The present study had 3 objectives. First, we aimed to categorize the effectiveness of participation in school athletic clubs in accordance with findings from preceding studies (study 1). Second, studies on the effectiveness of athletic club activities were to be organized by generation with the changes observed in each generation also described with a view towards clarifying research tasks (study 2). Third, we aimed to clarify the effectiveness of athletic club activities that had not yet been demonstrated in previous research (study 3).
In study 1, when we categorized the effectiveness of athletic club activities, we confirmed the construct, the subscale, and the observable variable that determined effectiveness in each study. Each concept was grouped based on similarity and made types having higher degree. The categories we derived were "school adjustment"; "scholastic ability"; "character"; "stress and mental health"; "psychosocial development"; "physical growth and development"; "sport as a habit"; "attitude towards sports"; "fatigue"; "lifestyle"; and "others".
In study 2, when we investigated the transition of studies on the effectiveness of athletic club activities, we focused on the problem establishment in these studies. This was considered while examining the association between each problem establishment and social background or policies of the day. As a result, at first, researchers continued selecting students who participated in athletic clubs as appropriate subjects for examining the effectiveness of physical exercise or sports activity. Second, researchers are also interested in the negative effectiveness of participation in athletic clubs. Positive trends are particularly strong for "school adjustment" and "stress and mental health" studies conducted after 1998. Third, studies that demonstrated significance or effectiveness of athletic club activities increased after 1983, and the effectiveness that were determined diversified since that time. Researchers found out various significance and effectiveness of athletic club activities, and recognition of the potential for athletic club activities to address issues also increased. It can be said that we researchers don’t reach a common understanding on the significance and effectiveness of athletic club activities.
In study 3, we brought attention to the effectiveness of athletic club activities that had been overlooked in previous studies by comparing effectiveness as determined in empirical studies how it had been determined in theoretical studies. Unnoticed effectiveness of athletic club activities was the acquisition of abilities and attributes necessary for developing sports society and culture.
The purpose of this study was to investigate, using path analysis, causal relationships among motion factors for achieving a high release velocity in the male discus throw. The throwing motions of 61 male discus throwers were analyzed using three-dimensional motion analysis. Variables such as release velocity, velocities gained by each body segment, body segment velocity, body angle and angular velocity were obtained. The path model indicating the causal relationships among these factors was constructed by path analysis.
The main results were as follows:
Influences of velocities gained by each body segment on release velocity were largest for the arm, followed in order by the trunk and legs.
Motion factors such as weight shift, acquisition of the velocity of the center of gravity, sweeping the legs, rotations of the hip and shoulder, twisting and untwisting of the trunk, acquisition of the velocity of the right knee and extension of the left knee had direct or indirect influences on the velocities gained by each body segment.
Motion factors in the path model revealed causal relationships along the time sequence of the throwing motion. In addition, the path model in this study indicated the cause and effect structure of the throwing motion by which Japanese male discus throwers were able to achieve a high release velocity. The results of this study can be utilized for technical coaching of the discus throw based on causal relationships.
This study examined the flow of energy in the right and left upper limbs of skilled baseball batters during the forward swing motion at different bat head speeds to obtain basic insights that would be useful for batting coaching. The subjects were 23 college baseball outfielders in university teams. The subjects were instructed to hit a ball toward the pitcher from a tee set at a mid-height position. Measurements were taken using 47 points on each subject’s body and 6 points on the bat for a total of 53 points, onto which reflective markers were attached. The 3D coordinates of each marker were measured using a 3D optical motion capture device (Vicon Motion Systems’ VICONMX, 12 cameras, 250 Hz). The variables in the kinetics of each hand were measured using a force detection sensor bat (1000 Hz). The subjects were separated into a faster group of 36.8±0.8 m/s and a slower group of 34.7±1.1 m/s for analysis. In terms of energy transmission, the data revealed that the faster group, in addition to showing additional torque on the knob side shoulder joints, were able to transmit more mechanical energy from the knob side shoulder joints to the end of the upper limbs than the slower group, and that this might be related to an efficient bat head speed. In addition, the faster group showed an increased positive torque power, and transmitted greater mechanical energy to the bat from the hand region. In other words, to prevent mechanical energy from being absorbed while adjusting the bat trajectory near the time of impact, skilled bat control involving movement of the hand joints appeared to determine the bat head speed.
The purpose of the present study was to determine differences in the grading abilities of the vertical jump between 2 different conditions. For this purpose, we evaluated grading abilities in a vertical jump with preferred timing (preferred condition) and a combination task involving simple reaction and vertical jump tests (quick condition). Fourteen healthy college students participated in the experiment. The participants were instructed to perform a vertical jump to 4 target levels, which were 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of the maximum jump height, in each condition. The results showed that both jump height and relative jump height (%max) under each condition were shorter/lower under the quick condition than under the preferred condition. Correlation analysis demonstrated a significant correlation between the jump height and the maximum flexion angle of the knee, and the hip joint under both conditions. There was a significant correlation between jump height and maximum dorsal flexion angle of the ankle under the quick condition, but not under the preferred condition. From these results, it was suggested that combining a simple reaction task with a grading task might alter the behavioral properties during the grading task, as well as the relationship between subjective effort and jump height.
