Skin sheets obtained from the axillae of osmidrotic patients and from otherregions of the skin of a healthy subject were separated into four, or three, layers. The oxygen uptake was determined by means of the Warburg manometer.The total volume of the sweat glands contained in each skin slice wasestimated, and the oxygen uptake by the glands was calculated. The determinationwas also made on excised sweat glands. 1. QO2 of the epidermis varied from 0.52 to 2.11. That of the cutis was lessthan the above and varied according to the volumes of sweat glands containedin them. 2. The resting apocrine glands consume 2.70-4.02 times as large a volumeof oxygen as the volume of the gland per hour. These figures were 0.57-3.27in eccrine glands. The increase of oxygen uptake by pilocarpine was morepronounced in the latter. Much smaller figures were found on excised glands, probably because of injuries to the glands.
1. Three lead-methods for recording the EEG of rats were compared and it was found that the direct method gives the most accurate results. 2. Normal EEG of the adult rat is characterized by rhythmical 7-10 (6-12) per sec. basic waves and superimposed smaller fast waves. Alteration of pro-portionof these two components gave individual differences of normal records. Slow waves of less than 6 per sec. were also present but were not significant. 3. EEG of the new born rat showed basic waves, though irregular and small, and it was about 3 weeks after birth that the EEG became almost identi-cal with that of normal adult rats. 4. Until the 3rd or the 4th day after birth, no changes in EEG or move-ment were noted following electro-shock to the head. On the 4th or 5th day, a convulsive EEG pattern was noticed but it was about 7 days that the actual convulsion of limbs was associated with EEG changes.
(1) The absorption curve of indicator yellow was determined between 700 and 320 mμ over a range of hydrogen ion concentration from pH 5.2 to 10.0. The absorption maximum is at 420, 380 and 370 mμ at pH 5.2, 6.1 and 7.1-10.0 respectively. When the differential spectrum obtained by substracting the densi-ty of visual white from that of indicator yellow (representing the absorption of indicator yellow itself) was taken, the absorption maxima are at 440, 400, 380, 370 and 370 mμ at respectively pH 5.2, 6.1, 7.1, 8.2 and 9.0-10.0, and their heights are respectively 0.563, 0.500, 0.501, 0.743 and 0.810 when the absorption maximum of the visual purple is corrected to 1.000. The alkaline form has a narrower absorption band and the acid form a broader band. The form and height of the differential spectra at pH 9.0 and those at pH 10.0 are quite similar. (2) The change from indicator yellow solution to visual white solution by exposure to strong sunlight is more rapid in the acid form than in the alkaline form.
It was shown by König, Willmer and Wright that the center of the fovea of normal man is blue-blind, when a test object of reduced visual angle is used. In order to elucidate the mechanism of this physiological color blindness, retinal processes were analyzed by means of Motokawa's method. 1. It was found that 4 kinds of color processes, red, yellow, green and blue exist at the fovea. 2. As the test patch was reduced in visual angle, the red and greenprocesses became predominant over the yellow and blue processes. 3. At the center of the fovea there was no measurable Y, and B was found also small. 4. These findings account for Hartridge's observation that sensations of red and blue-green are predominant over those of yellow and blue, when small test fields are used. 5. The notch found in the luminosity curve, which was obtaind by Walters and Wright from the foveal center, is really due to the lack of the yellow receptor, as Hartridge surmised.
1. Excised retractor pharyngis of snail responds to various types of electric current with tonic and phasic contractions. The results confirm in part the findings of Winton and Singh, and also in agreement with Kawabata's opinion that all responses to electric stimuli contain both phasic and tonic componennts, the latter being most conspicuous in the response to intense single induction shocks. 2. Tonic contraction and relaxation at the polar regions were observed microscopically and the pattern of responses was classified into two types. The response in the first type is marked with vigorous reactivity at the cathodal region and generally found in summer experiments, while those in the second type with anodal responses and often encountered in winter. Responses in one type are capable of transition into those of the other type in the same preparation by changing the ionic milieu. 3. The strength-duration curves were plotted with regard to both closing and opening stimulations, and their relation to both types of polar effects were discussed.
