The aim of this study was to examine research topics required for compilation of materials for teaching the Chinese Wheel as part of physical education in school. The Chinese Wheel is a type of jumping rope exercise that involves 2 jumpers and 2 ropes. The 2 jumpers must stand next to each other while holding one end of the other person’s rope in the hand closest to the other jumper, and jump alternately to different rhythms while rotating both hands. This type of jumping rope exercise is expected to fulfill a role of proactive/interactive in-depth learning, which is a key concept in government course guidelines for the next semester. The study used the Google Scholar and CiNii literature search sites to extract previous studies. The content of the extracted studies focused mainly on teaching methods, with discussions on the outline, instruction, and value of Chinese Wheel-related teaching materials. Although many of the research subjects were elementary school students, the lack of studies aimed specifically at students from lower and higher elementary grades makes it necessary to conduct further examination of subjects at various developmental stages. Additionally, with regard to the process of learning the techniques involved in the Chinese Wheel, there has been some criticism that such studies lack reference to the actual movement tasks involved, and the roles of the jumpers holding the rope in each hand. Therefore, it is necessary to look specifically at these movement tasks without reference to any other movement. Furthermore, as it has also been suggested that the equipment used might affect the learning process, this aspect should be singled out for a separate study and not just examined along with the movement tasks. Based on the above findings, in order to compile materials for teaching of the Chinese Wheel as part of school physical education, it is first necessary to implement 1) studies on a wide range of developmental stages, 2) examination of movement tasks linked to the actual movements, and 3) studies on the impact of different equipment on the learning process.
This review attempts to clarify the essence and perspective of Taiiku based on the results of analyses of general reviews in the Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences. The review comprises 5 parts: (1) an introduction, (2) a discourse on methodology, (3) general reviews in the journal from a humanities perspective, (4) analysis from a social sciences standpoint, and (5) examination from a medical-natural sciences viewpoint, followed by concluding remarks. The analysis suggests that Taiiku designates all bodily movement contributing to a corporeal and social base for human well-being, providing a foundation for more enlightened discussion on the essence and expansion of Taiiku and well-being.
We report a study of the dojos (training halls) of the Shinkage-Ryu (teaching style) school of Japanese
sword fencing, a foundational martial art, through fieldwork and an examination of the kata concept of Minamoto
Ryouen based on the results. Earlier research on martial arts, not limited to Minamoto, was conducted mainly
through literature reviews. In those studies, however, the realities of martial art practices that are not clearly evident in the literature were not identified. The originality of the present study lies in its investigation of the actual conditions of martial art practices on the basis of fieldwork.
This study focuses on kata, which is a core practice method unique to martial arts. However, previous literature searches on kata have not achieved notable results. It is rare for shosa (conduct and movements) associated with kata to be described in detail in the martial arts literature, although descriptions of the spiritual nature and physical sense have been described from the standpoint of oriental thought patterns. This is because kata is based on practice and not described in words. The present fieldwork examined the manner in which kata is practiced.
How can fieldwork reveal aspects of kata that have been unaddressed in literature studies? Unless this issue is
solved, the significance of fieldwork will not be demonstrated. Here, we critically relativize the kata concept of
Ryoen Minamoto, in view of the lack of previous efforts to do this.
Study of the kata concept revealed that Minamoto discovered the principle of repeating the same physical
movement as its basis. Furthermore, Minamoto considered that the character and individuality of the creator
disappeared during the course of acquiring universality as part of traditional culture. However, Minamoto asserted
that kata tends to be a form of practice in which formalized procedures are merely repeated, and that therefore
there is a risk that such practice will become a mere formality.
In the Shinkage-Ryu dojos surveyed in this study, 2 concepts – omotetachi and toho – were used to represent
kata. Omotetachi corresponds to the kata concept of Minamoto. The purpose of teaching and practicing omotetachi in the dojo is to acquire toho. Toho is regarded as the basic use of the sword in Shinkage-Ryu and comprises 3 elements: (1) the vector of the sword, (2) to step ahead to where the tip of the opponent’s bamboo sword falls,
and (3) to swing the sword in a single movement. In Shinkage-Ryu, the bamboo sword used is of the same length
as the opponent’s sword and building the ability to strike the opponent’s fist takes up the majority of the training, reducing any handicap based on physical build and establishing a fair fight at a given distance from the opponent. In addition, omotetachi is constructed in such a way that, if one keeps the movements of (2) and (3), then one need to focus only on (1), or the angle of the sword between oneself and the opponent, to resist defeat. The omotetachi is an example for learning the geometric mechanisms of toho, which comprises the skills that compose omotetachi.
In the fieldwork sites, a practice known as kudaki, a form where kata and matches are mixed, was employed
instead of mere repetitions of the omotetachi shosa. Kudaki is a practice that requires one to respond to the attack of an opponent who does not follow formalized steps by applying toho learned in omotetachi and the ideas of
toho. In kudaki, in response to the opponent’s uncertain movement, a variety of movements are generated by using toho. The kata method has the potential to produce shosa that are not present in omotetachi.
Although emphasis on educational value, which leads to underestimation of risk, is pointed out as one
of the factors contributing to incidents in school, this has not been demonstrated. The purpose of the present study was to compare between elementary school teachers and college students attending a teacher training course to assess how emphasis on educational value affects risk perception for physical education activities in elementary schools, and to determine how perception of risk by elementary school teachers affects its estimation. Respondents (75 elementary school teachers and 61 college students attending a teacher training course; total 136) were requested to evaluate 12 physical education activities using 6 rating scales of risk perception (Voluntariness, Knowledge about risk, Control over risk, Common-dread, Severity of consequences, and Chronic-catastrophic) and 3 educational values (Touching, Educational value, and Importance as school activity). As a result of three-mode factor analysis (Tucker, 1966), 3 factors were extracted from both the rating scale mode (Dread, Controllability, Educational value) and the target mode (Overcome activities, Fixed-form activities, Contact activities), and 5 factors were extracted from the individual mode. The core array, which indicates individual tendency, revealed that Educational value was correlated with Dread only in Overcome activities (swimming, endurance running). This was interpreted to indicate that an educational value different from general educational values may be perceived in the Overcome activities. The assessment of educational values differed between the elementary school teachers and the college students in terms of Dread for Contact activities, and in Educational value for all activities and also for Overcome activities. In addition, multiple regression analysis revealed that the interaction effect of Dread and Educational value on elementary school teachers’ risk estimation (the number of fracture accidents per year) was evident only in Overcome activities, which meant that educational value affects risk estimation as a moderating factor. These results indicate that risk estimation for physical education activities becomes more precise with practical experience in education, although a cognitive bias due to Dread and Educational value exists in Overcome activities.
The purposes of the present study were (1) to investigate the relationship between posture and ground reaction force (GRF) produced by the joint torque, and (2) to clarify the posture used to orient the GRF forward during the first stance from a crouch start. Thirty-six male track and field athletes volunteered, and the participants sprinted 10 m from starting blocks. The GRFs of the leg in the first and second stance phases were determined using a force platform (1000 Hz). Simultaneously, three-dimensional coordinates were recorded with a motion analysis system (250 Hz) using 20 cameras (MX-T20). The support leg joint torque was calculated using inverse dynamics. On the basis of the collected data, sprint motions that changed the joint angle were created with kinematic simulation. In the simulated motion, the contribution of the GRF produced by the joint torque of the support leg was calculated by solving equations of motion for the whole body system. We investigated the relationship between posture and GRF produced by the joint torques. The main results were as follows: (1) The ankle joint plantar flexion torque of the support leg was the main generator of GRF. (2) When the shank of the support leg leaned forward, the propulsive force produced by the plantar flexion torque was bigger and the upward force was smaller.
A previous study has suggested that the GRF of a good sprinter is characterized by a forward-oriented GRF. The
present study clarified that a forward-oriented GRF is attained by forward leaning of the shank segment.
This study was conducted to investigate the processes within “the learning stages of recognition” (discovery – verification – confirmation – creation), which are regarded as a strategy for teaching, and also to clarify the formation process of Kentaro Sasaki’s physical education philosophy and teaching methods based on essay writing, including the influences upon it. For this purpose, the period of practice between 1956 and 1960 was divided into 3. These processes were identified through empirical research on trends in Japanese education administration, research trends in physical education, and the research trends of the Kinan Sakubun Kyoiku Kenkyukai (Kinan Essay Writing Workshop), to which Sasaki belonged. Materials relevant to the period investigated were used, including physical education journals, education journals, and the Kinan Essay Writing Workshop bulletin “Kinan Education”.
The observations identified in this study were as follows.
1) From around 1953, Sasaki had already been teaching children to heighten their sense of awareness, and therefore the “stages of recognition” could be regarded as an extension of his previous work.
2) Initially, recognition teaching was undertaken alongside life guidance, but from around 1957 onwards, curriculum-based teaching methods were adopted.
3) A revision of the course of study characterized by systematic teaching and enactment of the teachers’ Efficiency Rating (kinmu-hyotei) in 1958 affected the Kinan Essay Writing Workshop, requiring a new starting point that was proposed in 1959. Therefore, “the learning stages of recognition” were significant from the viewpoint of systematic teaching and criticism of the course of study.