An individual’s anaerobic capacity is evaluated in terms of the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit in the supramaximal test. The present study was conducted to validate the method used for evaluation of anaerobic capacity using an index calculated from the aerobic test (a submaximal test conducted 5 or 6 times in 3-minute stages and a maximal test of 4-6 minutes). Seventeen well-trained Japanese middle- and long-distance runners including elite athletes participated in the aerobic test on one day and in the supramaximal test of 2-4 minutes on another day. The mean accumulated oxygen deficit in the maximal test was 30.6 ± 10.0 mlO2/kg, and the mean maximal accumulated oxygen deficit in the supramaximal test was 55.7 ± 16.1 mlO2/kg. There was a significant positive relationship between accumulated oxygen deficit and the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (r=0.82, p<0.001). A stronger positive relationship between the above 2 parameters was evident in 10 middle distance runners (r=0.94, p<0.001). These results suggest that maximal accumulated oxygen deficit can be evaluated in terms of the accumulated oxygen deficit in the maximal test.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of wind drag and the importance of reducing wind drag while traveling over flat ground or down a slope in the wheelchair marathon. Three wheelchair athletes were measured for FD (wind drag) while moving themselves in a wheelchair in a wind tunnel, and SD (drag area) was calculated from FD. The athletes took 4 positions (Position 1: inclining the trunk and gripping the handlebar, Position 2: inclining the trunk and reaching the arm backward, Position 3: raising the trunk and gripping the top dead point of the hand rim, Position 4: inclining the trunk and the bottom dead point of the hand rim) for the measurement, and the relationships between posture and SD were investigated. Calculated SD was used for estimation of differences in the required power according to the changes in velocity and simulation of driving on a down slope.
Position 1 had the smallest SD (0.155 ± 0.010 m2) and Position 3 had the largest (0.320 ± 0.021 m2). As Position 3 also had largest sitting height and trunk incline angle, it was considered that the raised trunk posture was subject to wind drag because of the increased forward projection area. Using SD and PT (total power required to maintain a certain velocity), PD (power required to overcome FD when driving at a certain velocity) was estimated. It was clarified that when athletes drive at a velocity faster than the win time of the wheelchair marathon men’s T54 in the Paralympic Games, PT was at least 145.2 W and PD accounted for at least 60% of PT. Thus, the simulation of driving on the down slope (gradient: 2.5% distance: 200 m and initial velocity: 8.27 m/s) revealed that Position 1 reached 9.00 m/s and Position 4 reached 8.15 m/s at the end of the slope. When Position 1 reached the end of the slope, Position 4 was located 11 m behind Position 1. Therefore, Position 1 is more advantageous than Position 4 in terms of both velocity and distance.
One of the important roles of a baseball catcher is to check whether an opponent is trying to steal a base. This checking action must occur as part of other events: a quick throwing action (short operation time), a high ball speed (short duration of ball flight), and accurate tagging (the time from the fielder catching the ball to touching the opponent runner is short). In other words, in order for the catcher to check whether an opponent is trying to steal a base, it is necessary to shorten the time between catching the ball and when the fielder touches the opponent runner. However, the relationship between the time and the possibility of checking for an attempt to steal a base and the influence of each phase on the steal check rate have not been examined. The present study investigated the relationship between the time required to prevent a steal and the steal check rate of a baseball catcher using video recordings. The video recordings used for our analysis were videos of steal check successes and failures in exhibition and official university and amateur baseball games, with a focus on runners attempting to steal second base. We classified Motion Time as the period from catching the initial pitch to ball release, Ball Time as the period from ball release to ball arrival at second base, and Touch Time as the period from ball arrival at second base to the fielder touching the runner; the sum of these 3 phases was defined as All Time, and the sum of Motion Time and Ball Time was defined as Pop Time. We constructed 3 models in which the success or failure of the steal check was set as a target variable and each phase time as an explanatory variable, and performed logistic regression analysis on each model. As a result, we clarified that the baseball catcher could check for a steal if the All Time was less than 2.429 s, and there was a significant negative correlation between the steal check rate and All Time. In addition, among the three phases, Touch Time had the greatest effect on the steal check rate. Therefore, it was suggested that accurate throwing is the most important factor in preventing a steal to second base.
