Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Current issue
Showing 1-41 articles out of 41 articles from the selected issue
  • Tomofumi TAKAYAMA, Hiroshi SATO
    2021 Volume 66 Pages 481-495
    Published: 2021
    Released: July 16, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 15, 2021
     Self-talk techniques are based on cognitive behavioral theories and are an important form of psychological intervention aimed at improving sports performance. Takayama and Takahashi (2017) reviewed self-talk techniques based on cognitive behavioral theories from the perspective of the second and third waves in cognitive behavioral therapy. However, a comprehensive understanding has yet to be achieved. Furthermore, there are insufficient theoretical explanations for these techniques in conventional research. Understanding the mechanisms underlying such techniques is important for determining their accountability in athletes, the reproducibility of effective techniques, and methods to overcome ineffective ones. In this context, we developed hypotheses to account for the mechanisms of self-talk techniques through a review of various cognitive behavioral theories in relation to improvement of sports performance. We also discuss recent research developments from the perspective of cognitive behavior.
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Original investigations
  • An organizational identification theory perspective
    2021 Volume 66 Pages 13-32
    Published: 2021
    Released: January 30, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: November 18, 2020
     Relationships between team identification, fan community identification and team-support behavior can be explained using organizational identification theory (Ashforth and Mael, 1989; Mael and Ashforth, 1992). According to Mael and Ashforth (1992), for an individual to identify with an organization, it must enhance the appeal of its collective identity through clear delineation of in-group and out-group memberships as a distinct organization, while increasing self-esteem through association with the organization’s prestige, meaning that the antecedent factors are the organization’s distinctiveness and prestige. Additionally, in social identity theory, which represents the theoretical background for organizational identification theory, support behavior is expressed for an organization that embodies the supporter’s identity. Accordingly, Mael and Ashforth (1992) consider organizational support to be a result factor. Based on the above, the aim of this study was to use organizational identification theory to clarify the relationships between team identification, fan community identification, and team-support behavior. Specifically, we developed a hypothetical model in which the factors of team distinctiveness and prestige were the antecedent factors and the non-transactional support behavior of fan engagement was the resulting factor. Data collected from spectators at a V. Premier League were used for verification. Analysis using the bootstrap method revealed that impact relationships were not found for all hypotheses. Nonetheless, certain relationships were found between leading and result factors, thus supporting the conclusion that organizational identification theory can be used to explain spectator support behavior.
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  • Results of quantitative text analysis of data from the “Injury and Accident Mutual Aid Benefit System”
    Takayuki FUJISAWA, Masaki WATANABE
    2021 Volume 66 Pages 33-46
    Published: 2021
    Released: January 30, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: December 05, 2020
     The present study was performed to identify the characteristics responsible for injuries in senior high school judo clubs. Data were collected from the “Injury and Accident Mutual Aid Benefit System” provided by the Japan Sports Council. First, the injury occurrence rates by sex and grade were analyzed by the All Japan High School Athletic Federation, based on the number of judo club members. Then, the characteristics of the injuries were identified using the quantitative text analysis software package “KH Coder”.
     The main results were as follows:
     (1) The injury occurrence rate was highest in the 1st grade, less high in the 2nd grade, and lowest in the 3rd grade.
     (2) The quantitative text analysis revealed that descriptions were primarily available for head and neck injuries in boys and knee injuries in girls.
     (3) The most common descriptions were related to accidents during judo throws, especially in 1st grade boys. Furthermore, in relation to throwing techniques, many accidents in 1st graders occurred during randori (sparring), and in boys also during extensive throw training. Moreover, many accidents occurred during competition in 2nd and 3rd grader boys. In relation to throwing technique, injures during uke (throwing) were the most common, especially in the 1st grade and among boys.
     This comprehensive analysis of information has revealed the causes of accidents in judo, providing essential knowledge for safety in the sport. This emphasizes the importance of continuous investigation and analysis of judo-related accidents.
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    2021 Volume 66 Pages 77-90
    Published: 2021
    Released: February 13, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: November 18, 2020
     The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of decision making under a light stimulus on movement during a change of direction (COD). Twelve male soccer players performed 2 types of lightbased backward agility test (BAT): normal condition and pre-planned condition (BAT-PP). Their motions were videotaped using 2 high-speed cameras operating at 300 Hz for three-dimensional motion analysis. The time, step parameter, and each kinematic variable were compared to determine the differences between the BAT and BATPP. The results showed that the times for 5–13 m and 0–13 m in the BAT were slower than those in the BAT-PP. The velocity of the center of gravity at the lowest point of the velocity in the BAT was lower than that in the BATPP. During the pre-COD phase, the body inward lean angle, shoulder rotation angle, and pelvis rotation angle were all smaller in the BAT than in the BAT-PP. At the COD foot contact, foot placement in the left-right direction was shorter and knee flexion was greater in the BAT than in the BAT-PP. Furthermore, hip flexion during the deceleration phase, and shoulder and pelvis rotation during the acceleration phase were larger in the BAT than in the BAT-PP. Overall, these results may indicate that players who performed the BAT were required to maintain a posture that allowed them to turn to the left or right until the presentation of the light stimulus; therefore, their bodies were upright, and their trunks were facing the direction of approach before COD. Moreover, the knee joint flexed with a short distance to the left of the COD foot placement, the velocity of the center of gravity decreased with hip flexion, and the trunk rotated significantly to a new direction in the BAT.
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  • Yuji OHSHIMA
    2021 Volume 66 Pages 91-107
    Published: 2021
    Released: February 13, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: November 18, 2020
     The purpose of this study was to develop a calculation method (CL method) for camera parameters using feature points (known three-dimensional coordinates) outside the control volume, one feature point, and the geometric property of lines inside the control volume. The film process in this study was as follows: (1) the camera platform position and focal length that filmed the control volume well were selected; (2) without changing the camera platform position and focal length, cameras were panned and tilted to film the feature points outside the control volume (number of pictures = 5); (3) the camera platform joints were adjusted and fixed to the film control volume; and (4) the control volume was filmed by the cameras. From the pictures, the digitizer coordinates of the feature points and line edges were collected. Focal length and camera platform parameters (such as position and lean) were estimated with particle swarm optimization to minimize the sum of the reprojective errors of the feature points outside the control volume, one feature point inside the control volume, and the lines inside the control volume. The camera parameters at the moment of filming the control volume were calculated using the focal length and camera platform parameters. Three-dimensional coordinates as accuracy verification points (135 points) were reconstructed using the estimated camera parameters. RMS errors of the accuracy verification points in the CL method and a method developed in a previous study were 11.1 and 7.9 mm, respectively. These results show that the CL method can be adapted for the collection of three-dimensional coordinates.
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  • Yuho SASAGO, Yuka UENO, Natsumi YAMASHITA, Masayoshi YAMAMOTO
    2021 Volume 66 Pages 127-138
    Published: 2021
    Released: March 06, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: January 15, 2021
     The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence and characteristics of weekly hill walking in comparison with habitual flat walking in elderly people. The hill walkers in this study were members of a mountaineering group who did about 3.5 hours of hill walking more than twice a month, and the flat walkers were members of walking groups who went walking more than once a week. Both the hill walkers and flat walkers continued the exercise for more than 2 years and individuals over 50 were extracted and analyzed. The time for 1 walk was 1.5±0.8 hours. The frequency and exercise volume per week were 1 time (19 Mets· h/wk) for the hill walkers and 4 times (26 Mets· h/wk) for the flat walkers. The contents of the questionnaire survey were age, sex, the reason for starting each exercise, period of exercise, chronic diseases and changes in the subjective sense of well-being. It was found that the prevalence rates of chronic diseases were lower than the general average values for the same generation, and more than half of the subjects recognized positive changes in their subjective sense of well-being after starting these exercises in both groups. On the other hand, more people in the flat walking group than those in the hill walking group became aware of an increase in walking speed. In contrast, the prevalence rate of diabetes in the hill walkers was lower than that in the flat walkers, and a high percentage of hill walkers felt an improvement of knee pain and better physical strength. These differences were significant. In addition, the proportion of individuals who recognized psychological changes was higher in the weekly hill walkers. More specifically some items such as “I have a wider circle of friends”, “My life became richer”, and “I feel refreshed” showed high scores, and showed significant differences. In conclusion, these findings suggest that, in elderly people, 3.5 hours of weekly hill walking has potentially positive effects on some items related to health, physical fitness, and mental state in comparison with about 1.5 hours of flat walking 4 times a week.