4) Moreover, as Sasaki had been pursuing the formation of a collective, “the learning stages of recognition” were
associated with the notion of group-oriented study and critique.
Understanding the causes of doping behavior in athletes has been a core research topic in the antidoping literature. The present study was an attempt to qualitatively explore perceptions of factors that influence athletes and prompt them to take part in doping. The subjects were 12 Japanese elite athletes and a thematic approach was used to analyze the data obtained from a semi-structured interview. Three main factors were revealed: personal, socio-environmental, and situational. The perceived personal factor comprised 3 sub-themes: ‘immoral stance’, ‘extrinsic motivation’, and ‘ego orientation’. The perceived socio-environmental factor comprised 9 sub-themes, including ‘entourage’, ‘doping by other athletes’, ‘social norms’, etc. The perceived situational factor comprised 6 sub-themes, including ‘important competition’, ‘performance decline’, ‘injury’, etc. Several interactions between these factors were observed, suggesting directions for future research. These findings will be of help for developing evidence-based preventive measures against doping.
The purpose of this study was to investigate motion factors in female javelin throwers during success and failure trials from a biomechanical standpoint. Fourteen throwers who participated in the Japanese Women’s Javelin Championships Final were investigated during both success trials and failure trials and the results were compared. The success trial was set as the best record and the failure trial as the worst record. Timing points of throwing motion were set at right foot contact (R-on), left foot contact (L-on) and javelin release (REL). The main results were as follows;
1) There was no significant difference in approach velocity between the success and failure trials.
2) In the success trials, peak speeds of the right shoulder, elbow joint and javelin were higher than those in the failure trials.
3) In the success trials, the left rotation velocity of the shoulder angle was larger than that in the failure trials just after L-on.
4) In the success trials, the forward rotational velocity of the trunk was larger than that in the failure trials just after L-on.
5) In the success trials, the throwers maintained a more extended position of the left knee angle than in the failure trials between L-on and REL.
These results revealed that superiority or inferiority for female javelin throwers at the same competition level was determined not by the approach velocity, but by the blocking motion of the left leg. Although the importance of this left leg blocking motion has been reported many times in previous studies of throwers with different performance levels, it has been shown here to play an important role in the success of individual performance.
The purpose of this paper was to clarify the significance and boundaries of sports sciences as a way of overcoming violence in coaching. Here, the term “overcoming violence in coaching” means that coaches reach a state that obviates the use of violence in the coaching practice and besides enriches their coaching. In order to achieve the study objective, this paper adopts the theoretical framework of Karl Jaspers’ existential philosophy. Using Jaspers’ existential philosophy as a reference, which suggests that sports sciences have different meanings between a) when coaches use them as a coaching technique for guiding players to a predetermined result and b) as a way of reflecting or considering goals/objectives and judgements in terms of their own coaching practices. This paper, therefore, examines the significance and boundaries of sports sciences for overcoming violence in coaching after due consideration of both these meanings of sports sciences, and the following conclusions were obtained: a) When sports sciences are used by coaches solely as coaching techniques to guide players toward predetermined results, their applications cannot become a way of overcoming violence in coaching. This is because sports sciences and violence in coaching cannot simply replace each other in relation to the ends and the means for accomplishing them and that the application of sports sciences does not, in itself, make violence in coaching unnecessary. On the other hand, in case b) when sports sciences are applied by coaches for reflecting or considering goals/objectives and judgements in terms of their own coaching practices, the application of sports sciences becomes a way to avoid violence in coaching causing by dogma or knowledge of appearance. This is because sports sciences can serve as a control mechanism that prevents both coaches and players from developing extreme conviction in their own beliefs and straying from a path that they walk together to reach their goal.
The purpose of the present study was to examine and demonstrate how the teaching language used in PE classes reaches students by analyzing the speech of the PE teacher and how it is perceived by students. A review of the literature on PE teacher feedback suggested that previous articles had taken a semiotic view of language. Due to the implicit effect of the semiotic lens, it appears that these articles failed to address the issue of speech as used by PE teachers.
Merleau-Ponty’s language theory focuses on such speech. According to him, speech is not a representation of replacing results from inner thought with semiotic language, but rather a bodily gesture. It is an expression of individual bodily ability and has its own identity. If this view is accepted, it may be possible to capture the speech of PE teachers as a language tool. The arguments for this are discussed below.
In order to understand PE teacher’s speech, it is necessary to focus on the bodily level of this phenomenon rather than the dictionary meaning of teaching language. At this level, speech used as a teaching language can be considered analogous to “touching” students. This expression, “touching,” should not be understood as a simply figurative one, but rather as a representation of how speech as a bodily gesture reaches students directly. From this viewpoint, a PE teacher’s speech can also be understood as a bodily phenomenon arising in the intercorporeal space, forming the foundation of intersubjectivity. Usually, PE teachers are not aware of this phenomenon, but it can be seen in their unconscious behavior. When a PE teacher calls for the students’ attention, for example when giving the instruction “look at my eyes,” its semiotic meaning is not important, because staring hard at the eyeballs, in a strict sense, has no practical meaning. Rather, by giving this instruction, the PE teacher generates a channel through which a student can receive the instruction on a bodily level. This bodily communication means that the PE teacher’s speech can resemble a bodily gesture analogous to “touching”, thus acting as a foundation for semiotic teaching instruction. In this way, the bodily ability of individual PE teachers is one of the reasons why the same teaching language may not be conveyed in a uniform way.
Hattoushin (a 1:8 head:body length ratio) represents a distinctive way of defining female physical beauty. Discourse on this topic in Japan appeared during the postwar reconstruction period, sometimes referred to as “the age of the physical body,” as a representation of the ideal female physical image, and it continues to resonate with Japanese women today.
This paper takes up the notion of hattoushin and addresses the following issues using Butler’s genealogical method for gender: ① What were the social contexts in which it emerged, and ② what techniques of body modification did it generate? ③ With a particular focus on female PE, in which the pursuit of physical beauty was incorporated, the position of PE as an essential element for femininity is explored. The aim of the present paper is to clarify how females and/or femininity were defined in terms of physical traits.
The results are as follows.
① The emergence of hattoushin was due to the appearance and rise of fashion modeling as a profession, and of
Ms. Kinuko Ito winning third place in the Miss Universe contest. However, the popularity of hattoushin was not merely because it came to be used as a description of the body. It was recognized as a well-developed “health and
beauty” movement that could overcome the negative aspects of defeat/occupation and was regarded as a symbol of postwar female liberation.
② As a result of this rising attention to the female body form, hattoushin was recognized as the ideal that could be achieved through new techniques such as cosmetic gymnastics and “physical standard values” for visualizing ideal physical beauty.
③ Postwar female PE reform had a particularly strong influence on the development of female physical beauty
culture, aiming to establish the independence of females under the slogan “Female PE with female hands”. In
that process, the pursuit of physical beauty through cosmetic gymnastics took a central role. Female PE reform
developed because postwar feminism itself evaluated the pursuit of physical beauty as a medium for subjective
self-expression by women who were liberated.
This process is similar to Butler’s statement “The feminist subject turns out to be discursively constituted by the very political system that is supposed to facilitate its emancipation”. That is, female PE itself, which is a feminist political system promoting female liberation, decided on an ideal form of femininity, and thus strengthened “female” categorization. More specifically, feminism itself called for the pursuit of physical beauty, and inspired many women.
In 2012, a high school student who was the captain of a school basketball team committed suicide after suffering repeated corporal punishment from the head coach, who was a physical education teacher.
This sort of tragic incident always prompts discussion about the current state of Japanese sports clubs. However, although such incidents occur repeatedly, Japan has not been able to eradicate violence in sports clubs.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the reasons why Japanese society has tolerated corporal punishment by coaches or seniors in sports clubs, focusing on a popular belief that the roots of these practices lie in behavioral patterns that were prevalent in the old Japanese military during the Second World War.
Initially, the paper proposes reasons why many people in Japanese society have believed and shared this view for a long time, although it has not been proven. Secondly, an attempt is made to reveal this as a problem for ordinary people who have consciously or subconsciously accepted corporal punishment as an intrinsic aspect of sports clubs, rather than considering it as an issue specifically for coaches or seniors.
The following points were clarified:
1) For critics of corporal punishment, the “military origin theory” supports their opinions powerfully. Because this logic demonstrates the relationship between sports clubs and the old military, it is able to emphasize the problematic and inhuman nature of corporal punishment in sports clubs. This is one explanation for why this belief has been shared by many Japanese people for so long.
2) The “military origin theory” is a way of shifting the responsibility for violence in sports clubs away from the perpetrators. This has been supported by the general feeling of Japanese ordinary people against the old Japanese military.
3) The existence of violence in sports clubs reflects a degree of maturity in the general public viewpoint about sports by a considerable proportion of Japanese who do not or can not distinguish between hard training and violent behavior.
Consequently, this belief negates the chances that many Japanese people consider corporal punishment in sports clubs to be their own problem.