Nitrogenous substances in human saliva produced by pilocarpine were observed separately with the parotid saliva and the saliva obtained from all the remaining salivary glands. Both protein and non-protein nitrogens are contained much more in parotid saliva than in the other salivas, but this difference is especially striking in nonprotein nitrogens. In parotid saliva their concentration may reach over 100mg/dl., or five times as mch as that in serum, while that in the other salivas is lower than that in serum. The greater part of these non-protein nitrogens consist of substances soluble in acid deproteinization agents and not soluble in alcohol and a small fraction of them of substance soluble in alcohol. The former is only contained in parotid saliva while the latter seems to be present in all salivas, and this is why the content of non-protein nitrogens is so strikingly high in the parotid saliva. The concentration of non-protein nitrogens insoluble in alcohol undergoes considerable changes with regard to the rates of secretion and the features of these changes differ on different individuals and under different conditions. A tentative hypothesis for explanation of these changes has been advanced.
Modifying Lillie's nerve model, a model for the medullated nerve fibre was constructed, on which the conduction time for the whole length (40cm.) was measured under various “internodal” distances. The important results obtained were that 1) the conduction velocity gets generally larger in comparison to that of a continuous linear model corresponding to a non-medullated nerve fibre, 2) the velocity attains a maximum at a certain internodal distance (of course the transmission cannot take place if the internodal distance is too large.), and 3) the distance travelled by an activation wave is generally smaller in the case of saltatory transmission than in the case of continuous conduction. The optimal internodal distance, S0, which makes the conduction velocity maximal, was shown mathematically to be S04/3 rm/r where r and rM are the axonal resistance per cm. and the transverse resistance of a nodal membrane respectively. It was compared to the actual internodal distance, s, of toad's motor merve fibres, where it is said thatS=3/4 rm/r and discussions were made in connection with the conduction velolcities of the fibres with normal and abnormal internodal distances. Further, it was shown mathematically that S0 and the conduction velocity should both vary proportionally to the fibre diameter. These were supposed to provide us, very probably, with theoretical basis for the two established facts that the actual internodal distance and the conduction velocity are both approximately proportional to the fibre size. It was argued further that the rhéobase of medullated nerve fibres measured by applying a voltage to two pools of Ringer's fluid, each containing a node of Ranvier separated properly after Tasaki's principle, should be invariable despite the variable fibre size Finally it was discussed 1) that the hypothesis of the electro-saltatory transmission is probably right, although in a somewhat modified sense, and 2) that the greatest objection raised against it-the existense of medullated nerve fibres without nodes but with a large conduction velocity in the central nervous system-cannot alwaysbe an objection.
1) The lateral-line endorgan of the fish in a living preparation could be observed in one of the species of sea eels, Rhyncocymba nystromi. The detailed structure by a phase contrast microscope showed that each sensory cell had a single short hair. These hairs formed a group over which a thin transparent membranous cupula extended so far that it approximately filled the cavity of the lateral-line canal. This cupular structure has never been found in the histological preparation by an ordinary fixation method. 2) The actual motion of this cupula could be visualized under a microscope. It showed only the minimal deviation even by a pretty strong, artificial flow of the canal fluid. 3) The authors, contrary to the current conception on the mechanism of the lateral-line organ, believe that there is no free flow in the canal but that only the pressure change of the fluid can be transmitted to the endorgan through the lateral-line pores, which are conspicuously small or are plugged with the mucus of the body surface. Such mechanism suggests also those of the vestibular or auditory organs of higher animals. 4) There are two kinds of fishes, one has a cupula terminalis at the crista acustica of the ear and the other only hair cells. 5) The intimate relationship between the lateral-line, the vestibular organ of the fish and the mucus was shown. These organs indicated a special staining character, the metachromasia, and were destroyed by an enzyme, a hyaluronidase. These phenomena suggest the same relation in the chemical composition of the visual, auditory and vestibular organs of higher animals.