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    2021 Volume 66 Pages 179-189
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 10, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: January 15, 2021
     The purpose of this study was to compare the ability to control elbow joint angle under conditions with and without imposed external load, and to obtain fundamental data on this issue. Fourteen male college students (21.4 ± 0.7 yr) participated in the experiment. The participants attempted to flex their elbow to a target angle with their eyes closed, with and without an external load. For the external load condition, 6 levels of external load starting at 10%1RM with 10% increments up to 60%1RM were applied. The target angles were 15º, 30º, 45º, 60º, and 90º. We calculated the difference between the target angle and the actual joint angle. It was found that, regardless of the external load, participants were able to control and grade their elbow joint angle to the various targets. For the 15º target, the absolute error was greater than for the 30º target. %iEMG of the biceps and triceps became smaller as the target angle increased, and %iEMG increased along with the external load. These findings suggest that an external load can not influence the ability to control the elbow joint angle.
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  • Daiki KOGA, Takaaki TSUNOKAWA, Yasuo SENGOKU, Miwako HOMMA, Hideki TAK ...
    2021 Volume 66 Pages 207-218
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 29, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: February 16, 2021
     This study attempted to clarify the factors responsible for the change in hand propulsive force when stroke frequency was changed in the crawl. Eight male swimmers performed five 20-m front crawls. The first trial involved maximal effort, and then the stroke frequency was controlled during the next 4 trials. The instructed stroke frequencies were 70%, 80%, 90%, and 100% of the stroke frequency in the maximal effort trial. To calculate the hand resultant force, the pressure acting on the palm and the dorsum of the hand were measured, and the product of the pressure difference and the hand plane area was defined as the hand resultant force. Since the hand propulsive force is the propulsion component of the hand resultant force, its value was calculated from the normal vector of the hand plane and its unit vector by three-dimensional motion analysis. Additionally, the propulsion ratio was calculated to show how effectively the hand resultant force acted as the hand propulsive force. These variables were compared with the average for 1 stroke cycle and each movement phase, respectively (glide, pull, and push). The results indicated that as the stroke frequency increased, the dorsum pressure value increased significantly to negative (η2 = 0.82, p <0.001). Also, an increase in the pressure difference between the palm and the dorsum resulted in an increase in the hand resultant force. In the push phase, the increase in the hand resultant force was directly related to the increase in the hand propulsive force. In the glide phase, not only the fluid force, but also the propulsion ratio increased. This was assumed to be because the ratio of the dorsal plane to the propulsion direction was increased while the hand was moving in a vertical direction and a lateral direction in addition to a forward direction. This was considered to allow the fluid force to act more effectively in the propulsive direction, leading to an increase in the hand propulsive force.
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  • Hiroaki FUJII, Keigo OHYAMAOHYAMA-BYUN, Norihisa FUJII
    2021 Volume 66 Pages 219-237
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 29, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: February 16, 2021
     The purpose of this study was to investigate the acceleration motion of the hammer head during the turn phase in hammer throwers with record levels covering a wide range from the world’s best to Japanese student level. The characteristics of the acceleration motion of high-record throwers were also analyzed. Forty-four male throwers (throwing record, 80.50-44.17 m) participated in the study as subjects. Their throwing motions were videotaped on high-speed VTR cameras (250-300 fps), and three-dimensional coordinates were calculated using a DLT method. The kinematic parameters of the hammer, upper limbs and trunk were calculated, and the correlations between them and throwing record were examined. The fundamental factors clarified were as follows: (1) The higher the throwing record became, it was more evident that the hammer, the shoulder and the hip were pointed in the throwing direction at the moment of right foot contact (Ron), i.e. the starting point of hammer head acceleration. The more the hammer turned in the throwing direction at Ron, the greater the angular displacement of the hammer, shoulder and hip rotation became during the double support phase (DSP). (2) The higher the throwing record became, the angular displacement of shoulder rotation and the average angular velocity of shoulder rotation became greater at the Ron-lowest position of the hammer head (LP). (3) The higher the throwing record became, the maximum velocity of the left and right shoulder joint center on the horizontal plane and the angular velocity of the trunk back lean became higher at Ron-LP. (4) The higher the throwing record became, the angular displacement of the trunk right lean and the average angular velocity of the trunk right lean became higher at DSP. Therefore, it is considered that the hammer head acceleration motion of high-record hammer throwers is characterized by the body rotation and trunk lean at DSP.
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  • Hidehiro KASANO
    2021 Volume 66 Pages 239-259
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 29, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: February 23, 2021
     The purpose of this study was to interpret the institutional characteristics of organizing sport enthusiasts from the viewpoint of 4 Japanese soccer players in Germany, based on the theoretical framework of the subjective theory of sport organization. In this study, the institution of soccer in Germany was determined to be one that enables the organization of its enthusiasts. By clarifying its institutional characteristics, we demonstrate the direction through which the Japan Football Association could create and transform the organization of enthusiasts.
     The methodology used for our analysis was the life story interview method; the life stories of 4 Japanese soccer players in Germany were constructed based on interviews, and the institutional characteristics of soccer in Germany as recognized by those players were interpreted.
     Our analysis showed that, compared with the institution of soccer in Japan, the following are institutional characteristics of soccer in Germany as reflected in these players’ life stories: (1) A “Sport Ideology” component that emphasizes soccer play (practice) and separates evaluations in soccer from evaluations in everyday life. (2) A “Sport Rules” component, securing the opportunity for enthusiasts to play in official games and spending less time in practice. (3) A “Sport Symbols” component, such as rewards for enthusiasts. (4) A “Sport Behavior Patterns” component, such as promoting playing styles that respect individuals, and focusing on playing games, as well as drinking beer after practice and games. (5) A “Sport Civilization” component of such as guaranteeing the playing environment (soccer field) of enthusiasts. (6) A “Sport Organization” component such as a regional club league system (i.e. separation from school).
     These institutional characteristics can be interpreted as those that affirm the social character of enthusiasts, i.e. the institutional characteristics that give enthusiasts legitimacy. Therefore, it is a remaining challenge for Japanese sport organizations to create such institutional characteristics.
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  • a qualitative analysis of pilates instructors
    Kayoko ISONO, Yasufumi SARUWATARI
    Type: research-article
    2021 Volume 66 Pages 277-292
    Published: 2021
    Released: May 12, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: February 18, 2021
    The purpose of this study was to examine the interactions of students with instructors who are successful in maintaining exercise adherence and those who are not, and to characterize the factors required for achieving successful exercise adherence. Three top-ranked pilates instructors (expert instructors) – in terms of the number of students who maintained exercise adherence – and 3 low-ranking instructors (novice instructors) in the same pilates studio were selected. Their interactions with the students were compared through detailed description using the conversation analysis method. It was found that the expert instructors differed from the novice instructors in that they demonstrated a pattern of correcting the students’ incorrect movements by exploring and changing the styles and types of instructions given at significant moments, and by providing positive feedback when students performed the correct movements. It was suggested that novice instructors might improve their students’ exercise adherence by increasing their knowledge of synonyms for technical terms and manipulation, and by developing the ability to give spontaneous, effective instructions using both speech and manipulation, even when teaching continuous movements.
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  • Akane MIKURA, Etsuko OGASAWARA
    2021 Volume 66 Pages 293-309
    Published: 2021
    Released: May 15, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 04, 2021
    The purpose of this study was to clarify the learning experiences that promote coaching self-efficacy, outcome expectation and interest in coaching for female basketball players by applying Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT). We targeted 8 female basketball players who played in the top women’s basketball league in Japan, and conducted semi-structured interviews.