The present study was conducted to investigate longitudinal changes in the strength and power of the lower limb using the rebound jump (RJ) test. Forty-one male jumpers performed the RJ test, which was conducted at least twice in a 12-month period, and the data from the 2 tests were analyzed. The performance (RJ-index, contact time and jump height) and joint kinetics (joint power and joint work) in the RJ were then calculated. In order to investigate the changes in performance, the IAAF Athletics Scoring Tables were used to calculate jump event performance (IAAF score). When the RJ-index increased, the jump height was significantly increased and the contact time was significantly shortened. The power and work of the ankle and hip joints were significantly increased. Therefore, the contact time was shortened, and the jump height was increased at the same time by increasing the power and work of the ankle and hip joints. The subjects were divided into 3 groups based on the average value ± 0.5 SD of the contact time and jump height in the first RJ test. This revealed that the contact time was shortened when the initial value was long, but was difficult to change when the initial value was short. Furthermore, the jump height was not dependent on the initial value and increased with changes in the mechanical values for the ankle and hip joints.
These findings suggest that the characteristics of changes in joint mechanics in addition to jump height and contact time are clues to the training task, and that it is necessary to consider the initial value of the contact time.
The present study aimed to examine the influence of game situation information, such as inning and score, on the decision making of baseball catchers in a situation requiring directions to teammates on a play. Collegiate baseball catchers (n = 10) watched a series of video images, recorded from the catcher’s viewpoint, showing a simulated sacrifice bunt to the pitcher with no outs and a runner at first base. The participants made a decision about instructing the pitcher where to throw the ball (i.e., toward either first or second base) by pressing a button at an appropriate time. The study was conducted under 4 conditions: 1) same score at the top of the first inning, 2) a one-run behind at the top of the ninth inning, 3) same score at the top of the ninth inning, and 4) a one-run lead at the top of the ninth inning. The participants verbally reported their decision-making strategy. The results suggested that the catcher’s judgment bias changed depending on the game situation. It was less biased toward first base when their team was behind at the end of the game, compared to when both teams had the same score at the start of the game and when the catcher’s team was in the lead at the end. Also, catchers consciously selected a different decision-making strategy depending on the game situation. When both the teams had the same score at the start of the game and when the catcher’s team was leading at the end, there was a strong tendency to avoid the risk of a losing score due to an erroneous decision. This tendency was weak when both teams had the same score and when the catcher’s team was behind at the end. Furthermore, the catcher’s judgment bias changed depending on the consciously selected decision-making strategy. These results suggest that catchers consciously choose a different decision-making strategy depending on the game situation, and that their judgment bias changes according to their choice.
This paper clarifies some of the representations of female athletes at the dawn of women’s sports in Japan through an analysis of contemporary discourses regarding Kinue Hitomi, the first Japanese female Olympian. Previous studies have focused on Hitomi’s image as a deviator from the normative female image, differing from the representation of other “sports girls” associated with the image of ryosaikenbo (“good wife, wise mother”). However, the present paper focuses on Hitomi’s representation as the embodiment of the normative female image. What can be read from the aspect of “femininity” in the context of Hitomi, who was not included in the image of ryosaikenbo?
The “prone episode” at the 1928 Summer Olympic Games is an anecdote that allegedly represents her “femininity”: Shortly after the runners finished in the women’s 800 meters, only Hitomi fell prone modestly while the other foreign runners lay on their back. This paper focuses on the episode and explores the significance given to it.
Hitomi was represented positively as embodying mainly 2 types of female image: the healthy robust woman and the feminine graceful woman. The first image contrasted with the traditional one of the Japanese woman as a small, weak individual and was considered symbolic of the nationalism associated with Japanese modernization.
When people viewed Hitomi in terms of the second image, they were clearly opposed to the concept that she was masculine, thus differing from the image of other “sports girls” who were casually associated with the ryosaikenbo concept in terms of their daily lives and careers.
Hitomi’s achievement at the 1928 Summer Olympics had been widely admired for enhancing the national prestige of Japan. However, although her physique was praised at the time, its perceived meaning saw a transition from the “strong body” as a metaphor of modern Japan to the lady-like image represented by the prone episode. Through this process, multiple meanings assigned at first was transformed into a simple anecdote to illustrate that Japanese women are superior to Western women in terms of their “femininity”. It is ironic that Hitomi, whose gender had always been questioned because of her eminent athletic talent, came to be regarded as a typical Japanese “feminine” woman as a result of the prone episode, which had completely no relation to the arena of sport. Furthermore, after the war, as this contradiction between the feminine and the athletic physique faded, the prone episode turned into a casual representation of “femininity”, like the earlier representation of “sports girls”.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the information processing ability of karate contestants in terms of a behavioral index and a physiological index during a choice reaction task while viewing a karate video. The study participants were divided into 2 groups based on their karate experience: 7 in an elite group belonging to a university karate club, and 7 in a novice group who had no karate experience. The task assigned was to press buttons in response to specific actions shown on the video. If the video showed an upper punch, the participants were required to push a button using the right hand, whereas if a middle punch was shown they were required to push a button using the left hand. The reaction time from presentation of the visual stimulus to pressing the button and the proportion of correct responses were evaluated as a behavioral index, whereas the P300 latency and amplitude that were getting from stimulus were measured as a physiological index. The results revealed that, on the one hand, there was no significant difference in the vas that was measured difficulty of the task between the elite group and the novice group, and that the reactions in the 2 groups were similar. On the other hand, the elite group showed a significantly shorter reaction time and P300 latency than the novice group, the difference being particularly marked for the upper punch. Although there was no significant inter-group difference in P300 amplitude, the effect size of the main effect in the groups and punch types were large. These results suggested that the elite group showed high information processing ability during the choice reaction to the video stimulus. The present findings provide useful information for clarifying the brain mechanisms involved in the generation of skilled movements in athletes.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability of the exercise and sports life stage (ESLstage) scale. The participants were 20,000 Japanese (9,956 men, 10,044 women, 18-79 years old) who responded to the “public opinion survey for sports participation” published by the Japan Sports Agency (2019b). The scale items related to each element of “do”, “watch” and “support” in ESL (exercise and sports life) were selected from the questionnaire (Japan Sports Agency, 2019b) by fish-bone diagram analysis. Categorical factor analysis (independent cluster rotation) with a 4-factor model based on the results of parallel analysis showed that the ESL structure was made up of “ES (exercise and sports) orientation”, “health and physical fitness”, “motivation to watch ES” and “richness of daily life”. In addition, categorical factor analysis with a unifactor model confirmed sufficient unidimensionality, and the latent rank theory (LRT) was applied. The number of the latent rank (LR) was examined using goodness-of-fit indices, information criteria, and segmented regression analysis (SRA). As a result, an ESL-stage scale with a 6-rank model was constructed. The Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients for the LRs of ESL-stage between “ES participation frequency” and “ES-related money costs” were ρ = .55 and .51 (both p <.01), respectively. These results suggested that the criteria-related validity of the ESL-stage scale was sufficient. The ESL-stage LRs with an “ES participate frequency” of more than 1 and 3 days/week were LR4 “enriching everyday life through ES” and LR6 “performing social activities through ES”, respectively. An ESLstage profile chart was created to encourage understanding of the stages and processes characteristic of the ESLstage. In addition, an environment was established for objectively discriminating the ESL-stage LRs using a concurrent calibration method. Since the ESL-stage scale was standardized using LRT, cross-sectional comparison and longitudinal comparison of ESL-stage are possible. It is expected that use of the ESL-stage scale will enrich individual ESL and contribute to the realization of a life-long sports society and extension of healthy life expectancy.
The Paralympic Games are currently in the public spotlight not only as a sporting spectacle but also as a vehicle for empowering individuals with disabilities in society. However, previous research indicates that the Paralympic Games currently cater for a limited variety of impairments, which perhaps reflects a limitation of the Games in this respect.
The aim of this study was to determine whether this premise is valid by considering the empowerment of individuals in society via the Paralympic Games, focusing on groups including both mobility and hearing impairment.
Quantitative data were recovered from a questionnaire survey disseminated to lower secondary departments of special needs education schools for the physically challenged (n = 44, collection rate: 80.0%), lower secondary departments of special needs education schools for the deaf (n = 119, collection rate: 85.6%) and a regular lower secondary school (n = 145, collection rate: 83.8%) used as a control group in prefecture “A” via postal mail. Results were generated using an analysis of variance approach and χ2 test.
The data indicated that the Paralympic Games as a vehicle of empowerment is only valid for those with mobility impairment, and not for those with hearing impairment. This suggests that empowerment through the Paralympic Games may only be effective for individuals with impairments that qualify them for entry into the Paralympic Games, while excluding those with impairments that do not.
Ancillary findings of this study suggest that the majority of those with disabilities were uncertain about hearing impairment and the eligibility criteria of the Paralympic Games. It is also suggested that the Olympic Games have some positive effects in terms of empowering individuals with disabilities in society.