In sprint running, stance time and flight time influence running speed. This study investigated the relationship between flight ratio (= flight time/stance time) and the upper limbs and recovery leg during the top speed phase in sprinting. Sixteen male sprinters (age 19.3±0.6 y, height 1.74±0.06 m, weight 66.1±5.2 kg) performed maximum-effort 60-m sprints. Video data from the 43.5 to 50 m section of the sprint were collected using a high-speed camera (300 Hz). Flight ratio and vertical acceleration force of the upper limbs relative to the sternum and recovery leg relative to the hip were calculated. The data revealed a significant positive correlation between flight ratio and the relative vertical acceleration force of the forward arm, backward arm, and recovery leg at the instant of touchdown (r =.597, .546, .592). The maximum value of the relative vertical acceleration force of the forward arm, backward arm, and recovery leg during the stance phase was not associated with the flight ratio. In contrast, early appearance of the maximum value of the vertical relative acceleration force of the forward arm, backward arm, and recovery leg during the stance phase was associated with a high flight ratio (r = -.553, -.644, -.855). Multiple regression analysis revealed that the high angular velocity and low extension acceleration of the arms and recovery leg at touchdown made a significant contribution to high relative vertical acceleration. In conclusion, rapid swinging and high shortening acceleration of the arms and recovery leg can contribute to a high flight ratio by facilitating a high relative vertical acceleration force.
Focusing on the theory of the “principle of ju” that generates movements and techniques reflecting the proverb “softness overcomes hardness: ju yoku go wo seisu”, we discuss the relationship between the movement of modern judo practitioners and its sportization, in order to grasp the current situation of judo in Japan. It was found that there are 3 levels among contemporary Japanese judo practitioners: (1) those who practice judo in the context of a competitive sport while being aware of the tradition, (2) those who practice judo purely as a competitive sport, and (3) those who practice the traditional skills of a martial art. It is widely recognized that those at level (1) tend to neglect, whereas those at level (3) tend to emphasize the arts of judo. Also, older judo practitioners tend to emphasize the proverb “softness overcomes hardness”, but this is unrelated to the length of time spent training and the dan level of the practitioner. Many present day judo practitioners regard judo as a competitive sport, suggesting that – in terms of movement – Japan’s judo tradition being lost. On the other hand, however, it has also become clear that those who love judo and practice it with an attitude not obsessed with victory or defeat or of improving their skills, attach great importance to “softness overcomes hardness”. In order for judo to continue to remain a “physical exercise culture proclaiming the place of traditional Japan in a global world”, it can be suggested that the challenge lies in the rebuilding of the interaction with judo as a martial art that aims for “development of skills” with a loving attitude that differs from competition, while ensuring that some aspects remain competitive.
The present study was conducted to develop a Japanese version of the sport imagery ability questionnaire (SIAQ) and examine the features that determine imaging ability depending on the athlete’s competition level and competitive characteristics. In study 1, a questionnaire survey was conducted using the collective survey method. The subjects belonged to an athletic club at University A (N=196). Content validity was confirmed using the Content Validity Index, and factor analysis revealed a four-factor structure (subscale): skill imagery, strategy imagery, goal imagery, and mastery imagery. Furthermore, the results confirmed the reliability of using Cronbach’s α-coefficient. In study 2, a questionnaire survey was conducted in July 2017 using the collective survey method. The subjects were students of Physical Education University A (N=609). In order to confirm the test-retest reliability, a retest was carried out 2 weeks later. The results showed that athletes at a higher competitive level found it significantly easier to generate skill imagery, goal imagery, and sport imagery, and that skill imagery, goal imagery, mastery imagery and sport imagery reflected the competitive characteristics of the subjects. In addition, the test-retest reliability of the Japanese version of the SIAQ was confirmed. The Japanese version of the SIAQ developed in the present study will be useful for future research on imagery and image training in sports fields.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinematic characteristics of the lower limbs in relation to the rotation movement of the body based on the moment of the ground reaction force. Twenty-two male collegiate baseball players (age: 19.8 ± 1.3 yr, height 1.75 ± 0.04 m, body mass 73.9 ± 6.2 kg, athletic career:12.1 ± 2.1 yr) participated. They performed baseball tee-batting, set at middle ball height for the strike zone. Threedimensional coordinate data were acquired with a motion capture system (Vicon-MX), and ground reaction force data for both legs were acquired with 3 force platforms. High and low groups (HG and LG) were categorized by the mean peak moment around the vertical axis of the body’s center of gravity caused by the ground reaction force. The period analyzed was that from stride-side foot contact with ground until ball impact, and 2 phases were defined as follows: backward phase, stride-side foot contact with ground until the peak moment of the ground reaction force; forward phase, the end of the backward phase until ball impact. Statistical analysis was conducted using an independent t-test between HG and LG (p <0.05), and the effect size was calculated (small: d = 0.2; middle: d = 0.5; high: d = 0.8). In the backward phase, the flexion angle of both hips was greater in the HG than in the LG at event1 (pivot-side: d = 0.74; stride-side: d =0.97). The abduction angle of the pivot-side hip was significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (stride-side foot contact with ground: d = 0.94; peak moment of the ground reaction force: d = 1.44). In the forward phase, the external rotation angle of the pivot-side hip was significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (d = 1.02), which contributed to the inter-group difference in the internal rotation angle at the instant of stride-side foot contact. These results indicate that the motions of both hip joints acted to rotate the whole body around the vertical axis effectively. The knowledge obtained from this study should provide useful suggestions and insights into coaching for movements of the lower limbs in order to improve batting performance in relation to the rotational movement of the body.