    We found that the learning experiences for participants were 1) athlete experience, 2) coaching experience, 3) learning at university, 4) observation of various coaches and teachers, and 5) seminars for acquiring coaching licenses. Furthermore, it was clarified that each learning experience influenced cognitive factors (coaching self-efficacy, outcome expectation, and interest in coaching), and led to awareness of supports and barriers for coaches. These findings indicated that it was important to provide female basketball players some effective opportunities for experiencing coaching and learning about it. Additionally, improvements in the environment of coaches also helped female basketball players to reduce their anxiety about working as coaches.
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  • Yoshihiro SAKITA, Atsurou HOUGAKU, Yumiko FUJISAKA, Tsuyoshi KONDO, ...
    2021 Volume 66 Pages 311-326
    Published: 2021
    Released: May 20, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 11, 2021
     The purpose of this study was to acquire historical insights into women’s football in prewar Japan. The study had 2 specific aims: 1) to analyze the origin and development of women’s football in Japan through information gathered at higher educational institutions for women (The Girls’ Higher Normal School, Nara Women’s Higher Normal School, Japan Women’s College, Tokyo Women’s School of Gymnastics and Music) and 2) to analyze the growth of women’s football using information collected at public high schools for girls. To achieve this, the historical records of 422 school were reviewed.
     To address the first question, it was investigated whether instruction and guidance were available at higher educational institutions for women, and whether football was an extra-curricular activity. The data suggested that while football might have been taught both as part of the regular curriculum and as an extra-curricular activity, none of the institutions played a key role in the shift from casual to competitive play or in the growth of football throughout Japan. Analysis of the expansion of football revealed that, of the 286 girls’ public high schools surveyed, 53 offered football; these institutions were broadly distributed from Kyushu to Hokkaido. Evidence of women’s football was confirmed from 1902 to 1940, most instances being in the Taisho era (1912–26), followed by the Meiji era (1868–1912) and the Showa era up to 1945 (1926–45). Football was played mostly during free time and athletic meetings, but it was also sometimes played during class, as a club activity, and during excursions. In some cases, football was played regularly and school competitions were held; however, there were no confirmed examples of inter-school competitions. The involvement of instructors, uniforms, equipment, and rules at the 53 schools was established. The data suggest that instructors, including principals, were involved to some extent, and that football was made more accessible by the provision of appropriate uniforms and equipment. There were mixed results for rules; in some cases, football was played casually with relaxed rules, while in other cases, female students played more competitively and organized association football like their male counterparts.
     This study is significant in being the first attempt to empirically examine the history of women’s football in Japan.
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  • Takuya SUGIYAMA, Takehiko NAKAMURA, Ryo NISHII
    2021 Volume 66 Pages 327-342
    Published: 2021
    Released: May 22, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 06, 2021
     The present study attempted to standardize a Collective Cohesion Questionnaire based on Carron’s model, considering issues covered in previous research such as low relevance, lack of survey subjects, the small number of target events and the need to consider the cultural background of Japan. In the first survey, a questionnaire consisting of a total of 40 items was created, taking into account the issues that had been covered previously. A total of 1,370 high school and university club athletes representing 26 sports were surveyed. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis of the data obtained from 1,131 of the subjects confirmed the structure of 4 factors and 13 items. In the subsequent second survey, a total of 411 high school and university athletes from 16 sports were retested using the 13 items extracted in the first survey. At that time, the Sport Psychological Test for Teams was also administered as an external standard. As a result, confirmatory factor analysis of 256 subjects confirmed a 4 factor structure. Although the internal consistency of the scale and the validity of the criteria were also confirmed, the stability of the scale in the retest method was only moderately correlated with all 4 factors. In the third survey, we include a total of 386 high school and university athletes with appropriate modifications to the methods, and confirmed the stability of the scale in the retest method. Finally, a questionnaire to measure group cohesiveness in sports was completed. This has the 4 factor structure proposed by Carron and can guarantee reliability and validity.
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  • Focusing on the head teacher’s leadership
    Yusuke OKADA
    2021 Volume 66 Pages 343-360
    Published: 2021
    Released: May 25, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 04, 2021
     The purpose of this study was to clarify the process for the introduction and diffusion of Olympic and Paralympic Education in Japan. To achieve this goal, we analyzed the process of developing the various practices of Olympic and Paralympic Education in a school located far from Tokyo, the host city of the Olympic and Paralympic Games in 2021, from the perspective of the principal’s leadership.
     The practice of Olympic and Paralympic Education in elementary school X was developed from “individual practices by specific teachers” to “various practices by all teachers”. In the process of realizing the former, principal A encountered “maintainability” as part of teacher culture and overcame this situation through care and innovative leadership. Also, in the process of realizing the latter practices, principal A conducted innovative and facilitative leadership to overcome “mutual non-interference”. Through these processes, it was considered that principal A had achieved everyone’s understanding of the idea of the “various practices of Olympic and Paralympic Education”.
     These findings suggest that for the future diffusion of Olympic and Paralympic Education, it is necessary to grasp the concept step by step, to use the “association” strategy, and to select an appropriate teacher who is responsible for the diffusion process.
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  • Kazutaka TAKAHASHI, Hidenori SHINOHARA, Takuya YOSHIDA, Takeshi ASAI
    2021 Volume 66 Pages 361-372
    Published: 2021
    Released: May 25, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 06, 2021
     This study was performed to clarify the kinetic and kinematic properties of trunk motion while performing the bar twist exercise. The increasing length and increasing mass of the exercise bars were taken as the independent variables. A total of 21 male athletes who regularly performed strength and power training were included in the study. The bar twist exercise was performed using 5 bars, comprising 1 bar 2.00 m in length and 10.00 kg in weight (NB), 2 long bars with an increased length without changing the mass (2LB, 3LB), and 2 heavy bars with a mass that was increased by adding weight to the bar without changing the length (2HB, 3HB). The three-dimensional kinetic and kinematic variables were then calculated. The principal findings were as follows:
    1) The torque of the trunk twist increased as the length or mass of the bar was increased.
    2) The torques of trunk flexion and lateral flexion to the left against translational motion were greater for HB than for LB (flexion (Nm⁄kg): 3LB [0.23 ± 0.22] < 3HB [0.34 ± 0.25]; lateral flexion to the left (Nm⁄kg): 2LB [0.35 ± 0.23] < 2HB [0.39 ± 0.28], 3LB [0.33 ± 0.21] < 3HB [0.35 ± 0.28], Nm⁄kg).
    3) The rate of torque development (RTD) of trunk twist torque was greater for LB than for HB (2HB: 6.90 ± 3.22 < 2LB: 7.84 ± 2.58, 3HB: 6.09 ± 1.63 < 3LB: 6.88 ± 2.13, Nm⁄s⁄kg). However, the RTD of trunk twist torque for LB and HB was smaller than for NB (9.13 ± 2.53 Nm⁄s⁄kg).
     These results indicate that the trunk twist torque increases with the moment of inertia of the bar due to the increase in length or mass, which is a standard feature. In contrast, it was suggested that the increase in mass contributed to the increase in trunk flexion–extension and lateral bending torque. The RTD of trunk twist torque was decreased due to the increase in length or mass. However, the amount of decrease in RTD of trunk twist torque was smaller for LB than for HB.
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    2021 Volume 66 Pages 373-382
    Published: 2021
    Released: May 28, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 31, 2021
     The present study of para-alpine sit-skiing was conducted to investigate the degree to which aerodynamic drag could be reduced and skiing time shortened by lifting one or both of the outriggers forward. For this purpose, the aerodynamic forces on 4 sit-skiers were measured in a wind tunnel while adopting 3 positions: Normal position with both outriggers placed down the body side; One side lifted with the outrigger forward; Both sides lifted with the outriggers forward. Furthermore, skiing simulations were run on the basis of the results obtained.
     In the wind tunnel test, drag areas were 0.360 ± 0.024 – 0.364 ± 0.030 m2 in the normal position, 0.307 ± 0.029 – 0.318 ± 0.037 m2 in the one-side lifted position, and 0.229 ± 0.026 – 0.239 ± 0.029 m2 in the both-sides lifted position. Thus, compared with the normal position, aerodynamic drag was reduced by approximately 15% by lifting one of the outriggers forward and by approximately 35% by lifting both outriggers forward. Both projected area and drag coefficient were especially reduced by lifting both sides. It was considered that this decrease in aerodynamic drag resulted from the smaller projected area of the arms and outriggers, and the change in the overall attitude of the skier to a shape less sensitive to aerodynamic drag.