In recent years, integration between National Federations (NFs) and National Disability Sport Organizations has been progressing steadily among the Paralympic superpowers. However, the NFs in Japan have not made substantial progress with integration and inclusion for disability sports, and have fallen behind other nations. Most studies of integration and inclusion covering sports organizations have focused on the current situation, and no research based on an academic framework has been conducted (e.g., Nogawa et al., 2012; Nogawa et al., 2013; Sasaki et al., 2011; Tanaka, 2014). The present study focused on: (I) measurement of integration and inclusion of NFs in Japan using the OCIIS (Fay, 1999) and (II) validation of OCIIS adaptability. First, we established hypotheses for the OCIIS comprising 6 stages and classified 54 NFs that had joined the Japan Olympic Committee based on integration and inclusion level. Second, we extracted 9 NFs for each stage classified on the basis of the first study and interviewed key informants. This revealed that the integration and inclusion level of the NFs in Japan could be classified into 5 stages. Twenty-five NFs were at stage 1 (no awareness of disability sport), 5 NFs were at stage 2 (conducting activities for awareness of disability sport), 10 NFs were at stage 3 (existence of corresponding National Disability Sport Organizations in the NFs / electing a board member or a councilor of the NFs from the National Disability Sport Organizations / hosting or co-hosting national-level disability sport competitions), 12 NFs were at stage 4 (establishing a disability sport or Paralympic committee) and 2 NFs were at stage 5 (joining the Japan Paralympic Committee).
The purpose of this study was to clarify the physical fitness factors related to ball velocity in terms of playing position among junior high school (JHS) or high school (HS) baseball players during the growth period. The subjects were 78 pitchers (JHS: n = 38, HS: n = 40) and 216 fielders (JHS: n = 121, HS: n = 95). The measured parameters were body height, body weight, ball velocity, hand grip force, back extension force (BET), height/power by counter movement jump, and distance of the side (SMT) and back medicine ball throw (BMT). The pitchers pitched a ball from a temporary mound and the fielders threw a ball from flat ground. Ball velocity was measured using a radar gun. Multiple regression analysis with the stepwise method was used for statistical analysis. For this analysis, ball velocity was the dependent variable, and items of the physical fitness test and physical measurement comprised the independent variables. This analysis selected SMT and BET as predictors of the pitchers’ ball velocity, and the contribution ratio of ball velocity was 65.8%. When BMT and BET were selected as predictors of the fielders’ ball velocity, the contribution ratio of ball velocity was 62.1%. These results indicate that the relationship between ball velocity and force/power output-generating capacity differ between the motion for a given position and/or the required ability. These findings indicate that coaches for growing adolescent baseball players should assess directionality and the effects of training, as they may explain why ball velocity contributes more than 60% to the medicine ball throw distance and BET.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between the bending of the pole and the motion of both grips in the pole vault. Eight male vaulters, ranging in skill from the top international level to intercollegiate entry level (personal best record, 4m60―5m77), participated. The three-dimensional coordinates of reflective markers attached to their body were collected by a motion capture system (250 Hz), where the X-, Y-, and Z-axes was set to leftward, opposite to the progress of the run-up, and upward directions, respectively. The results are summarized as
(1) The larger the change in velocity of the vaulterʼ s center of gravity for the Y direction from take-off (TO) to maximal pole bend (MPB) became, the higher the rate of maximal pole-bend became (r = 0.88).
(2) The smaller the displacement of the upper grip in the upward vertical direction from TO to MPB became, the higher the rate of maximal pole-bend became (r = -0.83).
(3) The larger the angular displacement in a negative direction in the segment connecting both grips within the Y-Z plane from TO to MPB became, the higher the rate of maximal pole-bend became (r = -0.70).
These results suggest that in pole vaulting the motions of both grips, i.e. the displacement of the upper grip in an
upward vertical direction being smaller from TO to MPB and the lower grip being temporarily higher than the upper grip during the same phase, lead to the follow-through motion of the vaulter after TO, and are related to the bending of the pole, which in turn affects the performance.
The purpose of the present study was to clarify the psychosocial skills acquired through classical ballet practice, and to examine the relationship between those skills and goal orientation in a classical ballet context. We carried out an investigation using 57 items related to psychosocial skills and 15 items related to goal orientation, prepared specifically for this study. The participants in the survey were 165 learners (mean age 14.38 years) from ballet classrooms all over Japan. Factor analysis identified 5 factors for psychosocial skills acquired by putting an effort into classical ballet practice, and and learners with both strong mastery-goal orientation and performancegoal orientation acquired a high level of these skills. In contrast, those with no clear goal orientation acquired a low level of skills. In addition, it was shown that different types of psychosocial skills were acquired according to differences in the types of goal orientation.
This study was designed to clarify the relationships between the muscle cross-sectional area of the trunk and thigh and 400-m hurdle time in 12 young adult male athletes include a bronze medalist in the world championships (height 175.4 ± 6.0 cm, body mass 67.9 ± 5.8 kg, 400-m hurdle time 47.89―55.41 s). Crosssectional images from the origin to insertion of the trunk and thigh muscles were obtained using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These images were used to calculate the absolute cross-sectional areas of each muscle as indices of muscularity. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the association between the indices and 400-m hurdle time. This analysis produced an equation (adjusted R2 = .868) with the semitendinosus (β = −0.611, P = .001), quadratus lumborum (β = −0.300, P = .044) and adductor brevis (β = −0.395, P = .014) as the explanatory variables. It was concluded that individual differences in 400-m hurdle performance can be explained by the semitendinosus, quadratus lumborum and adductor brevis.
Before World War II, Japan, which had been at the bottom of the world’s ski jumping ranks, leaped to the top with the guidance of the Norwegian Helset in January-March 1929. The purpose of this study was to clarify the state of the sport before Helset’s guidance and its influence on the ski jumping world thereafter, in an attempt to clarify the guidance on Schanze jumping technique given by Helset. The study revealed that before the arrival of Helset, the Hokkaido University ski club had studied Schanze jumping techniques and theories independently since around 1914, and had practiced the technique of landing while keeping the body upright in the air. At that time, neither the Schanze available nor existing techniques were anywhere near the world level, and global trends were insufficient. Helset consistently conducted repairs, guidance, model jumps, and lectures in Hokkaido, Tohoku, Shinetsu, and Kanto from January to March 1929. Helset’s technical guidance centered on the world’s top Tams type, which constantly fixes the body bent forward in the air, and the Schanze guidance centered on Straumann’s theory of creating a gentle elliptical slope. Upon receiving these instructions, the athletes increased their flight distance, and the Federation announced that it had renovated and rebuilt the Schanze, being able to hold a jump tournament. In addition, the government cooperated with the spread of the technology and the Schanze theory throughout Japan. Helset’s world-leading Tams-type technology and the Schanze theory were then consistently taught in regions where skiing was possible, leading to superior technical effects and improved facilities, thus raising the level of competition so that it approaching the world’s best.
Recent research has indicated that rumination and reflection have inverse effects on mental health due to their different effects on self-esteem among Japanese university athletes (Yamakoshi and Tsuchiya, 2017). The aim of this study was to examine differences in the temporal state of self-esteem after facing adversity between highly ruminative university athletes and highly reflective athletes. The research was focused on 1) how self-esteem decreased in highly ruminative athletes and 2) how self-esteem increased in highly reflective athletes after facing adversity. The Modified Grounded Theory Approach (M-GTA: Kinoshita, 2003) was adopted, and participants were recruited from the study of Yamakoshi and Tsuchiya (2017). The participants were 1) 3 university athletes whose rumination score was higher than 1 standard deviation (SD) from the mean, whose reflection score was lower than the mean, and whose self-esteem score was higher than the mean, and 2) 3 university athletes whose reflection score was higher than 1SD from the mean, whose rumination score was lower than the mean, and whose self-esteem score was higher than the mean. Data were collected through the use of semi-structured qualitative interviews. All participants were national level university athletes. The interview guide consisted of 5 main question areas: 1) demographic information, 2) the type of adversity, 3) perception of the adversity and coping strategies for overcoming it, 4) relationship with teammates and coaches when facing adversity, and 5) general questions about university life.
The results indicated that after facing adversity, highly ruminative athletes 1) pondered on their inferiority in comparison with more successful teammates, 2) developed hostile and competitive relationships with teammates, and 3) felt a lack of belonging in the team, which finally led to a reduction of self-esteem. On the other hand, after facing adversity, highly reflective athletes 1) redefined themselves by interacting with others, 2) formed friendly/cooperative relationships with teammates, and 3) redefined their place in the team, which finally led to an increase in self-esteem. These results suggested that perceptions of the self, others, and the group differed between highly ruminative athletes and highly reflective athletes, and that these differences might play a role in differentiating the effects of rumination and reflection on self-esteem.