Observations were made on 11 men exposed to wet heat ranging from 43°to 50°C. for over 6 hours for fever therapy. The general symptoms were similar to those reported by previous investigators, but the subjects showed periodical exhaustions and following rapid recoveries, first in one hour or later and once more in 3 to 4 hours after the beginnign of exposure to heat. Sweating was suddenly suppressed after about 1 to 11/2 hour exposure, but it was soon restored. Another suppression was found in some cases, seemingly concomitantly with the second stuporous state of the subject. Similar periodical changes could also be seen in oxygen consumption but not in body temperature, pulse rate, arterial pressure and water content of blood.
1. The slow potential which occurs in the dorsal column-root preparation has been recorded on Japanese toads (Bufo vulgaris japonica). 2. The shapes of the slow potentials depend upon the position of the recording electrodes and change in a definite way. 3. The phenomena of spatial and temporal summation and occlusion areexhibited by the slow potential. 4. The slow potential acts as a generator potential when the preparation is kept in cold Ringer solution for some time. 5. Antagonism is observed between potassium-and calcium-effects on the slow potential. 6. The slow potential is strikingly augmented and prolonged by veratrine.Similar but much less effects are observed by T. E. A. B.(Tetraethyl ammonium bromide), as well. Nicotine can not abolish the slow potential. 7. Similarities are observed between the slow potential and the negative after-potential in the peripheral nerve. This indicates that the slow potential has some connections with the restorative process. 8. Some dorsal column-root preparations have been microscopically examined after experiments. No internuncial neurons have been discovered in them. The slow potential of the spinal cord can be produced without internuncial neurons. 9. The slow potential is shown not to be cardinally originated from the cut-ends of nerve fibers in the dorsal column, though some minor part of it may be so. 10. The origin of the slow potential is explained to be due to the potential change in the interstitium of the dorsal column after an impulse is conducted. 11. The origin of the positive potential is stated in the same way.
1. Effects of some chemical agents upon the EIRG (electro-intraretinogram) of the bullfrog's eye were examined with the micro-pipette inserted into different retinal layers. 2. PIII, which was isolated by potassium from the other components in the ERG, was found to reverse its polarity to make the mirror image, when the pipette was inserted into a retinal layer external to the bipolar cells. This finding was taken as the proof that PIII or at least major part of it is originated in the bipolar cell layer. 3. Disappearance of the d-wave by alcohol or of the b-wave by adrenalin was found to follow extinction of the relating intraretinal negative potential, supporting the view that one part of the d-wave has its origin similar to the b-wave. 4. The possibility, that the negative potential in the EIRG might be the mirror image of the b-wave due to placing the micro-pipette at the opposite side of the doublet layer responsible for the generation of b-wave, appeared improbable, since it was found that acetylcholine removes the negative potentials while the b-and d-waves still exist in sufficient magnitude.
1. The ventral root potentials following an electrical stimulation of afferent nerve were recorded in toads and bull-frogs during the application of polarizing currents along spinal cord and ventral root. 2. The motoneurone ceases to elicit an efferent impulse when its soma is polarized anelectrotonically as well as when polarized catelectrotonically to a considerable extent (cathodal depression). In the former case the slow potential shows retarded temporal decay, in contrast with its rapid decay observable in the latter case. The effects of the electrotonus on the motoneurone soma (including dendrites) and on the axon-hillock were considered separately and discussed for respective cases. 3. Repetitive stimulation seems, when it gives rise to fatigue, to shift the resting status of polarization at synaptic membrane towards increasingly depolarized state, until finally it reaches what is similar to the state of cathodal depression. Currents applied in a direction to polarize motoneurone soma catelectrotonically accelerate and emphasize the above mentioned effect of repetitive stimulation, and hinder the motoneurone to recover during a pause of stimulation. Polarizing currents in reverse direction retard or prevent the occurrence of “fatigue” in the motoneurone. 4. It is suggested that the resting status of polarization at synaptic membrane would be labile and alterable within a wide range, and that the failure of synaptic transmission under a state similar to that of cathodal depression may account for at least a certain kind of central fatigue in normal organisms.