     The results of the skiing simulation revealed that, in comparison to the normal position, skiing distances of more than 34 m in the one-side lifted position and more than 21 m in the both-sides lifted position were needed to shorten the time by more than 0.01 s. As time is measured in units of 0.01 s for para-alpine skiing, it was considered that if skiers cannot lift one or both of the outriggers forward for longer than those distances, skiing time would not be shortened. On the other hand, if one considers the compressed skiing times classified according to the degree of skier impairment in para-alpine skiing, the effects of lifting the outriggers forward on skiing time would also be compressed according to sport class. Therefore, it is necessary to decide whether lifting the outriggers forward or not according to skiing distance and skier class would be justified.
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  • Hideto SUZUKI
    2021 Volume 66 Pages 409-427
    Published: 2021
    Released: June 16, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 06, 2021
     Hirobumi Daimatsu was a legendary sports coach in Japan, especially after coaching the Japanese women’s national volleyball team (“the Oriental Witches”) that won the World Championship in 1962 and the gold medal in the 1964 Tokyo Olympic Games.
     He was famous for his extreme training methods and had a great influence on coaching methodologies for Japanese sports as a whole. Although many studies have examined his way of thinking from various perspectives, the relationship between his war experiences and his approach to coaching has not been analyzed sufficiently. The present study aimed to examine how Daimatsu’s first-hand war experiences (“keiken”) developed into his coaching beliefs (“taiken”), focusing specifically on a theory created by Yoshida that war veterans’ understanding of their experiences had been changing over time from when they re-entered society and grew older. Yoshida made this transformation clear by referring to 5 periods since the end of the Second World War in 1945.
     Firstly, many demobilized soldiers including Daimatsu had to face civilians who hated the Japanese military just after defeat. They lost their morale, from 1945 to around 1950 could not talk about the military or the War. Secondly, even after former professional officers and wartime politicians had been rehabilitated, the veterans themselves still found it difficult to positively address some topics related to the War in the 1950s.
     Thirdly, the generation that had experienced the War who shouldered the responsibility of reconstruction from the destruction and devastation gradually gained confidence and became able to talk about their wartime experiences. Some of them discovered a positive meaning in their own experiences on the battlefield from the late 1950s to the late 1960s. Daimatsu was a typical example of the third period because he spoke clearly about the positive meaning of his war experiences.
     Penultimately, in the 1970s and 1980s, that generation of Japanese became able to accept the responsibility for the War, especially in Asia, and to gradually acknowledge the negative aspects of their experiences. Finally, in the 1990s, a small number of survivors chose to disclose tragic stories that had not come to light previously.
     Thus, Daimatsu was only one of a generation that had experienced the War and who became recognized as a spokesman for many of that generation who held common feelings.
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  • Mitsuharu OMINE
    2021 Volume 66 Pages 429-437
    Published: 2021
    Released: June 19, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: May 12, 2021
     In the area of sport philosophy, research has been conducted on “failed athletic contests” in which athletic superiority is not demonstrated. In order to provide a new perspective on the theoretical framework of “failed athletic contests”, this study focused on the presence of spectators, an aspect that has not been discussed in previous studies, particularly the issue of booing/jeering and cheering, which may have a significant effect on players.
     First, I examined the penalties stated in the official rules and regulations for soccer and basketball, where booing/jeering by spectators tends to be allowed. It was found the organizer or the referee was not required to stop audience booing. However, some booing/jeering attempts to suppress the performance of players, which could be regarded as disruption of a contest that is intended to embody player excellence.
     Spectator reaction contributes to player performance, and cheering can help to reverse victory or defeat. In this sense, it could also be an obstacle to embodying which players excel. In this study, it was demonstrated that spectators could undermine the excellence of players, which is the purpose of competitive sport, not only by booing/jeering but also by cheering. When spectators engaged in booing, jeering or cheering that reversed victory or defeat, the institutional identity of the contest was brought into question, thus creating “failed athletic contests”. It was suggested that excessive booing/jeering and cheering that led to reversal of victory or defeat would become problematic if the highest priority was to embody the principle of player excellence during a match and avoid “failed athletic contests”.
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  • Moriatsu NAKASONE
    2021 Volume 66 Pages 439-456
    Published: 2021
    Released: June 29, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 31, 2021
     Currently, there are over 500 skills categorized in the scoring rules for women’s gymnastics, as a result of continuous skill development by athletes and coaches. To reorganize the results of such skill development, it is necessary to study changes in the scoring rules and improvements made in equipment and consider how they relate to skills. Studies that focus directly on sports movements and explore the technical aspects of sports, rather than investigating the general history of sports development from a sociocultural perspective, are centered on the historical development of skills (Kishino and Tawa, 1972).
     Such studies are now commonplace in gymnastics research but are based mostly on men’s events. This study examined the developments made in salto skills on balance beams from the 1960s to the present day, highlighting the changes in skill development triggered by new scoring rules and improved equipment and shedding light on the future direction of skill development in gymnastics.
    The results of this research are summarized as follows.
     1. In the 1960s, salto skills for the balance beam were identified and were performed only during dismount.
     2. From the 1970s to the 1980s, many salto skills were developed owing to improvements in balance beam equipment as well as the program component system of scoring rules and the point adding system.
     3. Since the 1990s, owing to rule changes and a lack of any change in the width of the beam, almost no new salto skills have been developed.
     4. Since the 2000s, owing to a change in the height of the balance beam, having a mat placed on the ground for safety, and a scoring rule focused on high difficulty, the development of dismount skills has progressed.
     In relation to the future of skill development, this can be summarized as follows.
     1. Development of balance beam dismount skills with complicated structures that are similar to those in floor exercises is likely to occur.
     2. We can also expect the development of different salto skills on the beam relative to floor exercises, such as a modified salto with a one-leg jump and one-leg landings that can be performed on the width of the balance beam.
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  • Chihiro SHIMIZU, Kohei NAKAGAKI
    2021 Volume 66 Pages 457-465
    Published: 2021
    Released: July 02, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 15, 2021
     The present study of baseball pitchers was conducted to: 1) investigate the relationship between lower limb muscle endurance and the rate of decrease in delivered ball velocity, and 2) develop a simple field test (FT) for evaluation of lower limb muscle endurance. Eight collegiate baseball pitchers participated, and each threw 50 consecutive balls at intervals of 12 seconds. During this task, the rate of decrease in ball velocity was determined. The muscle endurance required for flexion and extension of the hip and knee joints was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. The number of repeated back-lunges to exhaustion was used as an indicator of lower limb muscle endurance obtained from the FT. The rate of decrease in ball velocity was significantly correlated with the isokinetic muscle endurance in knee flexion and the number of back-lunge repetitions. The number of back-lunge repetitions was significantly correlated with the isokinetic muscle endurance of knee flexion. These results suggest that 1) pitchers with a low rate of decrease in ball velocity have superior knee flexion muscular endurance, and 2) the FT proposed in this study is useful as a simple test to evaluate the knee flexion muscular endurance related to the rate of decrease in ball velocity.
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  • Relationships between running, strength, and difference in competition level
    Takuya YOSHIDA, Fusako KAWAHARA, Arisa FUKUDA, Aoi SHIRAI, Aya SAKUMA, ...
    2021 Volume 66 Pages 467-479
    Published: 2021
    Released: July 09, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: May 12, 2021
     The present study was conducted to investigate the strength and power characteristics of the lower limb using the rebound jump (RJ) for collegiate female soccer players, focusing on the relationships between running performance, muscle strength and differences in competition level. The performance variables of 19 collegiate female soccer players in the 20 m sprint, pro agility test, squat, isokinetic knee strength, countermovement jump, and RJ were calculated. The kinetics data (ground reaction force, joint torque, power, joint work) in the RJ were then calculated. The results revealed no relationship between performance variables in the RJ and various parameters related to running performance and muscle strength. However, in the starter group, the 20 m sprint time and pro agility time were significantly faster, the RJ-index was significantly higher, and contact time in the RJ was significantly shorter. In addition, in the starter group, the maximum ground reaction force, ankle joint torque, power, and knee joint torque in the first half of the take-off phase were large. Therefore, it is suggested that female soccer players with a high competition level have excellent strength and power abilities, particularly in terms of ankle joint and knee joint muscle strength and power exertion ability to achieve the jumping height in a short contact time.