The purpose of this study was to examine whether socioeconomic inequality among Japanese sports participants changed between 2002 and 2012, a period corresponding to a boom in sports participation. Previous studies have focused on three main socio-economic factors related to sports participation: economic status, educational attainment, and occupational status. Focusing on these main factors, a quantitative analysis of Japanese General Social Survey data collected between 2002 and 2012 was conducted. First, the whole sample was analyzed to investigate the time trends in economic condition, educational attainment, and occupational condition that impacted on sports participation. The results suggested that individuals with a better economic status, those with higher educational attainment, and non-workers (house workers and retirees) were more likely to participate in sport. However, the sports participation gap between workers and non-workers was found to have increased in this 10-year period for both females and males. Furthermore, only for females, those with lower economic status and low educational attainment appeared to participate more in sports during this period. The analysis then focused on workers to clarify their sports participation, and this revealed differences in the rate of sports participation even if economic status and working hours were controlled for. In particular, those who worked for larger companies or government and municipality offices, those who were self-employed, and those whose jobs gave them higher social status were more inclined to participate in sports. Previous researchers had considered that economic status and working hours were the main factors causing unequal sports participation among different types of occupation. However, the present study revealed that the sports participation rate differed even when economic status and working hours were controlled for, suggesting that other factors may affect sports participation. This research that the main reason for the increase in sports participation in the 10 years from 2002 was that non-workers became more likely to participate, and that females in lower economic groups or with lower educational attainment increased their sports participation. On the other hand, the population of workers engaged in sports did not change during this period, and occupational characteristics had a considerable impact. Finally, the limitations of this research and future directions were discussed.
This study aimed to investigate the change in length of the triceps surae and the ankle plantar flexion torque produced by it during the first stance from a crouch start. Three male track and field athletes volunteered to participate. The participants sprinted 10 m from starting blocks. The ground reaction forces of the first leg stance were determined using a force platform (1000 Hz). Simultaneously, 3D coordinates were recorded by a motion analysis system (250Hz) using 20 cameras (MX-T20). We developed a musculoskeletal model and searched for the muscle excitation to re-create the motion of the 3 athletes using the optimization method (genetic algorithm). The lengths of the muscle tendon complex (MTC), contractile element (CE), and series elastic element and the ankle plantar flexion torque produced by the triceps surae were calculated during the first stance. The main results were as follows (1) The ankle plantar flexion peak torque produced by the soleus appeared at 70% normalized time (0%: ground contact; 100%: toe off). From the 70% normalized time, the ankle plantar flexion torque produced by the soleus decreased considerably. (2) The ankle plantar flexion peak torque produced by the gastrocnemius appeared at the 75% normalized time. From the 80% normalized time, the ankle plantar flexion torque produced by the gastrocnemius was larger than that produced by the soleus. (3) The CE of the soleus continued to shorten during the first stance. (4) From the 20% to 40% normalized time, the CE of the gastrocnemius continued to lengthen. At other points, the CE of the gastrocnemius shortened.
These findings suggest that the ankle plantar flexion torques produced by the soleus and gastrocnemius differ in
pattern, as the soleus contracts concentrically during the first stance and the gastrocnemius contracts eccentrically from 20% to 40% normalized time but concentrically at other points.
The purpose of this study of baseball players was to clarify: 1) step characteristics during the 30-m sprint with reference to step type, and 2) the characteristics of individuals with faster 30-m sprint times for each step type. The subjects were 62 male university baseball players (age 20.3 ± 1.0 years, body height 1.73 ± 0.05 m, body weight 69.6 ± 6.7 kg). All the subjects ran a 30-m sprint dash, and their time was measured every 10 m and 30 m. Running speed, step frequency (SF), and step length (SL) were calculated every 10 m and 30 m. Cluster analysis was used to classify the subjects according to step type, according to the ratio of SF to SL. In addition, each step type group was divided into 2 sub-groups (good and poor players) according to the mean 30-m time. The main results were as follows: 1) the baseball players were classified into 3 step type groups: SL-type (n = 20), SF-type (n = 8), and Mid-type (n = 34). There was a difference in the step characteristics between the 3 step types during the 30-m sprint. 2) In SL- and Mid-types, the SF, SL, and SL index were higher in good players than in poor players. In SL-type, the SF index was higher in good players than in poor players. These results indicate that: 1) there were differences in step characteristics among step types, and 2) among baseball players with faster 30-m sprint times, higher SL and SF were associated with the SL- and Mid-types. The characteristics were influenced by functional factors of the lower limbs, and not by morphological factors. These findings could be useful for devising training methods that would improve the sprint performance of baseball players according to their step type.
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether gender differences in motion factors affect throwing record in the javelin throw. Data on javelin throwing motion were collected from 91 male and 81 female right-handed javelin throwers covering a wide range of levels during several competitions (including the gold medalist at the 2007 IAAF World Championships in Osaka). The throwers and javelin movements were recorded with 2 cameras at 60 fps, and three-dimensional coordinates were calculated using Direct Linear Transformation (DLT). The throwing motion timing points examined were the final right foot contact (R-on), the left foot contact (L-on), and the release of the javelin (REL). Moreover, the period between R-on and L-on was considered the preparatory phase, and that between L-on and REL the throwing phase. The main results were as follows: (1) Females showed a slower center of gravity velocity than males at all time points. (2) At L-on, females showed greater left rotation of the shoulder and hip angle (in the trunk open state). (3) The shoulder rotation angle of females at L-on showed a significant positive correlation with the throwing record. These results suggest that the characteristics of throwing motion in females differ from those of males. The torso of female javelin throwers showed greater left rotation than that of males in the preparatory phase, suggesting that there are gender differences of motion factors in the javelin throw. These may be attributable to gender differences in physique, muscle strength, and joint laxity.
The revision of competency-based courses of study has increased the importance of assessment. However, individual-based game performance assessment in PE classes has not been employed due to insufficient trials for calculating the individual-based success rate. In this study, we attempted to perform curriculum assessment based on individual-based game performance using the number of trials and successes as indicators. We conducted 8-hour flag football units for 6th graders (n=103). All games were video-recorded and the individual game performances of those who participated in all classes (n=81) were assessed. The interobserver agreement between 2 analysts was 95%. The study showed that it was possible to assess the degree of individual achievement, and to identify children who had few learning opportunities during games. These results provide effective feedback for assessing the intended curriculum based on the learned outcomes of individual children, making it possible to derive a more developmentally appropriate curriculum for games teaching based on performance standards.
The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in the leading distance of the handle and handle movement of the hammer throw between competitors at different record levels during the turn phases, and the body movement required to obtain the handle leading distance. Forty-four male throwers (throwing record: 80.50-44.17m) participated in the study. Their throwing motions were videotaped using high-speed VTR cameras, and three-dimensional coordinates were calculated using a DLT method. Kinematic parameters calculated included the hammer head speed, the leading distance of handle, the handle velocity and velocity at the midpoint of the 2 shoulder joints using a rotating plane coordinate system where Xicr is the hammer head speed direction and Yicr is the direction connecting the hammer head and the instantaneous rotation center. We also investigated differences in the calculation parameters between an “Excellent” group（n=18, 74.77±4.30 m）and a “Normal” group (n=26, 55.80±5.96 m). The basic findings were as follows: (1) There was no significant difference between competitors at different record levels in the magnitude of the handle leading distance. The “Excellent” group showed a higher handle velocity in the Xicr direction than the “Normal” group during the turn phase. (2) Handle velocity in the Yicr direction was obtained mainly by increasing the midpoint of the shoulder joint velocity due to the trunk back lean during the double support phase (DSP). Since the increase and decrease in the handle leading distance are consistent with the increase and decrease of handle velocity in the Yicr direction, back lean of the trunk may increase the handle leading distance. In addition, generation of the handle velocity in the Xicr direction was achieved mainly by rotational movement of the body.
In this study, we investigated the concept of nationalism as a vague sense of individual identity as belonging to a common nation, i.e. also-called “cognitive nationalism”, focusing particularly on how the latter is constructed in relation to sports.
Previous studies of “cognitive nationalism” have focused mainly on football and have examined the stereotyped concept that Japan’s national teams or Japanese players are “organized”. However, no empirical research has ever attempted to substantiate this stereotype. Therefore, to clarify whether Japan’s national football teams and players can indeed be considered as “organized”, we evaluated this issue using quantitative and qualitative measures, focusing on players and teams featured in football magazines.
Quantitative analysis revealed that the number of expressions affirmed by collective traits accounted for only about half of the total. Many expressions affirmed the personal and physical qualities of Japan’s national teams or Japanese players. A detailed analysis of the collective traits revealed that in the early days, many expressions centered on collective tactics, whereas in more recent times references to pass work increased.
Furthermore, it was shown that in the early period, the term “organized” often had a qualitative connotation of “playing collectively to make up for lack of personal and physical traits”. However, the meaning gradually changed, and recently the word “organized” has been used in the sense of “personal qualities of the Japanese nation”, with a specific emphasis on unity or diligence.
Consequently, we conclude that perceptions of Japan’s national teams or Japanese players as being “organized” are no longer dominant in articles featured in football magazines, and that the term “organized” has developed some ambiguity of meaning.
