Problem: It is well known that a black square on a white background appears smaller than a white square of the same size on a black background. This is the irradiation phenomenon (the positive irradiation). In 1863, however, Volkmann reported a new kind of irradiation which is of a contrary nature to the ordinary one; he found that very fine black threads on a white background looked wider than they really are (the negative irradiation after Volkmann). In order to measure precisely the extent of irradiation, he made use of the following procedure. By means of a micrometer-screw, two fine threads were gradually brought together until the interval was just the same as the width of the threads. The degree to which the threads had to be moved in order to procure the desired effect served as a measure for irradiation. In the present investigation we proceeded from the experiments made by Volkmann and tried to make a further thorough analysis of the conditions which determine the occurence of the negative as well as the positive irradiation. For this purpose special apparatus, which enable us to change the brightness-difference between the object and its background, and also the width and length of the threads (test-objects), was constructed (Fig.5, Fig.6 in the Japanese text p.6). Results: The first problem settled was the dependence of the irradiation on the width of the test-objects. The average outcome of the experiment for 10 observers is indicated graphically by Fig.7 in the Japanese text p.8, which shows how the irradiation changes with the increase in the width of the test-objects, the particular course of the change depending upon the brightness-difference between the object and its background. It is interesting to note in Fig.7, the course of the change in irradiation as the width of the test-objects increases; the negative irradiation decreases with the increase in the width of the objects, and the irradiation is reversed when the test-objects are sufficiently wide. Next, the length of the test-objects is another factor which governs the change of the irradiation. It follows from Fig.8 that the irradiation increases up to a certain point with the increase in the length of the test-objects, but it decreases when their size exceeds a certain limit. Lastly, an investigation of the relationship between brightness-difference and irradiation has been made following the same technique as described above. In this work, we used a number of test-objects of various brightness-difference which was obtained by illuminating the background, the brightness of the test-object being kept constant (black). The results of these experiments are plotted on logarithmic scale in Fig. 9 in the Japanese text p. 10. The continuous line indicates the calculated values; the discontinuous line the observed values. The agreement between the calculated and observed values is on the whole satisfactory. The equation found to express this relationship is y=A+nlogx in which y= amount of irradiation x = brightness-difference between object and background A and n are constants. That is the relationship is exactly the same as obtains between stimulus and sensation in the Weber-Fechner law.
Recently J. L. King finds the negative correlation between complex-width (Komplexbreite) and perseveration, and interprets his result by Lindworsky's resonance theory. The same problem is taken up in this paper in somewhat different ways; complex-width in memory is tested by nonesense words presented not only to sight (as in King's case) but to ear also. Further tests of cancellation and association are applied to 13 subjects of a normal school students in order to see complex relations among complex-width, perseveration and association by the factor-analysis technique. The main results obtained here are as follows: 1) As far as the present study concerns I comfirmm that there are individual differences in complex-width in auditory as well as visual field, and the correlation between learning ability of nonesense words and complex-width is negative (-.26) when the stimulus visual, and positive (+. 72) when it is auditory. This difference seemingly depends on the difference of experimental conditions and that of the attitudes of persons tested. 2) By both the motor perseveration-test and cancellation-test the individual differences of the intensity of perseveration are determined, although the experimental conditions in this case are neither perfect, nor the results of tests are always regular. 3) According to the results of the factor-analysis, perseveration and complexwidth stand on the opposite directions with various factor-loadings. Thus Lindworsky's resonance theory seems to be justified to explain some psychophysical phenomena by assuming some different properties of the psychophysical medium. But there remains yet the question about the charactor of the proper vibration of the vibrators. 4) The number of the response words in a definite time depends both on the perseveration as inertia of mental activity and on the intensity of association. But these two factors seem to be independent and rather on the opposite directions. 5) The factor of complex-width is in negative relation with perseveration and at the same time is independent of the intensity of association. Thus complexwidth, perseveration and association seem to be independent factors of each other.