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  • Toward a reexamination of the relationship between education and competition in school sports
    Atsushi NAKAZAWA
    2021 Volume 66 Pages 497-514
    Published: 2021
    Released: August 11, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: June 04, 2021
     The aim of this study is to describe the history of the Junior High School Physical Culture Association (JHSPCA) based on reexamination of the relationship between education and competition in school sports.
     Previous studies have maintained that there was a conflict between education and competition in school sports, and that the potential educational effects of sports were impeded by its competitive focus. However, it is assumed that the JHSPCA held competitive championships under the guise of educational activity. To fully understand the historical development of school sports we should instead reexamine whether the educational aspect of school sports is actually combined with its competitive one. This reorientation of perspective would then allow for new research questions, such as how the JHSPCA was formed and developed, and how and why it combined education and competition in school sports. The present study attempts to answer these questions, which previous studies have not, by analyzing documents gathered from official annual reports of the JHSPCA.
     The study produced a number of findings. Beginning in 1947 with the establishment of the postwar junior high school system, the JHSPCA first developed at the prefectural level. Initially the association was formed by PE teachers under the influence of the Ministry of Education, while also accepting the assistance of the Association of Junior High School Principals, local boards of education, and select sports federations. In 1955, the national level of the JHSPCA was initially formed in order to control the games and matches of junior high school athletes and as a counter organization to sports federations. Crucially, the JHSPCA differed from sports federations in that it was specifically driven by educational ideals. Yet, even with such an organization principle, it encouraged games and even matches under the name of educational activities. At that time, some prefectures did not have local JHSPCA branches; however, by 1967 all prefectures had designated branches and the association finally became a national organization.
     In conclusion, this study has clarified that the JHSPCA had to compete against sports federations and thus included a system of competitive championships within the ethos of school sports. By continuing to combine education and competition in school sports, it was possible to utilize competitive championships for the realization educational ideals. The present findings suggest that there is the possibility of modifying the prior consensus that education is opposite to competition in school sports in Japan.
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  • focusing on their level of knowledge
    2021 Volume 66 Pages 551-559
    Published: 2021
    Released: August 18, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: May 15, 2021
     In recent years, a number of health issues among adolescents in Japan have become highlighted. One of the major issues in school health is thinness among high school girls. Thinness is closely related to low energy intake, which can lead to menstrual dysfunction and low bone density. It is important to acknowledge these issues as health disorders that are specific to girls, and to consider measures for their prevention. The purpose of this study was to clarify the current situation of health disorders specific to high school girls, and to examine their level of awareness about them. Between March 2018 and February 2019, we conducted a self-administered questionnaire survey targeting 1,551 high school girls from 10th to 12th grade in 32 schools across 7 prefectures. This revealed that 18.7% of the girls were classified as “thin” based on Body Mass Index. In addition, many girls (more than half) had one or more signs of low energy intake, menstrual dysfunction, and history of stress fracture. The survey indicated signs of health disorders specific female high school students, suggesting that this is an important issue that needs to be addressed. The results also indicated that knowledge regarding health disorders was insufficient, as the overall correct answer rate was 50% or less. This was partly related to the presence or absence of health disorders specific to girls. In the future, it will be necessary to clarify the relevant factors that ought to be considered for comprehensive education designed to prevent health disorders specific to girls.
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  • Examination of the relationship between reappraisal/expressive suppression and psychological competitive ability
    Eriko AIBA, Kojiro MATSUDA, Yoshio SUGIYAMA
    2021 Volume 66 Pages 561-572
    Published: 2021
    Released: August 27, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: June 22, 2021
     The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between emotion regulation strategies (reappraisal and expressive suppression) and psychological competitive ability during sports games. A total of 492 athletes completed the Japanese version of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (EQR-J) and the Diagnostic Inventory of Psychological-Competitive Ability for Athletes (DIPCA.3). The DIPCA.3 was used to assess psychological competitive ability as the dependent variable, and multiple regression analysis was conducted to analyze the effects of reappraisal and expressive suppression on psychological competitive ability. The results indicated that reappraisal had a positive effect on all 5 factors of the DIPCA.3. The participants were also classified into 3 clusters: the first cluster comprised players who had a strong tendency to use reappraisal, the second cluster comprised players who had a strong tendency to use expressive suppression, and the third cluster comprised players who did not use either of the emotion regulation strategies. Subsequently, one-way analysis of variance was conducted with each cluster as an independent variable and the DIPCA.3 as the dependent variable. The players who had a weak tendency to use both reappraisal and suppression had the lowest scores for 4 of the 5 factors. These findings indicate that athletes who use reappraisal or suppression as an emotion regulation strategy have better psychological competitive ability during competitive games.
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  • Tetsuya NAKAJIMA
    2021 Volume 66 Pages 573-590
    Published: 2021
    Released: September 01, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: July 10, 2021
     The present study aimed to clarify the establishment of Judo etiquette during the wartime and postwar periods. Nakamura (2011) discussed Japanese martial arts etiquette in modern Japan. In his work, however, he dealt largely with Kendo etiquette, and inadequately addressed the history of Judo, as well as overlooking the period of Allied occupation (1945–1952). This article focuses on the reformation of Judo etiquette in that period and clarifies its historical background.
     It was revealed that, first, the enactment of etiquette in August 1940 was intended to be a criticism of Taro Inaba, who was excommunicated at the Kodokan. Inaba had criticized the Kodokan and the Dai Nippon Butokukwai, stating that when a judoka stands and bows with shizen hontai (natural posture) it reflects disrespect to the emperor. During the war, with the increasing influence of State Shinto, Inaba’s claim could have undermined Judo’s social credibility. Therefore, the Kodokan and Butokukwai abolished shizen hontai and in its place instituted the posture of attention, the basic Shinto posture, and this was also followed by the military and adopted in middle school games; thus, the current system of courtesy was established during this period. Furthermore, the practice of sitting on tatami mats with the left knee and standing up with the right foot was adopted in 1943 to match the postures stipulated in State Shinto.
     The etiquette established during the war was modified during the Occupation, when bowing to feudal seniors and the kamidana were abolished. In addition, the choice of bowing posture, whether at attention or a natural posture, was left to the practitioners. In this way, it can be said that Judo etiquette was democratized.
     However, college students’ conduct during Judo bouts was disturbed after the Tokyo Olympics in 1964. Consequently, wartime etiquette was revived. However, the Kodokan did not disclose that its etiquette was influenced by State Shinto and the military. The official line was that the etiquette was based on principles of Judo such as seiryoku-zenyo (maximum use of energy) and jita kyoei (mutual welfare and benefit).
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Practical investigations
  • Focus on the development of basic striking actions
    Sotaro HONDA
    2021 Volume 66 Pages 47-61
    Published: 2021
    Released: February 06, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: November 21, 2020
     The present study analyzed and evaluated junior high school PE kendo classes designed to provide structured knowledge of basic striking actions and its application to development of skills with teacher support. The subjects were 89 first-year junior high school students (aged 12-13 years) who were learning kendo for the first time in a unit of 9 classes. Knowledge of basic striking actions on the principle that ‘all such actions can be performed with the same movements in a rhythmic manner’ and its application for development of skills through group practice were planned and conducted during the second to the fourth classes.
     Descriptive analysis of what the students kept in mind when practicing these basic striking actions as well as those in the skill test showed that they practiced on the basis of their structured knowledge and developed their skills regardless of gender. Analysis of the students’ evaluations of their learning achievement also revealed positive responses from most of the students. The present results suggest that the classes planned and practiced for this study can be effective for allowing kendo novices to develop both knowledge and skills of the basic striking actions.