This study investigated the human network that was formed through relationships between community sports clubs (CSC) and information network support NPOs (NPO) for formation of social capital, focusing on the relationships that enabled NPOs of CSCs to receive donations from CSCs across Japan after the Great East Japan Earthquake. The study analyzed 45 CSCs that had made donations to NPOs, which had conducted support projects for earthquake-stricken CSCs over a two-year period from April 2011 to March 2013. For this analysis, the period of about 13 years from 1998, when the NPOs were established, to 2011, when the earthquake occurred, was divided into 3 phases, and the requirements for social capital formed in each phase were analyzed. The following 4 concepts were used as the frame of analysis: double contingency, a key concept in Niklas Luhmann’s theory of social systems; Robert D. Putnam’s bridging social capital; and Misumi’s cognitive base and net base.
The following features were found: (1) Social capital shared the philosophy of CSCs, which was published by sport administrative agencies and the Japan Sport Association (JASA), with CSCs as a cognitive base obtained through the internet tools of NPOs; (2) The relationships between NPOs and CSCs constituted a double contingency, namely a network of uncertainty where one party cannot anticipate the behavior of the other party; (3) Individual relationships between similar CSCs constituted a net base for the connection (same type) network; and (4) the CSC, which had played a central role in the bridging network that connected the various CSCs, formed bridging social capital. Thus, NPOs that used internet tools formed the requirements for social capital through the aforementioned 4 processes.
In table tennis rallies between elite players, rapid swing movements must be achieved in a posture that is difficult to maintain while maintaining body agility. Players are required to have both a high racket speed and quick swing ability. On the other hand, a large movable range during a back swing may be disadvantageous for realizing a rapid, high-speed swing. Against this background, we sought to investigate the shoulder and torso joint movement characteristics of elite table tennis players when performing topspin forehands with 3 types of body movement, and to clarify the relationship between the maximum range of motion and swing skill. Ten male elite players participated in this experiment. Each performed 3 types of stroke trial (chance ball task, step over task, and step around task) and the active ranges of motion in the shoulder and torso joints (ROM trial) were measured. The three-dimensional coordinates of body landmarks (thorax, pelvis, and dominant humerus) and the racket during measurement were acquired using an optical motion capture system. The relationship between the maximum backward rotation angle at the shoulder and torso joint, the racket speed at ball impact, and the start time of the forward swing in each segment or joint were investigated. There was no significant difference in the maximum horizontal abduction angle at the shoulder joint between ROM trial and stroke trial (p > 0.2). Maximum torso backward rotation angle in ROM trial was significantly larger than that in the stroke trial (p < 0.05). In ROM trial and each stroke trial, the anatomical and functional flexibility of the shoulder and torso joints did not positively affect the racket speed and swing time. Rather, performance tended to be better during smaller backswings. Therefore, table tennis players require muscle strength or a technique that increases joint stiffness during racket swings.
From 1940 to 1944, Paris was occupied by the German army. The “Vichy” government began to reform sports activities for French citizens, and under the new Vichy policy, many sports saw an expansion of popularity. The expansion of judo in France during this period was particularly dramatic. This article examines how judo was practiced in German-occupied Paris, and how it acquired the status of a sport in France, with reference to the activities of the Jiu-Jitsu Club de France and its historical context in Paris at that time.
In occupied Paris, the Jiu-Jitsu Club and its judoka, especially Paul Bonét-Maury, president of the club, and Mikinosuke Kawaishi, who provided technical guidance, promoted judo as a sport. In the first half of the Occupation, the club held low-key public demonstrations. Also, practitioners in clubs were trained on the basis of teaching methods devised by Kawaishi, which included aspects such as the color belt system, and the establishment of expensive membership fees despite the Occupation situation. As a result, many intellectual professionals and industrial capitalists with economic resources played a principal role as judoka. Furthermore, by encouraging students to open new clubs, the number of judoka practicing Kawaishi judo increased. These factors remained characteristic of French judo after the Second World War.
In the latter half of the Occupation Period, the Jiu-Jitsu Club de France joined the French Wrestling Federation, so that judo became better known publicly, and in late May 1943, the First French Judo Championship was held. The Championship was held continuously in subsequent years, and received recognition of being “worthy to be aligned with other sports”.
The German army was not directly involved with judo in Paris, but the fact that the Jiu-Jitsu Club de France expanded its activities while adapting to the circumstances of the Occupation encouraged the official recognition of judo in Paris.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the effectiveness of regular, vigorous physical activity on the performance of rhythm-synchronized stepping exercises in individuals with hearing loss. The study involved 58 male participants aged between 20 and 24 years; 23 of them (exercise group 15, general group 8) had hearing loss and 35 (exercise group 24, general group 11) did not. Alternating left and right steps, at a rate of 120/minute, were performed in the absence of cues, or in the presence of visual and visual/auditory cues. The results suggested that exercise group with hearing loss can perform simple, repetitive exercises more accurately than general group with hearing loss when visual cues are presented.