1. On the Aino thermal sweat reflex, chlorine content of sweat and total number of active sweat glands were observed, and the results were compared with those of the Japanese. 2. No difference could be noticed in the sweat reflex and the chlorine content. 3. The number of sweat glands of 12 Ainos ranged from 1069 to 1991 thousands, i. e. the smallest figures among those so far investigated on other races.
The intraretinal negative action potential and the b-wave in the ERG were subjected to the present research with the use of microillumination method on the bullfrog's eye. 1. The intraretinal negative potential recorded from the illuminated retinal area was found to fall off sharply in the surrounding area. On the contrary, the b-wave usually showed a poor or no localization to the microillumination, being detectable almost everywhere on the retinal surface. 2. b-wave elicited by a microillumination leaves behind a refractoriness not only to that focal retinal area but equally to the surrounding wide non-focal area. The effect of stray light upon the b-wave was discussed. 3. Suggestion was made that the optic nerve discharge is more closely related to the intraretinal negative potential than to the b-wave. 4. The b-wave or at least most part of it was found to originate in the bipolar cell layer.
Factors governing individual differences of temperature reaction to cold found by Lewis were studied by estimating reaction index devised in the first part of this study. Main results obtained are as follows: 1. The reaction was found even a few days after birth and developed rapidly with lapse of days. The high reactivity in childhood was lessened in puberty and again it rose in young adult, after which it decreased gradually with the progress of age. 2. A female adult seemed to show a little lower reactivity than a male. 3. Native countries and racial specificity were proved to have an intimate relation with the reactivity, and a main factor of the influences was deduced to be the effect of training to cold. 4. The Orochons were found to have the highest reactivity among all nations in Manchuria, and thus protecting themselves from frost-bite, adapted to their nomadic life in a cold country. The reactivity of Japanese adults recently came to Manchuria was the lowest of all the natives, while that of Japanese children was about the same with those of the native (the Mongols and the Chinese) children. 5. A validity of training effect reported by Takahashi was ascertained, and it was proved that the effect was more remarkable on the youth than on the adult. 6. Subjects of low reactivity were proved to show frequently high sympathetic tonus. Thus the tonus of autonomic nervous system had an intimate bearing with the reactivity. 7. Main internal factors causing individual differences of the reaction were presumed to be differences of the following three: the morphological constitution, especially of blood vessels, the nervous control (activities) and other physiological properties of the skin. The experimental results mentioned above were explained from this point of view.
1. Behaviors and EEG's of rat were examined in a simple T-maze learning. 2. Small fast waves increased in EEG when the performance of conditioned behavior was repeated many times with reward. In this period, the rat showed the excited patterns (excited period). When the performance was repeated further, average frequency of EEG decreased and the rat showed depressed state (inhibited or fatigued period). In this period, 6-8 per sec. large waves (in drowsy state) and small fast waves (in awaked state) appeared alternately. 3. In the last period of extinction, the average frequency decreased and the rat showed rather inhibited behavior. 4. Increase of the small fast waves was noted in the EEG of a neurotic rat. 5. EEG during running showed augmentation of the basic waves just before or immediately after the rat started and it continued until the rat ran over the choice point, and it was replaced by increase of the small fast waves as the rat approached the goal. These EEG alterations during running were not noticed in the fatigued period, in the last period of extinction and in the neurotic state. 6) It was discussed about the cerebral excitatory level (or background excitation level) of rat in various states of behavior mentioned above on the basis of EEG alterations.
1. A reverse ciliary movement beating towards the cranial end of the oviduct was noticed on both the frog and the tortoise. In the frog, it exists on the fixed side with mesotubarium of the oviduct and occupies about 1/4 of the whole width of the inner surface. In the tortoise, it exists on a narrow zone corresponding with the line fixed with mesotubarium and on its opposite side. 2. The rate of the descending current was about two times faster than that of the ascending. The mean rates of locomotion of egg, erythrocyte and charcoal powder were 12-6.5mm. per minute in descending and 4.0-6.6mm. per minute in ascending on the frog, while they were ten times slower on the tortoise 3. The ascending current puts the egg in a continuous rotation and may serve in its uniform coating with egg-jelly.