This study investigated 57 male junior high school students who received coaching in endurance running using 3 methods: the all-out method, the inner/outer track (I/OT) method, and the ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) method. We compared the changes in awareness regarding endurance running and explored the factors responsible for these changes based on exercise intensity and pace strategy. Our results were as follows: 1) Before implementation of the coaching methods, most students (59.2%) disliked endurance running. The all-out method had almost no change on this attitude, 53.2% of the students still continuing to dislike endurance running. After training using the I/OT method, 42.9% of students disliked endurance running, and after training using the RPE method, this proportion was reduced to 22.2%. 2) The students’ responses to open-ended questions revealed that 66.7% of them associated the all-out method with pain, and that 12.5% associated it with competition. After the I/OT method, 55.1% of the responses were related to pain. However, compared to the all-out method, more students (22.4%) mentioned competition. After the RPE method, the most common point mentioned was remaining strength (51.1%), followed by pain (31.1%). 3) When the all-out method was employed, running speed decreased significantly during the early stage, and this gradually continued to the middle stage. When the I/OT method was used, running speed decreased significantly during the early stage, and then repeatedly increased and decreased during the middle stage. Running speed with the RPE method was significantly lower than for the other 2 methods and showed no changes over time. 4) The heart rate observed for each coaching method rose rapidly immediately after the start, and the average heart rate at the 20% time point had increased to 180.5±9.3 bpm and 181.2±9.2 bpm for the all-out and I/OT methods, respectively, and to 165.7±12.3 bpm for the RPE method. The average heart rate increased gradually to 190.0±12.6 bpm and 191.1±9.7 bpm for the all-out and I/OT methods, respectively, at the 70-100% time point. The average heart rate for the RPE method at the 70-100% time point was 179.4±13.2 bpm. 5) Our results indicate that pain associated with the all-out method discouraged endurance running in the participants. With the I/OT method, the sense of competition contributed to a decrease in students’ dislike of endurance running. The RPE method facilitated comfortable and even-paced running, and appeared to instill a positive attitude towards endurance running.
Using a qualitative approach, the present study of college soccer players (N=9) was conducted to clarify the psychological impact of scoring or losing points in additional time (AT). The participants had all played in official games in which their teams had scored or lost points in AT. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect narrative data, which were then analyzed by applying the Modified Grounded Theory Approach. The results suggested that before points had been scored or lost in AT, the players were in an unstable psychological state as they reached their mental and physical limits, and used emotion to evaluate their situational superiority or inferiority. In the case of scoring points, this situation created an intensified urge to become aggressive in order to maintain the team’s superiority, encouraging the players to attack more strongly. On the other hand, in the case of losing points, this situation triggered an impulsive urge to defend excessively and become passive, trying to defend the goal further while becoming subordinate to the opposing team. Based on the major findings of this research, 3 points were discussed: 1) the psychological state before scoring or losing points in AT, 2) the psychological state when scoring or losing points in AT, and 3) the metamotivational state of players in AT.
Pedalling skills are evaluated using the total negative effective force (TNEF) that occurs in the pulling phase (180―360° of crank rotation when 0° is top dead center). The aim of this study was to obtain data that might help cyclists to reduce TNEF and thus improve pedalling skills. We examined the relationship between TNEF and lower joint moments or pedal force data through full crank rotation. Fifteen male cyclists performed constant pedalling at 80%V4o2peak and 90 rpm. Pedal force and kinematic pedalling data were measured by a pedal-shaped force platform (1000 Hz) and by a 3D motion capture system (200 Hz).
The average value of TNEF was -553.0 ± 277.1 N and the phase that was 180.6 ± 8.1―307.7 ± 86.3° of crank rotation was marked. At 60–310° of crank rotation, there was a correlation between knee joint moment and TNEF (p＜0.05). Furthermore, at 40–100° of crank rotation there were positive correlations between the increase of hip joint extension moment and the decrease of knee joint extension moment or the increase of knee joint flexion moment (p＜0.05). These results suggest that generation of hip extension moment in the pushing phase contributes to an increase of knee flexion moment, consequently reducing TNEF in the pulling phase.
The 2017 revised rules for competitive judo require a higher level of stamina. Endurance capacity as a foundation of stamina is enhanced by training/conditioning involving optimum relative exercise intensities associated with the stress response, which has an important impact on biological adaptation mediated by the metabolic/endocrine system. Repetition training in judo techniques (uchikomi) for the shoulder throw (seoi-nage) as a typical hand technique (te-waza) induces blood lactate elevation and the stress response at a faster pace than 1 trial/1.5 s (20 trials/30 s), which is the optimum pace for enhancing endurance capacity in seoi-nage uchikomi. However, the optimum paces of uchikomi for foot techniques (ashi-waza such as uchi-mata, osoto-gari, and ouchi-gari), which are much more popular than hand techniques, remain untested. To address this issue, the present study investigated psychological, physiological, and biochemical parameters in collegiate male judo athletes during pace-incremental repetition training for foot techniques. For all techniques, the Borg scale, heart rate, and estimated oxygen consumption increased in a repetition pace-dependent manner. Blood lactate levels were unchanged at a slow repetition pace but began to increase at a pace of 1 trial/1.25 s (24 trials/30 s) for osoto-gari, 1 trial/1.0 s (30 trials/30 s) for uchi-mata, and 1 trial/0.85 s (35 trials/30 s) for ouchi-gari. At the maximal repetition pace, the level of blood lactate neared or exceeded 10 mM, and the level of plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), a stress marker, increased for all techniques. Our findings provide metabolic/endocrine evidence for the optimum paces of repetition training for foot techniques aimed at improvement of endurance capacity, which are ≧ 1 trial/1.25 s for osotogari, ≧ 1 trial/1.0 s for uchi-mata, and ≧ 1 trial/0.85 s for ouchi-gari. This experimental protocol and perspective on relative intensity related to metabolic/endocrine parameters in judo movements should ultimately contribute to better training/conditioning programs for judo-specific stamina.
The aim of this study was to investigate kinetic differences between penultimate foot contact (PEN) and final foot contact (FINAL) during lateral cutting maneuvers (180°turn) performed during side steps under preplanned (Pre) and unpredictable (Un) conditions. The participants were 13 players from a college female basketball team. In the experiment, participants were shown an arrow pointing either right or left on a monitor in front of them while moving with side steps toward the right. When the left arrow was shown, participants moved 3 m to the right, performed lateral cutting to the left, and moved back to the starting spot with side steps. Conversely, when the right arrow was shown, they moved 3 m by side steps to the right. The participants performed trials under 2 conditions: 1) Preconditioned: Participants were informed beforehand of the direction of the arrow signal. 2) Unconditioned: Participants responded to randomly shown arrow signals. Ground reaction force (GRF) data were collected across the PEN and FINAL phases using 2 force plates at 1500 Hz. The data in the PEN and FINAL phases were analyzed. The 2 phases were analyzed from the instant of foot strike on the force plate to the instant of toe-off during lateral cutting. Moreover, the FINAL phase was separated into FINAL braking and FINAL propulsion sub-phases. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to explore the relationship between the mean force for each phase and the 3-m side step shuttle time. This revealed that the 3-m side step shuttle time was correlated with the mean propulsive force at final foot contact when preconditioned, and that the mean propulsive force at final foot contact and the mean braking force at penultimate foot contact were correlated when unconditioned. In addition, the FINAL braking/PEN ratio when unconditioned was larger than that when preconditioned. Thus, under unconditioned circumstances, the mean braking force at penultimate foot contact was more important than that at final foot contact.
The 3 factors of the classic model (maximal oxygen uptake [VO2max], fractional utilization of VO2max at the anaerobic threshold, and running economy [RE]) are well known to be the determinants of isolated distance running performance. However, no previous studies appear to have investigated the relationship between all 3 factors and running performance in the Olympic-distance triathlon (ODT). We therefore investigated this relationship by conducting 2 studies. In study I, the relationship between the 3 factors of the classic model and running performance in actual ODT races was investigated in 16 male triathletes. In study II, the relationship between the three factors and running performance in simulated ODT races with controlled exercise intensities, pedaling cadence, and carbohydrate intake during the swim and bike legs was investigated in 8 male triathletes. The 3 factors were quantified using a treadmill incremental test following the same protocol in each study. Simple correlation and multiple regression analyses were performed using the forced entry method. The independent variables were the 3 factors of the classic model, and the dependent variable was running performance in the ODT races. In study I, no significant correlation was found between the 2 measurements (p＞0.05). Furthermore, no significant multiple correlation coefficient was obtained (R＜0.54, p＞0.05), and＜10.7% of the running performance was attributable to the 3 factors. In study II, by contrast, a significant correlation was found between RE and running performance (r = 0.79, p = 0.02). In addition, a significant multiple correlation coefficient was obtained (R = 0.91, p = 0.05), and 69.9% of the running performance in the simulated ODT race was attributable to the three factors. In conclusion, we suggest that in the ODT the 3 factors of the classic model explain interindividual variation in running performance. However, in an actual ODT race, the relationship between the 3 factors and running performance may weaken owing to the residual effects of prior swimming and cycling.
In Japan, traditional bullfighting has officially survived in 6 prefectures, including Niigata and Okinawa. Yamagata in Iwate prefecture is a typical town in a mountain area that faces depopulation, similar to other rural areas in Japan. Since the 1980s, the town has been holding an annual bullfighting event (“Hiraniwa bullfighting”) and it is now recognized as a significant regional cultural-economic resource. The present study attempted to analyze the characteristic of Hiraniwa bullfighting by examining its historical development process and the ways in which people in rural Japan can rethink and rearrange their lifestyle and social design by practicing a traditional sport.