The exercise elements included in the sport of artistic gymnastics never remain constant, and continue to transform with the times. For an adequate understanding of today’s exercise elements and techniques, it is essential to recognize the historical and sociocultural premises that have affected their evolution. However, research on the historical development of gymnastic techniques has received little attention over the last 40 years. As a result, we are facing a situation where the historical link between exercise elements and the background factors affecting their evolution has become poorly defined.
The present research focused on the evolution of the salto in the men’s floor exercise during the 1970s to 1980s, in order to achieve a basic understanding of today’s exercise elements and techniques, and to anticipate future developments by studying the factors determining the development of the exercise elements in accordance with the changes made to the code of points and apparatuses.
This study clarified the following points.
1. It was possible to systematically organize the history of salto development, which had hitherto remained unclear.
2. From the 1970s to 1980s, notable developments primarily in the double backward salto were seen, and it became clear that these developments had been significantly impacted by the effects of awarding “bonus points for risk and originality”, together with improvements in the elasticity of the gymnastics floor.
3. Accordingly, it became clear that changes to the “techniques of exercise elements” such as cross-techniques for the double backward salto and the acceleration speed from round off to the back handspring were also affected by the above factors.
4. It became clear that a problem was emerging with the systematic positioning of the backward jump with the 3/2 salto tucked and 3/2 twist, an element developed from the forward salto using the “twist” technique.
This research will aid the proper evaluation of today’s floor exercise elements and techniques and the retention of exercise elements and techniques that will be developed in the future, serving as a guideline for efficient coaching at actual training sites.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the ability of young children to control their grip strength by comparing the characteristics of force generation and relaxation. First, participants were instructed to grip as strongly as they could (maximum task), and then to adjust to their self-perceived half strength (half generation task). They were then asked to adjust to their self-perceived half strength from maximum voluntary strength (half relaxation task). Participants’ force levels were recorded. In both the half generation and half relaxation tasks, there was no significant difference between boys and girls, and force levels undershot the target level. Moreover, there was no relationship between the force levels for half generation and that for half relaxation. It is concluded that the accuracy of adjustment to half grip strength after relaxation is lower than that for generation in 5-year-old children.
Heart rate (HR) monitoring, which reflects exercise intensity and environmental factors, is often used for pacing strategies in the marathon race. However, it is difficult to obtain appropriate feedback for only the HR value since cardiovascular drift (CV drift) occurs during prolonged exercise. Recently, cardiac cost (CC: HR divided by running velocity) has been shown to be a potential index for evaluation of CV drift during the marathon race. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between CV drift and performance in the marathon race. Fourteen male university student runners participated. They carried out incremental tests on a treadmill and took part in an actual marathon race. CV drift was evaluated from differences between CC in the 0-5-km section and over every 5-km section (ΔCC). The marathon performance was examined from two viewpoints: absolute performance (average running velocity during the race: Vmar), and relative performance (Vmar against velocity corresponding to ventilatory threshold: vVT achv.). Significant correlations were found between ΔCC and vVT achv. in the 25-30 km, 30-35 km and 35-40 km sections (r = −0.672, −0.671 and −0.661, respectively), suggesting that excessive CV drift had a negative impact on relative performance. We can therefore conclude that suppression of CV drift after 25 km is an important factor for improvement of relative performance.
Cross-country skiers perform over a long distance using poles and skis. Physical fitness, in terms of factors such as VO2max and muscle strength, skiing technique and race strategy are important for winning competitions. To plan the race strategy, investigations of the course profile and race analysis are needed. The purposes of this study were to investigate cross-country skiing course profiles which were planned for the Winter Olympic Games at Peyongchang, and to analyze the men’s 15km+15km World Cup skiathlon race (SA) as a pre-competition event. A cross-country skier followed the classical and skating courses using a GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) antenna. The antenna instantly measured the latitude, longitude and height of the skier on the courses. The coordinate values on a plane were calculated from latitude and longitude, after the inclination was then calculated from the coordinate values and height every 10 m. The overall finish time and transit time at 24 points for 12 skiers in SA were retrieved from the Official Home Page of the International Ski Federation (FIS), and the segment times among the various points were calculated. Three segment times formed a lap, and each segment speed was calculated by dividing the segment distance by the segment time. For the classical course profile, the distance was 3819 m and the maximum inclination was 18.6%. In contrast, for the skating course, the distance was 3777 m and the maximum inclination was 20.6%. No correlation was found between the overall finish time and the segment times for the classical course. This result was attributable to small variations in the lap times for the classical course because of the skiers’ use strategy, checking among competitors, and the mass-start. On the other hand, positive correlations were found between the overall finish time and the segment times on skating. In skating, the segment speeds from the final phase of the 2nd lap to the middle phase of the 3rd lap indicated deceleration relative to the 1st lap. These results suggest that gliding on a skating course in a short time is important for shortening the overall finish-time. Especially, it is important to minimize the deceleration of the 2nd and 3rd lap segment speed. The race pattern for the Olympic Games was similar to that of pre-competition, except for the time taken. These results indicate that pre-competition race analysis is useful for devising a strategy for target competition.