In decerebrate cats, the electrical excitability of the eye was measured at varying intervals after exposure to a light stimulus, taking spike discharges from the retina as an index. Increases in excitability were expressed in percentage of the resting level and denoted by ζ. 1.ζ-time curves or excitability curves showed a maximum at about 1, 1.5, 2.25 and 3seconds when the pre-illuminating light was red, yellow, green and blue respectively. The curve for white light seemed to represent an envelope of these curves. All these curves represented close copies of the corresponding ones obtained from human experiments. 2. The excitability curve for white light was greatly modified in such a manner that ζ-values at some part of the curve were depressed when the eye was exposed to another continuous colored light after illumination with white light. This phenomenon was termed “retinal inhibition” and interpreted in such a manner that the recovery of retinal processes was selectively opposed by inhibitory light. 3. When the eye was exposed to yellow and white lights in succession, an excitability curve was obtained of the same type as that for blue light alone. Similar measurements were carried out with blue and red lights combined with white light. In all these experiments, curves for successive stimuli, colored and white were always higher than that for white light alone. This phenomenon was designated “retinal induction.” Retinal induction is a retinal event underlying successive color contrast. It was pointed out that retinal induction cannot be accounted for in terms of the fatigue-theory by Helmholtz. 4. The crest time of the excitability curve was found to be prolonged enor mously after body temperature had fallen below a certain level. This finding seemed to give some clue to the understanding of the great difference observed between excitability curves of man and those of frogs or toads.
It was possible to perform bilateral adrenalectomy on rabbits in a single stage without a fatal case. The eosinopenic response to epinephrine disappeared permanently after operation. This might indicate that the compensation by the cortical accessories, in so far as the secretion of gluco-corticoids is concerned, is absent. Discussion is made on the significance of the accessories.
1. A small early wave, mostly diphasic-negative, then positive, was found antecedent to a slow potential of monosynaptic origin in the records of ventral root potential in toads. 2. The early wave cannot be attributed to the direct stimulation of motoneurones due to current escape, nor to any other kind of stimulus artefacts. It is considered to represent electrotonic spread of polarizatory changes in motoneurone soma evoked by a presynaptic volley approaching along a monosynaptic pathway. 3. The polarization of primary afferent fibers or of motoneurones aroused externally delivering constant currents is able to affect the appearance of the early wave. The anodal polarization in intramedullary segments and terminals of the primary afferent as well as the cathodal polarization of motoneurone somata provide for its occurrence with favourable conditions. The former was proven to be more effective than the latter.
1. When the linearly slowly rising current was applied to the lateral-line endorgan of a Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica), the repetitive responses were obtained from an isolated single lateral-line nerve fiber. 2. In order to examine precisely the relation between the nerve discharges and the stimulating current, a simultaneous recording of these two were made. For this purpose special vacuum tube circuits were designed. 3. The discharge pattern of each nerve fiber encountered differed according to the fiber size. 4. For thin fibers, most of which showed pronounced spontaneous discharges, spike frequencies increased fluctuatingly with the current-increase and they were related to the slopes of rising currents. The increase of the spike frequency, in general, seems to be related directly to the slope, though there was only an irregular relation at a very low voltage. 5. In the cases of thick fibers which show generally no spontaneous discharges, the discharge pattern was of a markedly different kind from that of the thin fiber. Each of these has a certain fixed threshold-voltage to fire, no matter how the gradients of the stimulating currents are. As a matter of fact the discharge frequencies are related not only with the stimulating voltage itself but also with the gradient, namely its change, and such a relation becomes more regular, when the voltage gradient becomes larger. Moreover, this relation between the spike frequency and the voltage in a logarithmic scale is almost linear and the slope of this regression line seems to be concerned in the current gradient, too. 6. The possible maximum frequency to be reached is different for each fiber, the thick fiber having a much higher one, over a hundred, than the thin fiber. 7. For plateau frequencies the thin fiber show a slow adaptation and the discharges continues long, decreasing fluctuatingly, while the thick fiber adapts abruptly. There is always more or less a silent period at the beginning of the plateau phase. At the small slope of the S. C. the mean spike frequencies for the first 1 don't show, a marked difference according to the plateau voltage but when the slope becomes large, they are related linearly with the end-voltage in a semilog. scale. The linear relation in the case of D. C. stimulation may be thought as its limiting case. 8. The place stimulated by a slowly rising current is not exactly known, but the author believes that it may be the nonmyelinated part of the terminal arborisation of the nerve fiber. 9. Histological studies of the nerve endings at the endorgan were performed. It was ascertained that the thick fiber with a myelinated sheath could be traced to the neighbourhood of the sensory cells at the central parts of the receptor, and the terminal nonmyelinated part branched like a tuft and thronged around the sensory cell, while thin fibers lost their sheaths far from the sensory cell and innervated those of the peripheral parts of the endorgan, forming a knob at its extreme end. 10. The authors believe that the validity of the hypothesis previously stated have been ascertained experimentally more.
