take-off phase and the positioning of the lower limbs in the landing phase.
It is well known that athletic injury can cause emotional distress. However, in the process of cognitive change to accommodate these highly stressful experiences, some athletes have reported experiences that reflect post-traumatic growth (PTG). This study developed a scale for assessing PTG after athletic injury (PTGS-AI) targeting university student athletes in Japan, and examined its characteristics. A total of 266 university student athletes (168 males and 98 females) were asked to respond to a questionnaire. The survey included questions about socio-demographics and sports-related injury experience, and employed the Subjective Unit of Distress (SUD: Wolpe, 1973), the Japanese version of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI-J: Taku et al., 2007), the Japanese version of the Core Beliefs Inventory (Taku et al., 2015), and the Event-related Rumination Inventory (Taku et al., 2015). In addition, they responded to 22 items designed to assess PTG after athletic injury by using the PTGS-AI derived from our preliminary studies. Among the participants, 212 (135 males and 77 females) scored more than 6 points on the SUD, indicating a high degree of distress, and were therefore included in the analyses. Exploratory factor analysis of the PTGS-AI items indicated a 4-factor structure with 16 items. Reliability was verified in terms of internal consistency. Criterion validity was confirmed by correlations with the PTGI-J. In terms of the demographic variable (gender), gender differences were observed in some of the PTGS-AI subscales. For relationships with challenged core beliefs and deliberate rumination, different results were obtained depending on the PTGS-AI subscales. Two-way ANOVA of PTGS-AI revealed interaction between SUD and the time required until return to competition. These results indicate that PTGS-AI is a valuable tool for assessing PTG after athletic injury, and challenges the concept that core beliefs and deliberate rumination affect PTG differently depending on the PTGS-AI subscales. They also suggest that both injury severity and the time required until return to competition are associated with the occurrence of PTG.
The objective of this study was to clarify the effectiveness of exercise on functional fitness for 2 different
styles of Nordic walking (NW). Twenty-five community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly women (mean
age: 61.8 ± 6.5 years) volunteered for the study. The subjects were divided into a diagonal-style NW (DIA) group
(n = 13) who walked by pressing the poles against the ground diagonally backwards, and a defensive-style NW
(DEF) group (n = 12) who used the poles pointing forward as if using assistive canes. In both groups, the exercise
intervention consisted of supervised NW for 60 min/day, twice a week for 9 weeks. Subjects were encouraged
to engage in non-supervised NW in their neighborhood in addition to the supervised sessions. They were then required to record the frequency and duration of such exercise in their record books. No significant difference was
noted in recorded heart rate, %heart rate reserve (%HRR) and the number of steps (DIA group: 121 ± 8 bpm, 58.2
± 2.8%HRR, 7,671 ± 408 steps and DEF group: 124 ± 13 bpm, 61.6 ± 9.2%HRR, 7,405 ± 269 steps) between
the 2 supervised NW groups. There was also no significant difference in the frequency and duration of nonsupervised NW between the 2 groups. Exercise effectiveness was evaluated using functional fitness tests at preand
post-intervention levels. Among various functional fitness tests, there was significant group effect in the chair
stand (CS). Moreover, in terms of time, there were significant differences in the arm curl (AC), CS, sit & reach
(SR), back scratch (BS), up & go (UG), and TW tests. The interaction was significant in the CS and UG tests. Following the intervention, the improvement in lower limb muscle strength index (CS) was greater in the DEF group
than in the DIA group; the dynamic balance and agility indices (UG) were greater in the DIA group. Many of the
measured variables showed a similar level of improvement while performing short-term NW. However, a significant
difference in improvement was noted in some variables, and this is an issue that will require further study.
The present study was verify of reliability and validity the regression equation constructed using the game footage from the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Formulated using multivariate logistic regression analysis, this equation’s purpose was to predict the probability of a goalkeeper’s failure to stop shots at goal. The 2014 dataset consisted of 587 shots at goal from within the frames during 64 games played by 32 teams that participated in the FIFA World Cup in Brazil. The results showed that for the probability of failing to block a shot predicted by the regression equation, the 2 inter-rater interclass correlation coefficient was high (0.91), thus demonstrating reliability. Furthermore, when a contingency table was created with a cut-off value of 0.5, accuracy was high (85.9%); when an ROC curve was drawn and the area below the curve was measured (0.874), it was notably distinct, indicating generalizability. Therefore, the regression equation predicting the probability of failure to block a shot has high generalizability for predicting world-class goalkeepers’ probability of failure to block shots. This is considered a useful formula for evaluating goalkeepers’ blocking ability.