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  • Tsuyoshi NAKAMURA
    2021 Volume 66 Pages 109-126
    Published: 2021
    Released: March 06, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: December 16, 2020
     Physical education teachers and sports instructors try to guide learners’ emergent activities in a better direction and share their kinaesthetic sensations in relation to their emergent activities. Therefore, research to clarify the essence of emergent activity is a domain in which instructors specialize. In addition, research to explore instructors’ attitudes and teaching practices may help to clarify the essential possibilities of emergent activities and provide valuable suggestions for teaching.
     In this study, the author’s teaching practice for the forward handspring mat exercise was addressed and reflective analysis was conducted to clarify the essential possibilities of the emergent activity of this technique.
     This study was conducted in a supplementary exercise class at a physical education university, targeting a female student in her third year at the time.
     The author’s instruction in the forward handspring was analyzed by comparing the modality change in the student’s kinaesthetic consciousness with reflective analysis of the transcendentalism of the practice. The modal variation of the student’s kinaesthetic consciousness was clarified by posing detailed questions.
     This approach revealed the following:
     -It is necessary to pay attention to the differentiation structure of the “bouncing reaction effect” in order to generate this effect in the student’s stepping foot.
     -The key point in maieutic prompting of the bouncing reaction effect of the stepping foot is the catching action effect as passive kinaesthetic intentionality hidden in the action.
     -In maieutic prompting of the bouncing reaction effect of the stepping foot, awareness of body function as an object becomes an obstacle.
     -When we teach students to correct the motion of the stepping foot using this technique, we need to take into account the modality change of kinaesthetic intentionality caused by the change in their pathos.
     -This modality change of kinaesthetic intentionality due to the change in pathos can be avoided by making learners aware of the rhythm of skipping if they have already learned to skip.
     These findings will serve as a valuable resource for teaching this technique.
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  • Ryosuke TSUDA, Koya SUZUKI, Kazuhiko SAITO, Kiyonobu KIGOSHI
    2021 Volume 66 Pages 139-152
    Published: 2021
    Released: March 06, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: December 26, 2020
     This study investigated the effects of a change in pitch area on the load characteristics of smallsided soccer games (4vs4 and 3vs3) as a regular curriculum activity for upper grade elementary school children, focusing on improvement in physical fitness.
     Sixteen children participated in 2 types of 4vs4 small-sided games with a change in pitch area: Game 1-1 “large pitch” (30m length × 20m width) and Game 1-2 “small pitch” (20m length×15m width). In addition, 12 children participated in 2 types of 3vs3 small-sided games: Game 2-1 “large pitch” (30m length ×20m width) and Game 2-2 “small pitch” (20m length×15m width).
     The ratio of the appearance time of each movement speed (low speed: 0-5.9 km/h, moderate to high speed: 6.0-23.0 km/h) and the total movement distance were measured using GNSS tracking technology (Fieldwiz, ASI). Questionnaires on technique and tactics, physical fitness and psychological aspects were then conducted after each game.
     The main results were as follows.
    1) The total movement distance during large pitch games was significantly greater than that of small pitch games (p <0.05).
    2) The ratio of the appearance time of moderate and high speed (6-23 km/h) during large pitch games was significantly greater than that of small pitch games (p <0.05).
    3) Over 80% of the subjects indicated a positive response in the questionnaire from the aspect of interest.
    4) There was a significantly positive correlation between the total movement distance and the total physical fitness score in 4vs4 games (p <0.05). However, no significant correlation was observed in 3vs3 games.
     These results suggest that small-sided soccer games with a change in pitch area might be useful for improvement of physical fitness, and that it would be possible even for children with different fitness levels to have equal opportunities for participating in 3vs3 games.
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  • Focus on journal articles (1988-2018) published by the German Handball Federation
    Saori NAKAYAMA, Hiroshi AIDA
    2021 Volume 66 Pages 153-170
    Published: 2021
    Released: March 11, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: December 16, 2020
     The aim of this study was to clarify the historical transition of U-10 athlete development in German handball. We performed a text mining analysis of articles on U-10 athlete development in the monthly journal “handballtraining” (1988-2018) and the quarterly journal “handballtraining JUNIOR” (2012-2018) published by the German Handball Federation. The historical transition of U-10 athlete development was divided into 5-year periods from 1988.
     The main results were as follows. For the first 5 years, the need for “children’s handball” was encouraged by presenting ideas for systematic and long-term development of game sense, and to recommend the use of balls suitable for children. The next central theme was encouraging children to learn offensive defenses by playing games and developing individual attack skills. Thereafter, a long-term athlete development system was established, and a mandatory game format was implemented. A recent central theme was proposed for development of individual attack skills through practices children could enjoy.
     It was inferred that the turning point of U-10 athlete development occurred in 2003 when the offensive defense became obligatory in games. One of the reasons for the obligatory adoption of defense formation may have been that the content and method of the training activities were not changed by coaches even when they provided seminars and practice drills to help realize the child-specific concept of handball.
     We conclude that for Japan, it is an urgent issue to work on a new U-10 format for athlete development in handball, providing a guiding philosophy for the development and training of players. In order to accomplish this, it might be advisable to change the game format, as was done in Germany, or to change the education of coaches, which might have been ineffective in Germany. These results suggest the need to develop a new policy and implement the necessary changes using one of the aforementioned methods.
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  • Koji MURASE, Shoko FURUTA
    2021 Volume 66 Pages 391-407
    Published: 2021
    Released: June 04, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 17, 2021
     Adaptation games lead to active participation by setting the optimal level of a game for all the players involved. Players can immerse themselves in the game by optimizing the difficulty of the game. By practicing this concept in sports, especially ball games, a scenario can be created where individuals differing in physical fitness can compete in the same way. With the introduction of adaptation games in physical education, the goal is not to win or lose, or to improve skills, but for all participants to enjoy the game. This reflects a symbiotic viewpoint described in the course of study (MEXT, 2017), and it can be said that adaptation games may include “differences” such as those in physical strength differences, gender, and the presence or absence of disabilities. The purpose of this study was to accumulate practical knowledge and to examine potential teaching methods for adaptation games by examining the type of learning perceived by students in physical education adaptation games at junior high school.
     This study practiced adaptation games in the second-year junior high school basketball unit, and analyzed the sentences on learning cards written by the students after classes and an interview with the teacher after the unit. The study involved quantitative analysis using KH Coder3 software.
     Co-occurrence network analysis confirmed 8 clusters before introduction of the adaptation (from the 2nd to 3rd lessons), 7 clusters at the time of introduction (4th lesson) and 6 clusters after introduction of the adaptation (from the 5th to 9th lessons). Prior to the introduction of adaptation, clusters often used words related to points of attention on shooting and other skills, such as “points,” “success,” and “course”. In the cluster after the introduction of adaptation, words such as “many”, “aggressive”, and “pass” were found. These are words related to increasing one’s shooting opportunities, changing opportunities for participation, and the like.
     The introduction of adaptation changed the opportunity to shoot, and to participate. In addition, individuals learned to enjoy the sensation of victory or defeat as a result of the adaptation. It can be said that the introduction of adaptation embraced “differences” and provided an opportunity to learn “coexistence”.
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  • Kensuke SUZUKI, Takeshi ASAI, Yusuke HIRASHIMA, Masao NAKAYAMA
    2021 Volume 66 Pages 261-275
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 29, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 04, 2021
     In soccer, as the number of goals determines victory or defeat, the top priority of soccer attacks is to score goals. In many competitions, more than 70% of goals are scored by shooting from within the penalty area (PA). Thus, entering the PA is an important factor in scoring goals to win games and advance in a tournament. However, as no previous research has analyzed in detail attacking play involving entry into the PA, players are unable to receive effective coaching. Focusing on the group stage of the 2014 FIFA World Cup, the present study compared attacking play into the PA between top-ranked teams that advanced (top teams) and lower-ranked teams that were defeated and did not advance (lower teams) in order to identify the characteristics and differences of the two groups. Samples were obtained from all 48 games played in the tournament at this stage. For statistical analysis, the unpaired t test and c2 test were used. No significant inter-group differences were found in the number of attacks or entering the PA and the number of shots, but the top teams had higher success rates in shooting and attacking, suggesting that they had excellent finishers or created better shooting situations. With regard to movements for receiving passes by players who entered the PA, the top teams showed a higher frequency of moving from the outside to the inside of the PA and receiving passes there, suggesting that their players received the ball as they moved toward the PA. Moreover, compared to the players of lower teams, they received passes inside the PA when no opposition defenders were in the attacking direction. These findings suggest that players of top teams evaded marking by opponents by receiving the ball while moving toward the PA. Furthermore, since top teams had higher scoring rates when their players dribbled into the PA, they likely had players more highly skilled in dribbling, thus resulting in goals.