1. Amino acid nitrogen in sweat varied widely between 10.2 and 1.1 mg. per cent and inversely with the rate of secretion. 2. In the sweats collected simultaneously from extremities and trunk, the former was much higher in its concentration of amino acid nitrogen. 3. In human skin, values of free amino acid nitrogen of 10.0 to 13.5mg. per cent with a mean level of 12.2mg. per cent were found in chest and abdomen. Much higher values, however, were obtainable in other various regions of the body. In guinea pig skin it ranged from 65.9 to 45.1 mg. per cent (36.1mg. per cent on an average), these were about the same as in solid organs. 4. The following 16 amino acids were observed in sweat on paper chromatogram: serine, threonine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, proline, phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, histidine, arginine, methionine, and cystine. 5. The reason why glycine, alanine, and glutamine, despite of their presence in skin, were not found in sweat was discussed.
The concentration of urea nitrogen in saliva is lower than that in blood and varies in inverse proportion to the rate of secretion. The ammonia nitrogen in saliva is considerably higher than that in blood and is proportionate to the rate of secretion. The total amount of urea plus ammonia nitrogen, is equal to that of urea nitrogen in serum and does not change with the rate of secretion. Ammonia seems to be produced from urea by the activity of gland cells. The content of thiocyanate in saliva is much higher than that in blood and is in inverse proportion to the rate of secretion. It is suggested that rhodan is taken up from serum by the gland cells.
The excitability of a single motoneuron soma in a toad's spinal cord is compared with that of a single motor fibre from a experimental point of view. The following is the results of the experiments. (1) The strength-duration curve of the neuron soma is compared with that of the motor fibre; it is noticed that the rheobase of the neuron soma is lower and the chronaxie of it is longer than those of the motor fibre. The Weiss formula is acceptable in these two strength-duration curves. (2) The neuron soma produces more easily multiple responses than the motor fibre by direct current stimulation; but the results obtained from single nervepreparation are not same in every case, and the author has grouped four types according to the character of multiple responses and the accommodation curve. (3) The effect of the electrotonus on the neuron soma is different from that on the motor fibre. (4) No differences of the latency are detectable between the neuron soma and the motor fibre. (5) The relative refractory period of the neuron soma is shorter than that of the motor fibre; the refractoriness of the neuron soma is followed by the supernormal phase which is not recognized with the motor fibre under the same conditions.
It has been found that the value of the accommodation constant λ, measured with the isolated single nerve fiber part, was generally larger than that with the whole nerve part of the same preparation and that the λ value was independent from the interpolar length of the whole nerve part. For explaining these results, the λ value of the fiber with the parallel shunting resistance of several kΩ, and that without it were comparatively measured and they were found to be almost the same. These results indicate the high polarizability of the connective tissues, which distorts the applied current, resulting in a smaller value of λ. Thus it may be concluded that the connective tissue is polarizable for the transverse current, while it is only an ohmic resistance for the longitudinal current.