This study was performed to devise an instructional program for children who were not good at sprinting and to verify the program’s effectiveness for improvement of sprinting ability and motion.
The participants were 19 upper grade elementary school children who were not good at sprinting. The program included 2 drills with some teaching devices and running on flat markers. The children attended the program for 8 days (2 days per week) and each lesson lasted an hour. In order to validate the program outcome, sprint time (50 m), interval speed (every 10 m), average speed, maximal speed, rate of speed decline, interval and average step frequency and step length were analyzed, and sprint motions were evaluated. The results were as follows:
1) Most of the children’s 50 m times were below the national average. This suggested that their negative feelings toward sprinting resulted from the realization that they were unable to run as fast as other children.
2) The children’s sprint times were improved after the program, and a significant correlation between pre-time and post-pre time was revealed. It was also found that the greater the increase in the children’s step frequency, the faster their sprint times became. These results suggest that sprinting instruction allows low-performing children to increase their step frequency and improve their sprint times.
3) The main aim of the program was to improve children’s sprint motions in the mid sprint phase, and the participants practiced start motions only twice during the program. As a result, speeds from the start to 10 m, 20-50 m, and maximum speed were increased significantly by this practice, suggesting that significant changes of speed led to improvement of the sprint times.
4) Participants became able to swing back their leg under their body and to make contact with the ground with the middle or front of the foot. Therefore it was considered that the drills and running on flat markers with teaching devices were valuable for improving the children’s sprint motions.
5) Although the scissors-like leg motion was not improved by practice with a color board and bells, the kneefolding motion of the swing leg did appear to be improved. Therefore, the children seemed to acquire basic skill in more rapid scissors-like leg motion.
These results suggest that our instructional program was effective in enabling children to improve their sprinting ability and motion. However, additional research focusing on aspects such as the relationship between sprinting ability and sprint motion, or individual feelings and motor competency in the context of sprinting, will be needed.
This study aimed to clarify the philosophy of children’s handball coaches in Japan and Germany in terms of individual player development, content and methods of training, and game performance. In addition, we compared player development and enhancement between top children’s handball teams from Japan (“Hokuden”: coach, Mr. Tanaka) and Germany (“Leipzig”: coach, Mr. Andrä) by interviewing the coaches and analyzing the teams’ game performances.
The main results were as follows: 1) While the philosophy of “individual player development” was to let young players acquire basic skills in handball for both Hokuden and Leipzig, differences were found between Mr. Tanaka’s and Mr. Andrä’s approaches, in that mastering skills was important for Mr. Tanaka, whereas gaining a variety of experiences was important for Mr. Andrä. 2) No significant differences were found in the effectiveness of positional attacks (total goals divided by the total number of attacks in a match), effectiveness of shots (total goals divided by the total number of shots in a match), and percentage of technical errors (total technical errors divided by the total number of attacks in a match), suggesting that there are no characteristic outcomes, even though they play under different rules. 3) In Hokuden, individual roles were divided according to each phase of organized attack and defense, and each player tried to fulfill a role as a part the team, whereas in Leipzig, players tried to solve issues in order to score a goal through the entire phase of organized attack and defense by themselves, suggesting that both coaches focused on “individual player development” but with different target images.
The purpose of this research is to consider ways to encourage critical thinking in Philosophy of Physical Education and Sports classes. Introductory classes for students specializing in sports education were observed. Students reviewed a specific example in which a batter was given an intentional walk five consecutive times and they aimed to consider the case critically.
Right after watching the case on screen, students noted whether they agreed with such a practice or not. Then, 3 points were explained and students noted their opinion again.
The 3 points were;
(1) position of activities of sports clubs
(2) regarding it as a competitive sport
(3) regarding it as part of education (Physical Education)
In 4 years, 8 classes were held and 1,020 students participated in them. 118 of them (11.5%) changed their opinion after listening to the explanation. It must prove that those students were able to analyse even their own initial judgement critically and perceive it differently.
Furthermore, the following became clear from comments written after the classes:
By watching and using a specific example on screen, there is a possibility to eliminate/reduce negative images some people hold towards sports(P.E.) philosophy or philosophy. It also increases the possibility to engage students positively by introducing active learning of actually thinking and writing down their opinions.