Chapter 2 summarizes the relationship between Yamagata and cattle based on folk-historical materials and considers the socio-cultural context of the origin of Hiraniwa bullfighting. An analysis of the data clarifies the significance of cattle as an economically important resource in Yamagata. Some inhabitants of Yamagata have made their living by keeping cattle since the Edo period. Keeping cattle has enabled them to subsist in the severe natural environment of such a rural and mountainous location.
Chapter 3 details the development process of the Hiraniwa bullfight considering the interaction between Yamagata and other places where bullfighting is held. People in Yamagata have not only raised bulls but also bred them for bull owners in other areas. This is because they are also stock farmers who breed short-horn cattle (tankaku gyu）as well as being bull owners or sometimes bull motivators (seko). In Yamagata, being a stock farmer and a bull owner are inseparable. This social context makes Hiraniwa bullfighting different from other bullfighting cultures in Japan.
Chapter 4 describes the development of short-horn cattle breeding in Yamagata since the latter half of the 20th century, focusing on its relationship with the daichi wo mamoru kai, which is a kind of consumer organization for promotion of organic food. As short-horn beef has less fat than other Japanese wagyu brands, so that the daichi wo mamoru kai has preferred to buy a short-horn beef more than other brand beefs. The connection between Yamagata and the daichi wo mamoru kai has eventually brought not only economic prosperity but also symbolic value to the town through production of short-horn beef.
Thus it has been shown that Hiraniwa bullfighting is an important focus of cultural expression in Yamagata and also a process through which local people can rethink and rearrange their way of life.
The purpose of this study was to define “becoming” in physical education, and thereby the ideal modality for achieving this. As a first step, the presupposition for this discussion of “becoming” in education was addressed. Secondly, the structure of “becoming” through physical movement was examined．Thirdly, an attempt was made to treat the experience of physical movement as “non-savoir” (the experience of “becoming.” )
The results of the primary examination were as follows:
1) The presupposition for this discussion.
“Becoming” in education does not deny the “principle of utility” and the “logic of development” that emphasize the functional ends–means relationship. The aim of education in this study was based on the realization of both “development” and “becoming.” The study objective was defined as the educational value of physical education， as “becoming” in education has a risk of nullifying the system for physical education. This study also examined conformity with the “body schema” and the phenomenon of yokai (“the melting into the world”) as the 2 phases of “becoming” in physical education (the starting point of taiiku).
2) The structure of “becoming.”
Conformity with the “body schema” as the first phase of “becoming” can be interpreted as sympathy with “rhythm”, and physical movement can be adjusted through conformity-sympathy. The mechanism of “becoming” can be interpreted as “experience of shintai” (embodiment) to identify the first phase of “becoming” with the phenomenon of yokai. That is to say, sympathy with “rhythm” can be regarded as the initial phenomenon of yokai because of the pure interest in physical movement (i.e. the object).
3) The experience of physical movement as “non-savoir.”
As “becoming” of physical movement is “non-savoir,” this study was unable to consider “becoming” directly. However, the specific phenomenon (ecstasy) of “becoming” was considered relevant, as the experience of “shintai” as “ecstasy” leads to “self-transcendence” into a new world (ecosystem).
Based on the results of the primary examination, the modality (the ideal method) of “becoming” in physical education can be considered as follows.
1) Conformity with the “body schema” is based on sympathy with “rhythm.” Therefore, “becoming” in physical education can guide individuals to sympathize with the “rhythm” of movement by “takt” (time).”
2) “Becoming” in physical education as can change popular physical movements into new movements purposefully, and conformity with the “body schema” will adjust such new movements. This exercise can lead to the new phenomenon of yokai.
3) Conformity-sympathy with the body of another produces a physical experience in which a “relationship is felt by the body.” Physical education as “becoming” can allow the experience of shintai as “inter-corporal” education.
4) The specific phenomenon (ecstasy) of “becoming” creates a transcendent “self” and “world.” Physical education as “becoming” has great potential for education that can lead to the world breaking away from “logic of development” and “principle of utility.”
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between changes of direction (COD) performance, physique factors and physical strength factors in amputee soccer players.
Methods: The subjects were 18 male amputee soccer players. Measurement items included height, weight and BMI, as well as grip strength, toe grip strength, standing jump, medicine ball throw (2 kg), 30 m sprint test (20 m sprint speed and maximum speed) and 3 different types of angle COD test (45° zigzag running, 90° zigzag running and 135° zigzag running). COD performance was defined using 2 indicators: “COD speed” (20 m/COD time) and “COD index” (COD speed/20 m sprint speed). Correlation analysis was performed to examine the relationship between COD performance and the other measurement items. Also, t-test was used to compare the COD performance of the remaining lower limb and healthy lower limb. The level of significance was set at P＜0.05.
Results: 1) With regard to the relationship between each COD performance and sprint performance, the 20-m sprint speed showed a significantly higher positive correlation with all COD speeds (r = 0.707-0.842). 2) With regard to the relationship between each COD performance and physique factors, a significant positive correlation was found between the 135° zigzag speed and both height (r = 0.476) and weight (r = 0.517). Also, a significant positive correlation was found between the 90° zigzag speed and weight (r = 0.498). 3) With regard to the relationship between each COD performance and physical strength factors, the standing long jump was found to have a significant positive correlation with 90° zigzag speed (r = 0.530) and 135° zigzag speed (r = 0.488). In addition, a significant positive correlation was found between the medicine-ball throw and the 45° zigzag index (r = 0.520). 4) With regard to the relationship between each COD performance and the remaining lower limb, only the 45° zigzag performance showed a significant correlation with the healthy lower limb and not the remaining lower limb (p＜0.05).
Conclusion: While sprint performance was related to the COD performance of amputee soccer players, it was suggested that the influences of physique factors and physical strength factors differed depending on the angle at which the COD test was set. In addition, it was suggested that there may be restrictions on the COD performance of the remaining lower limb.
This study attempted to clarify the concept of “bodily sense of ability” that helps students make positive efforts at sports or during physical challenges. Focusing on the interaction of “I can” and “I can’t,” the formation of motivation was clarified by using phenomenological methods. Therefore, the significance of this study for physical education teachers is to convey the essential perspective of students and evaluate their learning process. Initially, the phenomenological method was adopted. Second, the phenomenological term, “I can” was examined in Husserl’s research, together with some concrete examples from the author. In particular, the relationship between the human body and change of consciousness through the perception of “I can” was examined. Third, based on interviews focusing on “I can’t,” the significance of this term for students who practice sports and have physical challenges was considered.
The conclusions were as follows: The “bodily sense of ability” is involves a continuous process of “I can’t” and “I can” that occurs alternately. The perception of “I can” is unmistakable and clearly sensed as if “I” is doing something, even though “I” may not actually be acting at the time. This encourages students to become motivated to perform various actions in their daily lives. Conversely, “I can’t” is the act of consciousness that comes from “I can”, even though “I” may not have been able to. The “I can’t” element is not an obstacle, but is an essential feeling or need for learning.
Finally, it is impossible to understand a student’s sense of “I can” by using only Yes/No linguistic questionnaires. Instead, it is necessary to distinguish the sense of “I can” from his/her own viewpoint by observing objective sports skills. It should be evaluated essentially in the sense of “I can” and “I can’t.” Furthermore, we have to create opportunities where students can explore and learn from the “I can’t” situation in physical education classes.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the motion factors of a one-hand shot needed to obtain the ball flight distance in female basketball players.
The subjects were 18 female basketball players, who performed one-hand shots. Seven distances were set, the 1st shot being taken from 3.225 m. When the ball entered or reached the ring, the shot distance was extended 1 m backward, and when the ball did not reach the ring 3 times continuously, the subjects dropped out of any subsequent attempts.
The main results were as follows.
As the shot distance increased, the release velocity increased and the release angle decreased significantly; there was no significant increase in release height.
As the shot distance increased, the lower limb increased the horizontal velocity and the vertical velocity by extending the hip joint and knee joint from a more flexed posture.
As the shot distance increased, the vertical velocity of the upper limb changed from a bimodal pattern that increased before maximum knee flexion (MKF), decreased once after MKF, and increased toward ball release (REL), to a pattern that suppressed the decrease after MKF and gradually increased toward REL.
As the shot distance increased, the pattern changed to increase the vertical velocity of the upper limb in synchronization with the increase in the vertical velocity of the lower limb.
From these results, it was suggested that one factor of a one-hand shot in female basketball players that could achieve the ball flight distance would be for the lower limb to extend from a more flexed posture, and for an upper limb shot to occur immediately from the front of the chest after catching the ball, with synchronization of these lower and upper limb movements.