An isolated single nerve fiber of a toad was mounted on the bridge-insulator and the repetitive response to the constant voltage was recorded, as well as measuring the recovery curve and the accommodation. The threshold condition for the repetitive response, the voltage-duration and voltage-frequency relations of the repetitive response were investigated, and it was found that the experimental facts and the author's theory were farely well in accord with each other.
1) By stimulating the central end of the depressor nerve of a dog with a tetanic inductive current a decrease in volume of the liver, simultaneous to fall in the general arterial blood pressure and the portal pressure were observed (see exp. 1). This decrease, as shown in fig. 1 is 0.9-2.4cc. and this result is the directly opposite to the reports of Harada (6) and Richter (9), who obtained a 3.1% increase in volume, in experiments with rabbits. 2) However, in order to know whether this decrease in the volume of the liver, occurs in the hepatic artery area or in the portal area, the blood flow of the hepatic artery was temporarily occluded, and also the portal blood flow into the liver was constricted as shown in exps. 2 and 3, decrease in the volume of the liver was confirmed in both cases. Namely, due to the depressor reflex, both blood vessels areas show that they are connected with the decrease in the volume of the liver. Harada (6) reports that normally, due to depressor stimulation, there is an increase in volume of the liver, but a decrease, after ligature of the hepatic artery. However, in our experiments, regardless of the existence or non-existence of a blood flow in the hepatic artery, an one-sided change, namely, a decrease in the volume of the liver occured (see exp. 2) 3) On the other hand, it may be considered that the liver blood vessels may dilate by the depressor reflex, however the decrease in the general blood pressure and the portal venous pressure caused by the stimulation of the depressor nerve are so much that the dilatation of the hepatic blood vessels can not be observed on the volume change in the liver. However, this observation can be discarded by the perfusion experiment (see exp. 5) or the experiment whereby the blood flow into the liver of both the hepatic artery and the portal vein were shut off (see exp. 4). Namely, in exp. 4, when the hepatic artery and the portal blood flow into the liver were stopped temporarily, no changes occurred in the volume of the liver, due to the depressor reflex (when adrenaline is injected into the liver tissues proper, even after the stoppage of both blood flows, the volume of the liver shows a decrease). Furthermore, as shown in exp. 5, when the perfusion experiment of only the liver in situ, is carried out, even though there may be a fall in the general blood pressure, no change could be confirmed in the volume of the liver. 4) Hence the above experiments would indicate that the change in the volume of the liver due to the depressor reflex is a passive one, caused by the fall of the hepatic arterial pressure and the portal venous pressure, and not an active contraction of the hepatic blood vessels.
1) We have made clear the periodic contractions in the volume of such organs, as the spleen, intestine, kidney, etc., and the periodic changes in the venous and arterial blood pressures, resulting from above phenomena (8, 9, 10). However, now we were able to observe the volume changes of periods ranging from 15 to 38seconds in the liver, brought about by intravenous injections of Ringer's solution, sodium citrate, etc. (fig. 1 and 2). 2) The connection between the change in liver volume and respiration is, during expiration, the liver volume decreases, while during inspiration it increases, but as can be seen in fig. 2, during rhythm occurrence in the liver, no changes could be seen in this amplitude of the respiration on the curve of liver volume. Also no changes in amplitude were observed on the respiratory curve, transmitted from the thoracic wall (fig. 1). Furthermore, directly after an intravenous injection of a solution of sodium citrate, a change occurred in the respiratory movement but this was different from the periodic change in the liver volume. 3) Bainbridge and Dale (2) have shown that periodic contractions occur in a gall-bladder, and the periods were approximately 3 times per minute. This is quite similar to what we have seen in the liver, but periodic contractions can also be seen in a liver from which the gall-bladder has been completely removed (fig. 1), so it is quite correct to assume that in our cases this was not caused by the contraction of the gall-bladder. 4) The fact that the splanchnic nerves control the liver is beyond doubt (6), but by their severance or even by the severance of the vagus nerves of both sides, the occurrence of a periodic volume change in the liver could not be disappeared. This phenomenon was also seen after the hepatic artery had been ligated. Thus, from the above facts we can see that the periodic changes seen on the volume curve of the liver have connections with the liver tissue proper and with the hepatic vessels. 