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  • Takaaki NARA, Atsushi KIUCHI
    2021 Volume 66 Pages 515-531
    Published: 2021
    Released: August 11, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: June 22, 2021
     For promotion of life skill acquisition in university physical education courses taken as distribution requirements for liberal arts programs, the experience of “self-disclosure” has been receiving some attention (Shimamoto and Ishii, 2007). However, there has been limited information on the design of physical education classes focusing on self-disclosure, and the results thus obtained. The present study examined whether university physical education courses focusing on self-disclosure experiences (Nara and Kiuchi, 2020) lead to life skill acquisition among first-year university students. The study subjects included students taking softball classes as a first-year compulsory physical education course (n=137: 87 men and 50 women) at a national university in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The course was revised to focus on self-disclosure, and the effects were measured by comparing 3 groups before and after the course: a revised group (n=77: 57 men and 20 women), an unchanged group (n=23: 12 men and 11 women), and a control group (n=37: 18 men and 19 women). The revised and unchanged groups comprised students taking revised and unchanged versions of the course taught by the same instructor, while the control group comprised students taking standard softball courses without a focus on selfdisclosure, taught by different instructors. In-class self-disclosure scores were significantly higher (F(2, 134) = 5.46, p <0.01) for the revised group (13.13±2.20) than for the unchanged group (11.83±2.29) or the control group (11.92±2.11). Analysis of variance showed no group–time interaction for the life skills score. However, when the revised group was divided into 3 subgroups ranked by self-disclosure score and the subgroups compared, only in the subgroup ranking highest in self-disclosure showed significant improvement in life skills (F(2, 74) = 3.92, p <0.05). Analysis of variance performed after dividing the revised group into 3 subgroups based on initial life skill levels before taking the course revealed no group–time interaction. It was therefore concluded that (1) the revised course program significantly increased experiences of self-disclosure for the students enrolled, (2) students who experienced self-disclosure in the physical education course significantly increased their life skills regardless of their life skill level before taking the course, and (3) the revised course showed educational results in terms of not only psychosocial effect but also motor skill, physical strength, and health.
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  • Examination based on fundamental movements and physical activity
    Tetsuya OZAWA, Shoichi KANAZAWA, Kohei NAGANO, Kota ASAKAWA, Kazuhiko ...
    2021 Volume 66 Pages 533-549
    Published: 2021
    Released: August 18, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: May 28, 2021
     The first objective of this study was to develop a course unit plan for physical fitness in the lower grades of elementary school, in which traditional play as exemplified by exercises for physical fitness are used as teaching material to create various movements (Study I). The second objective was to conduct classes using traditional play as teaching material based on the course unit plan, in order to gain an understanding of the fundamental movements that appear and the amount of physical exercise during the class (Study II).
    Study I:
     A total of 163 traditional play physical activities were selected from prior studies and related publications. 22 elementary school third graders were examined for the fundamental movements included in 42 of the traditional play physical activities. The median number of such fundamental movements that appeared was 3 (minimum: 1, maximum: 8). From the survey results, traditional play physical activities were selected from among those that had no bias in their fundamental movements and had rules that could easily be changed and levels of difficulty that could easily be adjusted, and a course unit plan was developed taking into account the ease of class preparation by teachers.
    Study II:
     A total of 5 lessons based on the course unit plan were given to 23 elementary school second graders. The fundamental movements were measured using observational methods, and the number of steps was measured objectively using an accelerometer. The fundamental movements observed and the number of steps measured during the course unit were compared with the age-appropriate standards for motor skills. The results revealed the following:
    1) Of the 28 fundamental movements that were set, 25 were observed during the course unit.
    2) There was a high frequency of fundamental movements common to many of the traditional play physical activities.
    3) The mean number of steps in the physical education classes with diverse movements using traditional play physical activities as teaching materials for lower grades of elementary school was 2343.6±586.1.
    4) There were no differences in the number of steps in any of the classes between the higher-ranked and the lower-ranked children.
     These results suggest that from the perspective of fundamental movements and amount of physical exercise, creating various movements using traditional play physical activities as teaching materials may be satisfactory.
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Case studies
  • Interviews with teachers experienced in regional transition
    Kenryu AOYAGI
    2021 Volume 66 Pages 63-75
    Published: 2021
    Released: February 09, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: December 05, 2020
     In Japan, some elementary schools have an environment for extracurricular sports activities. However, due to the declining population and burdens on teachers, this arrangement has been difficult to sustain. As a result, some regions have transitioned from school-based extracurricular sports activities to community-based sports activities, and this trend is expected to eventually affect all regions. However, little has been clarified about the effect of regional transition of school-based extracurricular sports activities. The present study examined teachers’ recognition of changes associated with the transition of elementary school-based extracurricular sports activities to community-based junior sports clubs. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with 9 participants who had experienced regional transition as teachers. The interview topics included were: past sports implementation, pre-transition coaching status, coaching experience/thoughts/philosophy, present sports implementation status of children, and changes associated with regional transition. All interviews were transcribed verbatim. For qualitative analysis, the KJ method was used to conduct card making, grouping, type A modeling, and type B writing. As a result, 63 small categories were extracted and 5 large categories were created. These categories were as follows: 1) activity, 2) coaching and management, 3) teachers, 4) children, and 5) parents, each including both positive and negative changes. The “teachers” category was further classified into 4 subcategories: burden, educational opportunity, relationship with children, and relationship with parents. The relational model has shown that intense activity caused fatigue and lifestyle deterioration in children. Additionally, increasing the burden on parents resulted in a decrease of sports participation by children and a decrease of educational opportunities resulted in an increase of problems associated with pupil guidance and teacher burden. It is evident that teachers have recognized various changes related to activity, coaching and management, and also teachers, children and parents, and their inter-relationships. In particular, perceived negative changes due to regional transitions should be rectified. Simply transitioning school-based extracurricular sports activities to communitybased junior sports clubs will not be enough to resolve certain problems. It is important to follow management rules and allow cooperation among teachers, parents, and coaches to balance the sustainability of the sports environments available for children and their educational value. As the present case study targeted one region and evaluated only the perceptions of teachers, the suggestions offered are purely from a teacher’s viewpoint and restricted to full transitioning from elementary school-based extracurricular sports activities to community-based junior sports clubs.
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  • Focusing on student teachers’ comments during after-class discussions
    2021 Volume 66 Pages 591-606
    Published: 2021
    Released: September 07, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: July 09, 2021
     This study was conducted with 2 objectives: 1. To clarify the content of “reflective interactions” of student teachers during discussions for teaching practice. 2. To examine the factors that influence the statements resulting from “reflective interactions” by student teachers from different viewpoints between practitioner and observer.
     The research was conducted during teaching practice at B Junior High School attached to A University. The targeted lessons were 15 physical education classes conducted by student teachers during this period and 13 discussions held after those classes. The material for the research was comments made by the discussion participants after physical education classes conducted by trainees. In order to examine the student teachers’ reflective interactions based on these comments, the comments were classified into “utterance categories that represented practice”. Furthermore, for the practitioners, we focused on the “representation of problems” and “alternatives”, and for the observers we focused on the “alternatives” and inductively classified them.