The aim of this study was to shed light on preparatory sequences performed by elite goalkeepers for defense against shots in response to variations in the position from where a shot at goal is taken, and in the number of touches ahead of the shot. The samples were extracted from videos of shots in all 64 matches of the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia. First, to analyze the characteristics of shots in elite games, data on shots from different areas and after various numbers of touches were studied. Then, to analyze the preparatory sequences taken by goalkeepers to defend against those shots, the shots were classified into 6 groups based on ‘the presence or absence of a specific prejump’, ‘a change in the distance between the feet during the preparation period’, and ‘whether the goalkeeper was still in a moving position or had completed the move’. The results of this analysis of the characteristics of the elite game made it possible to divide the positions from where shots were taken in 2 types, based on the probability of the shot being on target and the probability that a goal would be scored. In addition, it was shown that when one-touch shots were on target, it was difficult for goalkeepers to defend against them. Next, as an overall trend, the most frequent preparatory sequence performed by goalkeepers was to prepare for a shot with a slight jump in order to widen the distance between the feet after they had finished moving into position. In addition, a breakdown of the preparatory sequences for various numbers of touches ahead of the shot revealed that – for onetouch shots – a proportion of goalkeepers moved into position until immediately before the shot was taken. Overall, from these analyses, it was concluded that elite goalkeepers must engage in different preparatory sequences depending on the circumstances of the shot.
It has been said that when teachers reflect on a class, it is then that their knowledge develops the most. The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics of “knowledge in class,” and how it develops upon reflection by student teachers at follow-up meetings after physical education classes. The study participants were 8 student physical education teachers and 2 supervisors. “Knowledge in physical education class” was extracted from their reflections at follow-up meetings after physical education classes. The findings were deductively analyzed according to “knowledge in physical education class” categories created by the authors on the basis of relevant studies conducted by Shulman (1987), Siedentop and Tannehill (2000), and Yoshizaki (1987). The results were as follows:
(1) As the characteristics of “knowledge in physical education class” expressed in reflections by the student teachers, the rates of “teacher knowledge about pedagogy” (area 2) and “explanation, instruction, conceptual expression, and question” (teacher knowledge about the subject matter and pedagogy; area A) were high. On the other hand, the rates of “teacher knowledge about students” (area 3) and “teacher knowledge about the subject matter, pedagogy, and students” (area D) were low. However, more complex knowledge was expressed in later stages of teacher training.
(2) In the case of student teacher F, his reflection gradually changed throughout teaching practice. The reasons
for this transformation were (a) the cycle of practice and follow-up meetings focused on F’s unique issues and (b)
concrete advice complementing the “knowledge in physical education class” that F lacked.
(3) Finally, there was a gradual change in the stages of “knowledge in physical education class” expressed by the reflections of the student teachers. The first stage was “teacher knowledge about pedagogy” (area 2), the second stage was “explanation, instruction, conceptual expression, and question” (teacher knowledge of the subject matter and pedagogy; area A), the third stage was the “students’ understanding and skill level for subject matter” (teacher knowledge of the subject matter and students; area B), and the fourth stage was “teacher knowledge about the subject matter, pedagogy, and students” (area D). This transformation was thought to be the result of knowledge being integrated and developed into a complex form, being influenced by both quantitative factors, such as accumulation of practice and reflection on experience through teaching practice, and qualitative factors, as revealed by the case of student teacher F.
In soccer coaching, monitoring of stress experienced by athletes is considered vital for their
psychological and physical well-being and prevention of athlete burnout. Athletes are under substantial stress and pressure to be successful. Taking these factors into account, it seems necessary to seek an effective way to monitor the mental condition of athletes and investigate how this changes during a competitive season. The primary purpose of this study, therefore, was to develop a Mental Condition Evaluation Sheet with relation to Burnout for Soccer players (MCESB―S) and examine its reliability and validity. The secondary purpose of the study was to evaluate longitudinal changes in the stress experienced by collegiate soccer players during a competitive season.
In Study Ⅰ, 138 Japanese collegiate soccer players (male=98, female=40) participated and in Study Ⅱ 25 collegiate female soccer players did so. For achieving the secondary purpose, MCESB―S as a psychological indicator and the cortisol awakening response (CAR) as a biological indicator of stress were adopted. Once a week, for 4 consecutive weeks, players provided MCESB-S scores and saliva samples collected at 0 and 30 mins after awakening.
The results of Study Ⅰ showed sufficient reliability for the MCESB―S. Total mental condition (TMC) scores calculated in the MCESB―S were significantly correlated with burnout symptoms such as reduced accomplishments and sport devaluation. It can be considered from these results that the MCESB―S works as a useful psychological indicator of stress conditions in athletes. The results of Study Ⅱ highlighted the fact that the levels of stress perceived by athletes change during a competitive season. Higher levels of TMC were negatively correlated with their CAR. Within mental conditions, satisfaction with ‘skill level’, ‘communication’ and ‘selfcontrol’ was significantly associated with CAR. In addition, the results of a match held during a season would impact athletes’ stress level to a great extent.
In conclusion, those who work with athletes should monitor their stress level regularly and an increase of athletes’ satisfaction regarding ‘skill level’, ‘communication’ and ‘self-control’ would be useful for preventing athlete burnout.
Through a case study focusing on trampolining, we evaluated the feasibility and effects of conscious motor learning during a practical physical education course at a university to clarify how university physical education helps to develop the human resources required in modern society.
We assessed the physical education course at ‘T’ University in 2018. The goals of the course were to give proficiency in a performance consisting of basic trampoline skills and a swivel hips maneuver (seat drop with a onehalf twist to seat drop). The students on the course practiced the necessary skills following the stepwise program developed by the instructor, aiming to learn and acquire proficiency in trampoline skills and to implement conscious motor learning. Whether or not conscious motor learning had been successfully implemented in the process of learning was evaluated based on the following 2 factors: 1) the results of the students’ self-observation and 2) whether the students had experienced a disintegration crisis phase in the movement-learning process.
Most students were able to achieve the prescribed goals. Appraisal of the above 2 factors and the results of self-observation showed that most students were able to implement conscious motor learning. They also felt empathy for the other students taking part in the exercise. This was because the instructor, who was a gymnastics specialist, effectively used the characteristics of trampolining, developed the learning program based on his own experience, and provided appropriate specific instructions. However, several students had low scores for some of the evaluated items. The reasons they gave were that the instructor did not clearly indicate the evaluation criteria for goal achievement and that she was unable to accurately judge the students’ skill levels or their willingness to participate in the physical education course.
The purpose of this study was to design and implement judo courses of physical education (PE) in higher education (HE) based on the ADDIE model and to validate the students’ outcomes and issues. The ADDIE model is part of the Instruction Design (ID) theory of educational technology. The subjects were 162 first-year undergraduate students (91 males: 71 females) attending judo courses in a designated sports university, and the lecturer who was responsible for instruction. Courses were implemented corresponding to each of the ‘analysis’, ‘design’, ‘development’, ‘implementation’ and ‘evaluation’ phases of the ADDIE model. In the analysis phase it was confirmed that the role of the course was to provide a PE teacher’s license. Therefore, the content was designed in accordance with the course of study for junior high and high schools. Considering the lesson time (a total of 50 minutes) in junior high and high schools, the time allocation for one lesson in the course was developed with an introductory 10-minute lesson followed by a 40-minute lesson each in the first and the second half. A learning notebook (learning portfolio) was also created in order to ensure the achievement of cognitive and emotional goals, and students were asked to describe their learning during each lesson. Course implementation was by the lecturer, based on systematic observational analysis of the teaching-learning process and self-reflection. Course evaluation was conducted based on the results of the systematic observational analysis, the distribution of student grades, and self-evaluation by students. Analysis of the teaching-learning process showed that the motor learning duration was sufficiently secured while the management duration was kept low. However, visualization of the teaching-learning process revealed that the initial planned time allocation was not realized. Through these results, the importance of a systematic observational analysis can also be recognized in the PEHE. The verification of the grades distribution and the students’ self-evaluation showed that the courses had the expected outcomes as a subject related to teacher’s qualification license. Furthermore, application of the ADDIE model in this judo course highlighted some critical issues, such as increasing students’ opportunities to teach each other, adjusting the learning environment through control of temperature and hydration, and creating special teaching materials for low-skilled students. Thus, in order to guarantee and improve the quality of PEHE, the authors propose an effective approach for course design and implementation that utilizes the ADDIE model.
This study aimed to identify the achievement rate and differences between failed (pre) and successful (post) attempts during straddle vault coaching using a multistage box (30 cm, 50 cm and 60 cm) with a mat sensor. Third- and fourth-grade elementary school children who could not successfully perform the straddle vault received 45 minutes of straddle vault instruction. Each kinematic variable was calculated for pre- and post- movements that were recorded using a high-speed video camera.
The results of these analyses were as follows:
1) Approximately 85% of the subjects were able to perform the straddle vault when they used a shorter vaulting
box and a mat sensor.
2) The velocity of the body’s center of gravity at the touchdown, take-off, and hand jump points was increased
in the post-movement period.
3) Hand jump position and distance in the air increased in the post-movement period.
4) The touchdown time decreased and time in the air increased in the post-movement period.
Therefore, the shorter vaulting box and a mat sensor used in this study can be considered useful for straddle vault coaching.