We conduct a randomized controlled trial to clarify the effect of introducing plyometric training (PLY) to track-and-field athletes in season for conditioning and various performances such as jumping and sprinting ability. The study subjects were 14 male athletes from the T University track and field team specialized in sprinting, jumping, and combined events. Among these athletes, 7 underwent ordinary training plus 8 weeks of PLY (group T), while 7 underwent ordinary training only (group C). After taking into consideration their physique, competitive event specialization, and competition record, the athletes were randomly assigned to the 2 groups. Measurements were performed on the athletes in both groups before the intervention, in the fourth week, and upon completion of the intervention. We found that, in the intervention group, the rebound drop jump index value, and the right and left lateral vastus muscle thickness exhibited interaction with the length of the intervention period. In other words, these values showed a tendency to increase in group T relative to group C as the intervention period proceeded. However, no significant differences in the values for various conditioning indicators were observed between the 2 groups during the intervention period. Our study results indicate that this PLY intervention is able to enhance muscle volume and certain aspects of jumping ability, such as those using the stretch shortening cycle movement. Moreover, within the range of the load intensity used in this study, the intervention was implemented safely without causing any decrease in conditioning, indicating that it could be useful as a training method for track-and-field athletes in season.
Nowadays in Japan, it is needed that physical education classes are designed to have an impact not only during the classes themselves, but also outside of class, such as in the recess period. The purpose of this study was to explore of features of physical education classes that impacted on pupils’ physical play during school recess. Adopting qualitative methods, we carried out a semi-structured interview on 13 4th to 6th grade students (7 boys and 6 girls) and 9 teachers (5 males and 4 females) who had experienced elementary school physical education classes. The selected students all had experience of physical play after the physical education classes, while the selected teachers all had experience of watching the pupils during physical play after having taught them. Analysis was based on the assessment model reported by Pieron and Cheffers (1998). We found that 4 themes in the program, 2 themes in the learning environment and 4 themes in the learning outcome were feature of physical education classes that were related to physical play during school recess.
This study focused on volleyball spike jump performance. We classified players based on different types of jumping ability and tested the effects of strength training and plyometrics for each type of ability. Players who excelled in their ability to acquire greater impulse (countermovement jump or CMJ type) showed no significant changes in spike jump height with strength training (improvement in maximum muscle strength), but demonstrated a significant improvement in jump height after plyometrics. In contrast, players with outstanding execution of ballistic movement (rebound jump or RJ type) showed a significant improvement in their spike jump height with strength training (an improvement in maximum muscle strength), but a significant loss of jump height after plyometrics. This reveals that the same training program results in players jumping lower or higher, depending on the jump type. When formulating training to improve the jump height of volleyball players, these results suggest that the type of training must be selected based on the individual player’s jumping ability.
In school education, it is important to encourage students to improve their social skills. Umegaki et al. (2016b) have developed an instructional model known as the Acquisition of Social Knowledge in Sport (ASKS) Model for facilitating improvement in social skills in the context of physical education. They consider that the ASKS Model with heterogeneous team organization would improve social skills that would be applicable to daily life outside of physical education classes and help students to maintain these social skills. However, no previous study has examined whether the ASKS Model would be effective for homogeneously organized teams. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine the type of team organization that would be most effective for the ASKS Model by comparing physical education classes with the ASKS Model based on homogeneous teams and heterogeneous teams. The study focused on physical education classes for male students in the second year of junior high school. The classes included those without the ASKS Model, those with the ASKS Model based on homogeneous teams, and those with the ASKS Model based on heterogeneous teams. A formative evaluation of friendship-building and the KiSS-18 questionnaire on paper were administered before and after each class. The study confirmed 2 points: First, the ASKS Model appeared to be effective when heterogeneous teams were organized. Second, the effectiveness was suggested to be improved when heterogeneity of motor skills was maintained, rather than heterogeneity of social skills.
Some recreational runners participate in consecutive races within a short period. A high frequency of participation may not allow for sufficient recovery time, leading to overreaching. This case study reports on the training load, physiological variables, performance, and psychometric status of a male recreational runner during the 16-week marathon season. The runner completed 4 marathon races in a period of 8 weeks (6-14 week). Training load was quantified based on the cumulative time spent in 3 intensity zones (zone 1: < ventilatory threshold, zone 2: between ventilatory threshold and respiratory compensation point, zone 3: < respiratory compensation point) using heart rate monitoring. The Hooper questionnaire was completed every morning to quantify sleep, stress, fatigue, and muscle soreness. The runner performed 4 identical treadmill running test over the season. The coefficient of variation for maximal velocity and physiological variables was 1.0% and 1.8‐5.2%, respectively. Pearson correlation showed significant relationships between training load and stress, fatigue, and muscle soreness. There was no significant relationship between training load and sleep. In conclusion, it appeared that this runner was able to complete 4 marathon races without overreaching. These findings suggest that the training load and Hooper questionnaire are practical tools for monitoring of recreational runners during the marathon season.