     Two results were obtained: First, comments related to “representation of problems” and “alternatives” for practitioners were divided into the following 8 categories: “teaching act”, “class management”, “grasp of students”, “forgetting”, “invention of lesson composition”, “understanding of teaching materials”, “setting of places” and “response to visitors”. In addition, comments related to “alternatives” for observers were divided into the following 8 categories: “teaching act”, “class management”, “teaching materials / teaching materials”, “setting of teaching according to the actual situation of students”, “invention of lesson composition”, “setting of places” and “response to visitors”. Among them, the comments of the practitioners and observers were focused on the “teaching act” category.
     Second, the comments of the lecturers regarding the “representation of problem” and “alternatives” at the discussion were classified into “self-sending” and “sending by others”. Then, focusing on the items for which the number of comments related to “sending by others” exceeded that for “self-sending”, we examined as an example the exchange of opinions between trainees at the conference. As a result, it was suggested that the difference in the positions between the teacher and the observer made a difference to the degree of observation of students in the class, and that student teachers in different positions engaged in reflective interaction. At that time, the student teachers not only listened to the observer’s opinion and shared the facts of the observation, but also expressed his / her own thoughts on that opinion. This suggests that student teachers may have promoted “reflective interaction”.
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  • Assessment using the Design Fluency Test and the Advance Trail Making Test
    Takahiro MATSUTAKE
    2021 Volume 66 Pages 171-178
    Published: 2021
    Released: March 24, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: December 16, 2020
     The purpose of this study was to assess executive function (EF) in Japanese amateur soccer players using the Design Fluency Test (DFT) and Advance Trail Making Test (ATMT). The study participants included a high-performance group of collegiate soccer players who had previously won the all-Japan university championships (n = 12) and a low-performance group of collegiate soccer players who had never competed at national level or played in prefectural or regional competitions (n = 10). The participants responded to the DFT and the ATMT subtests of the Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS), which is a test battery for assessing different aspects of EF. The DFT is a standardized test that assesses working memory, inhibitory control, and cognitive flexibility, as well as creativity and planning, whereas parts A and B of the ATMT are used to assess attention-switching, working memory and visuomotor abilities. The results indicated that the high-performance group had a significantly higher DFT score. Moreover, a significant correlation was observed between the number of years of experience and the DFT score. These results indicated that creativity and planning in the highperformance group were superior to those in the low-performance group. However, there were no significant differences between the 2 groups in parts A and B of the ATMT. In addition, there was no correlation between the ATMT score and the number of years of experience. These findings have identified the basic DFT and ATMT parameters associated with assessment of central nervous system information in Japanese soccer players in the context of EF.
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  • Motonobu TAMURA, Kiyonao HASEGAWA
    2021 Volume 66 Pages 191-205
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 10, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: February 06, 2021
     The aim of this study was to gain basic knowledge of the stepwise method of instruction involving rudimentary balancing tasks on a Swiss ball (rolling in the decubitus position and balancing in a sitting position) for physical fitness in mid-grade elementary schoolchildren. The subjects were 15 Grade 3 students who received instruction in four-hour sessions. To examine the instruction method, pre- and post-instruction balance was measured, and falls during learning were analyzed. Overall trends of changes in the subjects’ movements were then clarified by considering typical cases. The results indicated an overall tendency for improvement in the subjects’ balancing ability through tasks in both the decubitus and sitting positions. Subjects in the decubitus position repeatedly fell during learning; it was noted that the experience of losing balance in various ways helped them acquire dynamic balancing ability, thus allowing them to change postures. In the sitting position, the subjects were able to proactively roll the ball, thereby confirming that these dynamic learning tasks helped them acquire static balancing ability, which allowed them to maintain the position. Furthermore, an examination of the falls during learning showed that no subject had fallen head first, which is considered dangerous. Overall, the study findings suggest that the stepwise method of instruction helps mid-grade schoolchildren safely perform balancing tasks using a Swiss ball, creating an environment that allows children to proactively carry out diverse balancing tasks that may help them develop better ability to balance on the Swiss ball.
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  • Primarily through an analysis of Sora Tabinikki
    Hironori TANIGAMA
    2021 Volume 66 Pages 607-622
    Published: 2021
    Released: September 15, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: August 13, 2021
     Matsuo Basho is considered to have been a hardy walker. The present study was conducted to examine Basho’s walking ability in detail, focusing on his travels in Okunohosomichi. Kawai Sora accompanied Basho on his trip, and this study drew upon Sora Tabinikki, which were notes left by Sora, as a basic historical document. The results obtained were as follows.
     1. Basho walked a total distance of 1728.1km, covering an average of 28.3km per day. The distance he walked in a day was mainly around 20–30km. On days when Basho walked for a longer distance, he walked up to 40–50km. However, a look at the distance walked indicates that Basho’s walking ability was inferior to that of an average traveler of the early modern period (an average male).
     2. Basho maintained a certain pace over the course of his journey. Each day, he walked at an average speed of 3–4km for about 5 to 8 hours. The upper limit of the distance walked was about 50km a day, but that was a typical distance for people of the early modern period.
     3. Records of a trip from Tohoku to Ise during the same period as Basho’s trip and records of a trip from Edo to Tohoku along a similar route 88 years after Basho’s trip were examined. The results indicated that the distance walked in a day during both of those trips far exceeded that walked in a day by Basho.
     4. Basho’s age (46 years) meant that he was an older traveler for the early modern period, but Basho walked at a certain pace from start to finish despite stifling heat, rainy weather, and changes in the lengths of days depending on the season.
     5. Basho encountered dangerous sites along the way. At times, he walked in dunes where he lost his footing in the sand, he looked nervously at mountain passes that were said to be impassible, and he traversed dangerous shorelines pounded by angry waves with the weather’s help.
     These findings indicate that Basho’s walking ability was inferior to that of average people of the early modern period in terms of distance, but it was not affected by the weather or season. Basho maintained a certain pace despite occasional dangers along the way. This is what distinguishes Basho’s walking ability.
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Current Trend
  • with the focus on cognitive readiness in high performance sport
    Takeshi KUKIDOME, Yoriko NOGUCHI, Eriko KATAGAMI, Jolan KEGELAERS, Pau ...
    2021 Volume 66 Pages 383-390
    Published: 2021
    Released: June 04, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 04, 2021
     In recent years, a number of international and national organizations have started to optimize their coach development programs to align with current trends and specific circumstances. In Japan, the Japan Sport Council (JSC) has acknowledged the importance of developing “intelligent” athletes with enhanced competency to self-regulate their analyses, reflections, and decision-making in order to improve their performance. The aim of the present study was to explore the concept of performance behaviour, as developed by TeamNL (NOCNSF, Olympic Committee of the Netherlands), integrating the development of athletes’ cognitive readiness as part of coaching in high performance sport, as a basis for the development of “intelligent” athletes and subsequently creating a possible legacy to Tokyo 2020 in the domain of coaching.
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Secondary publication
  • Masanori KAJI, Yuta ONO
    2021 Volume 66 Pages 1-11
    Published: 2021
    Released: January 30, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: November 14, 2020
     This study aimed to reveal the SA-PEC of elementary school students in Japan through the development of an ‘‘SA-PEC scale for elementary school students,’’ and to reveal the features of SA-PEC for different student grade levels and sex.
     As a result of the study, it was revealed that subjective adjustment toward PE classes was comprised of 6 factors, with a total of 17 items of ‘‘feeling of acceptance and trust’’, ‘‘existence of task and purpose’’, ‘‘feeling of growth’’, ‘‘presence of peers’’, ‘‘self-expression’’, and ‘‘affinity toward PE classes’’. Next, examinations in differences between school grades showed that scores were significantly higher among sixth graders than the fifth graders in the factors of ‘‘existence of task and purpose’’, ‘‘feeling of growth’’, ‘‘presence of peers’’, and ‘‘affinity toward PE classes’’. Furthermore, an examination into sex difference showed that scores were significantly higher among boys than girls in the factors of ‘‘feeling of acceptance and trust’’, ‘‘existence of task and purpose’’, ‘‘feeling of growth’’, ‘‘self-expression’’, and ‘‘affinity toward PE classes’’. From this, the P.E. subjective adjustment scale is believed to reflect the extent to which the students have been able to internalize the PE course’s objectives.
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