The purposes of this study were to examine the functions of thought during a sport task performance from the perspectives of objective recognition by researchers and subjective recognition by the participants themselves. Participants (n=30) were assigned to two different incentive presentation conditions (acquisition or loss according to achievement of the task) and were required to complete a dart throwing task while stating their thoughts aloud while executing it. A protocol analysis of the utterances revealed the following 10 thought categories: internal focus, external focus, psychological self-control, cognition of anxiety and tension, positive self-evaluation or emotion, negative self-evaluation or emotion, irrelevant thought, active attitude, passive attitude, and performance analysis. Six participants who completed the experimental task were interviewed and the data were examined using Personal Attitude Construct (PAC) analysis. In the interview, participants were required to generate the original thought categories from their own protocol and to interpret the thought contents and functions in the performance. Furthermore, cluster analysis with a similarity distance matrix of the generated thought categories revealed the overall structure of thought in each individual. These results showed that recognition of the contents and functions of thought during performance of a sport differed between the researchers and the participants. According to this, for example, even though thought is generally considered as negative thinking, depending on the individuals involved in the task, it could be recognized as positive thinking. The results of this study suggested that, to understand the function of thought during a sports performance, it is necessary to understand the context in which an individual is placed and to base the interpretation on the meaning and experience for the individual.
In order to provide effective career education support for university athletes, it is necessary to accumulate fundamental knowledge about their acquisition of life skills. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the influence of life skills on career maturity as a judo player in university student judo players.
In June 2016, a survey of 510 university judo players (male: 408, female: 102, mean age: 19.70 ± 1.28years, mean period of experience: 12.37 ± 5.70years) was conducted using the Appraisal Scale of Required Life Skills for College Student Athletes (Shimamoto et al., 2013). This scale evaluates the life skills required by athletes using 10 dimensions (stress management, setting goals, thinking carefully, appreciating others, communicating, maintaining etiquette and manners, always making one’s best effort, taking responsibility for one’s own behavior, being humble, and maintaining physical health and well-being). In addition, the Life Career Maturity Scale (Sakayanagi, 1999) was used to evaluate the students’ life career interest, autonomy, and planning ability. An analysis focusing on the students’ sex and the presence or absence of experienced registration of certified athletes in the All Japan Judo Federation was also conducted.
First, factor analysis was conducted to classify the life skills into 4 aspects “self-control skills”, “goal achievement skills”, “communication skills”, and “problem solving skills” and it was shown that reliability and validity were generally satisfactory.
Next, the influence of life skills on the 4 aspects on carrier maturity was examined by structural equation modeling. This showed that goal achievement skills had a significant positive influence on both male and female career maturity. Similarly, self-control skills and goal achievement skills had a significant positive influence on career maturity in common with the presence or absence of having been registered as a certified athlete in the All Japan Judo Federation. Based on the above results, it was suggested that acquisition of self-control skills and goal achievement skills is necessary to raise the level of career maturity in university student judo players.
Therefore, it is considered important to offer educational support for university students judo players using acquisition of both these skills.
The purpose of this study was to extract current issues associated with the understanding of tackling techniques taught by college football coaches in Japan. The goal was to acquire fundamental information for a coaching method that would promote safe and effective tackling techniques. A total of 99 college football coaches from Japan (mean age 36.7±0.5 years) took part in the study. A questionnaire was conducted in order to understand key points that were considered important in their coaching methods. The results and observations can be summarized as follows.
1. Tackling techniques taught by football coaches in Japan often lead to concussions. This is due to coaching methods that focus heavily on tackling techniques with high concussion risks, and placing no importance on HUT-based tackling. In addition, their understanding of the “Hit” phase and “HUT” varies, leading to a greater possibility of teaching tackling with a high risk of concussion.
2. Regardless of factors such as age, the position taken as an active player, the instructor’s income, and coaching qualifications, coaches who do not have much player or coach experience have an increased tendency to teach tackling techniques associated with high risks of concussion and injury.
3. In order to prevent concussions and promote safer tackling coaching in Japan, it is crucial for coaches who have little experience in playing or coaching to have access to appropriate information and education opportunities, and for coach certification programs to be improved.
Athletic clubs are an important adjunct to middle- and high-school education that help to cultivate a sound mind and body and a sense of humanity in students through extracurricular sports activities, playing a vital role in nurturing students’ mental and physical growth.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of coaches’ initiative in such athletic clubs. We examined how the policies adopted by these individuals affect the determination and training goals of the team, how goals are shared by a team, and who determines the team’s daily training method. We also clarified how students evaluate their coaches’ policies and administrative skills, as well as their practice and daily training routines. We applied the formative evaluation system of athletic clubs developed by Fukami and Okazawa (2018). A questionnaire consisting of 2 categories (“determining training goals and content” and “determining training methods”) to clearly assess the coaches’ initiative was administered to 493 coaches who ran athletic clubs. The subjects also included 4,083 middle-school students from 260 clubs and 3,879 high-school students from 233 clubs.
The results revealed that regardless of sports category, the coaches of many athletic clubs talked with all of their students to determine the team’s goals and were highly appreciated by both middle- and high-school students. However, the coaches also showed initiative in developing their practice plans, the contents thereof, and considered how to implement them, and a majority of the students expressed their appreciation for such decisiveness and leadership.