5) However, two types of periodic volume change in the liver can be differentiated. The first, as shown in fig. 1 and 2, is when the direction of change in the liver and the changes in the arterial and venous blood pressure are the opposite, namely when the contraction of the liver caused a rise in portal and arterial pressure. The other as shown in fig. 3 is when the 3 changes are in the same direction, namely the rise in portal and arterial pressure are observed simultaneously to the increase in the liver volume. 6) In the cases shown in fig. 1 and 2, since the change in portal pressure and the change in liver volume showed opposite directions, the change in liver volume is thought an active one and based on contractions of the liver. This causes an increase in resistance of the portal blood flow, thus it can be considered as producing an increase in portal pressure. Regarding the active contraction of the liver, it contracts in response to stimulation of the splanchnic nerves (6), and also contracts markedly to adrenaline (7). Also regarding the existence of smooth muscle in the liver, there are reports that it has been found not only in the hepatic veins but also in the cental and sublobular veins (1). On comparing the periods of contraction confirmed in the spleen, intestine and kidney, with that of the liver, they are both approximately 25seconds, and stimulations which cause periodic contractions in the spleen etc., also cause rhythmical volume changes in the liver. This gives us grounds to suppose that the periodic contractions of these organs are but the rhythms of their smooth muscles. 7) The case cited in example 1 of table 1, shows that the volume change of the liver was 0.65 to 1.0cc. and that the change in portal venous pressure was 6-16mm. saline. This change of pressure corresponds to 11.9% of its portal pressure.
In spite of the common knowledge among physicians that the daily intake of as much as 30g. of sodium chloride will bring about disorders of various functions of the body to a considerable degree, the actual fact that the inhabit ants in North Manchuria take 40 g. or more every day during the winter months without any disorders in the body functions leads us to further study of the effect and significance of sodium chloride ingestion. 1) Daily intake of sodium chloride amounting to 50-60 g. by adding 10 g. to each meal causes a gradual rise in basal metabolism, good appetite, and energetic feeling of the body after several days. In this stage of high metabolic rate due to increased salt ingestion, both a rise in the oxygen consumption and a drop in the surface temperatures during exposure to cold are less in degree and the subject complains less than normal subjects. It is also proved that the temperature reaction of skin vessels to cold in the middle finger of a human subject as well as in the ear-lobe of a rabbit is intense enough to offer resistance to frost-bite. 2) When the increased salt formula is continued beyond this favourable stage, the displeasing symptoms known to all which are due to deposit of the excess salt manifest themselves before long. 3) Generally speaking, a rise in the body functions seems to be accompanied not with an increased amount of exchange but with the amount of sodium chloride held in the body, and there exists a marked seasonal difference in the ability of salt metabolism: the maximum amount which can be retained without any symptoms of excess is far greater during the period in late autumn and winter than during the rest of the year, and the body can take more salt during the winter months and can discharge more in urine in summer than during the rest of the year.
By measuring the reaction index reported in the 1st report, the influences of dietary constitution on the temperature reaction of the finger to cold were investigated and following results were obtained. 1) The daily intake of excessive dietary protein (150-200 g/day) accelerated the temperature reaction to cold after about a week and the high reactivity was maintained thereafter, while a well defined influence could not be detected even after two weeks of low protein diet (25 g/day). 2) Intake of excessive salt (over about 45g. NaCl in daily diet) increased the reactivity after about a week, while salt lacking decreased it. 3) These changes of the reactivity of cutaneous vessels to cold were explained by influences of diet on metabolism which were to affect the function of the thermoregulatory centre. 4) It is pointed out that either high protein or high salt diet may be suitable for protection against frost-bite in cold countries.
1) Precise methods for investigating sensory spots on the oral mucous membrane were described, and the results of investigations on the four modalities of sense were illustrated. 2) The senses in the order of density of their receptors are: pain, touch, cold and warm. 3) The receptors for all senses are present most densely on the anterior parts of the membrane. 4) The gingival margin and interdental papillae possess less pain spots and more touch spots.