The present study was conducted to clarify the effects of practical knowledge on the feedback given by 2 teachers with the same number of years of teaching experience in order to determine the effects of feedback on students. For this purpose, the setting was unified as much as possible by ensuring that variables such as learning content, teaching plan, teaching materials, facilities, and teaching instruments were the same in the 2 classes.
The findings showed that a teacher with practical knowledge was able to provide more accurate feedback than one with less practical knowledge. The teacher with practical knowledge was able to provide feedback and correct students in a way that ensured more solid learning outcomes. It was also suggested that a teacher dedicated to improving his/her practical teaching skills would be able to respond adequately and quickly to different circumstances in the classroom. These findings show that, even with the same number of years of teaching experience, being in an environment where a teacher can improve his/her pedagogical knowledge content will aid acquisition of practical knowledge, thus making a difference to student performance.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of high school physical education on subjective well-being in university students. A total of 431 university students (male = 301, female = 130, mean age = 18.42 years, SD = .79) completed questionnaires regarding their exercise habits at high school (commitment to exercise in physical education, exercise outside of physical education), and their current levels of perceived exercise competence, self-esteem, and subjective well-being. First, 2 scales were developed and their factor structures and reliability examined: the commitment to exercise in physical education scale, and the exercise outside of physical education scale. The results indicated that these scales each contained one factor and had strong reliability. Next, through covariance structure analysis, we examined a hypothetical model positing that commitment to exercise during physical education and exercise outside of physical education indirectly promote subjective well-being through perceived exercise competence and self-esteem. The results revealed that (a) the hypothesized model had an acceptable fit (GFI = .936, CFI = .916, RMSEA = .093), (b) commitment to exercise during physical education and exercise outside of physical education had a positive effect on perceived exercise competence, (c) perceived exercise competence had a positive effect on self-esteem, and (d) self-esteem had a positive effect on subjective well-being. These results showed that commitment to exercise during high school physical education and exercise outside of physical education indirectly promoted subjective well-being through perceived exercise competence and self-esteem in university students.
This study aimed to clarify the structure of effective shot combinations for the ground stroke in tennis that can be practically applied to improve individual tactics by drawing on the wisdom of elite tennis players. The interview questions considered the following 3 concepts: shot combinations, tips on shot movements, the perspective of gauging shots that are advantageous in a rally, and consciousness when moving. The survey method employed a semi-structured interview format. The first author conducted the interviews and analyzed and interpreted the content of the responses; the co-authors performed triangulation to increase the objectivity of the interpreted analysis results. The results obtained were as follows:
1)Outstanding tennis players were divided according to 2 types of behavioral strategy for ground stroke shot combinations: in one strategy the player acted according to the opponent, and in the other the opposite situation applied.
2)A determining factor for gaining advantage during a rally (i.e., an aggressive stroke or a defensive stroke) was the approach toward the ball in the preparation phase of the ground stroke.
3)The course of the ground stroke (straight or cross) was shown to change if the ball was approached and hit in a way that was applicable for either course.
This study investigated the relationship between exercise intensity and energy contribution in shortduration intensive exercise. Two competitive university sprinters performed 30-s pedaling tests at 4 high intensity levels, following a submaximal test to determine the energy contribution during the 30-s pedaling tests by using the linear regression between exercise power and O2 demand. The energy contribution in each subject was almost constant during the 30-s pedaling tests at the 4 high intensity levels. Furthermore, O2 uptake and peak blood lactate concentration increased with increasing O2 demand in each subject. These results suggest that the energy contribution during short-duration intensive exercise at different high intensity levels is almost constant and that aerobic and anaerobic energy increase with increasing exercise intensity in each individual.
Motor behavior couples with several types of environmental information perceived by actors. The phenomenon by which perceptions are distorted by the psychological state of an actor, including motivation, desire, and anxiety, is known as dynamic perception, and many athletes experience this under the psychological pressure of competition. The effects of pressure on the perception of target size before (pre-performance judgement) and after (post-performance judgement) a dart-throwing task and the relationship between size perception and performance outcome in the task were investigated experimentally. Healthy novice female university students (N=20) participated in the experiment. Pressure manipulations included performance contingent competitive cash rewards and comparative others. The results indicated that psychological and physiological stress responses were successfully induced, as indexed by significant increases in state anxiety and heart rate under pressure. Moreover, there were no significant differences in pre- and post-performance size perception between pressure and nonpressure conditions in all participants. However, participants with reduced throwing accuracy under pressure, as compared with non-pressure, perceived the target to be smaller under pressure in post-performance judgement. It is possible that attentional change including conscious processing and distraction, as well as kinematic changes, led to a decrement of motor skills performance that might have caused perceptual distortion under pressure. Exploratory multiple regression analysis to identify factors leading to perceptual distortions of target size under pressure indicated that participants reporting larger trait anxiety judged the target to be smaller in only preperformance judgement.