Through pressure measurement and underwater motion capture analysis, the aim of this study was to clarify how propulsive forces, Froude efficiency, and stroke parameters change with swimming velocity during front-crawl swimming. Eight male swimmers performed 2 trials, once using pressure measurement and underwater motion capture analysis and once using a MAD system. In the analysis using pressure measurement and underwater motion capture, each swimmer performed 16-m front-crawl swimming 10 times at various velocities. During the trials, pressure forces acting on the hand and hand kinematics were analyzed to obtain the hand propulsive forces at each velocity. In the analysis using the MAD system, each swimmer performed 25-m front-crawl swimming 10 times at various velocities while pushing the pad set under the water, and the propulsive force at each velocity was obtained from the pushing force of the pad. This revealed that the mean propulsive force increased exponentially with the increase in mean swimming velocity, and the propulsive index n was 2.62 on average for the 8 participants. Maximal propulsive forces and maximal propulsive powers at maximum were significantly correlated with the results obtained using the MAD system. Froude efficiency varied considerably among the participants, being 0.54 ± 0.05 on average for all trials.
A new form of volleyball that can be easily enjoyed by beginners has been introduced. However, the Japan Volleyball Association (JVA) does not include this type of volleyball in its volleyball dissemination activities. In view of the recent decrease in the number of people who play volleyball, it is time for the JVA to consider targeting this new form of volleyball in its dissemination activities. Positioning this new form of volleyball as “alternative volleyball”, this study first explored an analytical framework for dissemination approaches based on discussions centered on sport alternatives. The secondary aim was to clarify the perspectives involved in an analytical framework-based approach to dissemination based on data obtained from interviews with representatives of alternative volleyball organizations.
Consequently, the perspectives for dissemination were categorized into the following 3 groups: (1) Those focusing on players who have experience of playing alternative volleyball and who have internalized the positive physical sensations thus obtained; (2) Creation of an alternative sport, highlighting the significance of participating in it by reading and observing the positive affect of the players; (3) Rules that have been created by players to explore and maximize the fun of the alternative sport through logical application. In short, the perspectives for dissemination were found to be those that can be explained through the following keywords: experience → observation → logical application. In the future, the JVA will be required to position alternative volleyball as an important part of efforts to disseminate mainstream volleyball and review organizational governance for this purpose.
The present study was conducted to clarify the body composition and physical characteristics of elite high school female handball players, and to compare those variables between starters and nonstarters in a team. Seventeen elite high school female handball players without a goalkeeper volunteered for the study. Body composition, height and body mass were measured. Physical characteristics investigated included grip strength, 20-m sprint time, pro-agility time, jump ability, sitting handball throw and Yo-Yo intermitted test. As jump ability parameters, data on counter movement jump (CMJ) height, rebound jump index (RJ index) and standing broad jump distance were collected. The characteristics of the study subjects overall were as follows: height 159.3±5.9 cm, body mass 55.0±4.2 kg, grip strength 29.4±3.7 kg, 20-m sprint time 3.42±0.12 s, pro-agility time 5.13±0.18 s, CMJ height 31.0±3.7 cm, RJ index 1.547±0.222, standing broad jump distance 1.97±0.16, handball throw 15.8±2.0 m, yo-yo intermitted test 3075±547.3 m. Comparison of the 2 groups showed that starters were significantly superior to nonstarters in terms of the RJ index and yo-yo intermitted test. However, the 20-m sprint time and pro-agility time of nonstarters were significantly higher than those of starters. These data would be valuable for identifying talented female handball players.
The purpose of this research is to present the prospect of the university physical education (P.E.) by considering the university P.E. programs in terms of cooperation amongst universities, subjects and localities.
We have started some cooperation programs for universities by holding tournaments for university P.E. Flag Football (FF) involving numerous universities since 2013. Playing against different universities has motivated students during the classes and mixing with students from other universities has made it possible for some students to obtain new values and different ways of thinking. Even though students did not belong to a very“sporty”club or activity, they could participate in some sports tournaments representing their university, and such an opportunity could be a way forward for the university P.E.
In the tournaments for university P.E. FF was held as part of the university P.E. classes when students learnt the know-how of organizing sports events. Instead of studying it simply to gain knowledge, planning and running the actual tournaments make it possible for students to achieve a higher level of understanding.
It is important for universities, now and in the future, to cooperate with local enterprises and other organizations. This time, we worked together with a local company’s American football team and had a chance to see how the team conducted an actual sports event. We also invited some coaches from the team. It is now possible to cooperate with them on their match days and to send our students for internships.
The conclusions of this research are as follows;
・No field of study is irrelevant to one’s body, hence the university P.E. can be included in various educational fields.
・The subject matter of the university P.E. is one’s body, hence it can contribute in various fields of university education.
・Cooperation amongst universities, subjects and localities is accompanied by different problems. Therefore, by facing and solving those problems by themselves, students can benefit from the Active Learning and Problemsolving Learning.