The hereditary nature of the so-called ‘Taste Blindness’ referring to the lack of taste reaction for P. T. C. was treated by some investigators as almost granted, but the fact, it seems to the present writer, has not been well founded. From many actual cases collected by the author in his extended studies on the problem carried on with Japanese and with Formosans some typical examples of the pedigree providing the inheritance of the subject are presented in this paper. Concrete cases and statistical results obtained show clearly that the deficiency phenomenon is the recessive trait, standing in allelomorphic relation to the sensory character of bitter taste of P. T. C. as the dominant trait in Mendelian hereditary law. Snyder's method by which the proportions of recessives is claimed to be determined mathematically was applied to the data and was compared with the actual proportion of the non-tasters. The difference in the recessives between calculated and observed was statistically insignificant. Thus the recessive nature of the phenomonon of the tastelessness was proved more precisely and seems to be established. That the phenomenon is not the sex-linked recessive, but that it is the simple autosomal inheritance, was evidenced. This is another way in which the phenomnonon differs from the color blindness in which the inheritance is the sex-linked.
1) According to Titchener the cathegories of psychological description are, the last terms of analysis, the elementary processes and their attributes. But as we cannot observe all the attributes of sensations etc. at a time, the last terms of analysis must be the attributes, not sensations and the like (Yokoyama, Boring). And in order to describe the experience psychologically, it is very useful to arrange all the attributes and to construct their systems, as S. Takagi advocated it, calling the 'gegenstandtheoretical study of attributes.' 2) But even the description of greys in Dimmick's experiment of the visual movement is mostly not differentiated into more than two, the brighter and the darker, in spite of the existence of hundreds of differential thresholds in the scale of grey, which are exact as the last terms of analysis. This incompleteness of description tells us on the one hand the impossibility of describing the experience with the exact last terms of analysis, but on the other hand that it is unnecessary, for here, if desired, the greys may be described more precisely, so to speak, as ‘about no. 10 or no. 45 of Hering greys.’ 3) On account of the incompleteness of the description, the understanding among psychologists is inevitably approximate. When there is much ambiguity, we must go further in analytical description, and the limit of admittance of the approximacy is to be decided by the problem of the experiment. As the meanings of the words of description must be, after all, interpreted by the behavior of discrimination, there is no essential differedce between the verbal description by man and the behavioral response by animals. It follows also from these facts, that the described experience is a construct, as the operationists insist. But it should be acknowledged, that these constructs, differ from those as ‘trace’, which have no direct experience to be understood. Koffka's implicit dependence upon 'immediate experience', criticized by Boring, comes from this. 4) The observation changes the original experience. And the good observation is, in Koffka's opinion, a ‘Durchgestaltung’, not the analysis into independent elements. But there must be distinguished two kinds of ‘Durchgestaltung ’: the differentiation of the phenomenon itself by repetition of experiments and finding the adequate words to describe the phenomenon, which may be differentiated or undifferentiated. Perhaps Koffka means the former, and Boring, emphasizing the latter, finds incompleteness in Koffka's system. 5)Titchener distinguished the process from the meaning. But from the behavioral and developmental yiewpoint, the sensations or their attributes are no less mediated and no simpler experiences than any other perceptions. On the other hand visual movements or other perceptions are no less original experiences than red, not derivable front other elementary processes; ‘a grey flash’ is never the visual movement itself but only one aspect of it. 6)‘Larger’,‘smaller’, or other relational impressions are also original experiences, which admit no further description. But there may be varieties of such impressions (e. g., ‘a little larger’,‘such smaller’), and accessory phenomena (e. g., ‘the transition experience’), which may be described. When we call our theory of the apprehension of relation ‘the theory of immediate apprehension’ or ‘the theory of originali mpression’,w e only mean that the reiationc an be apprehended without the aid of the memory images,the transitioenx periences,otrh e absolute impressions,and we never deny the mediatedness of the impression,of relationa nd the possibiiitoyf furtherd escriptioni n the sense mentioned above. on the other hand We emphasize the conditiona1b,e haviorai and deveiopmental aspect of the apprehension of relation.
A scale of reflection factors of grey is shown with actual specimens and their diffus,ed reflection factors. They are arranged in order so as to give uniform steps with regard to the logarithmic values of the reflection factors, as shown in the accompanying fi gure whose ordinates are given in the logarithmic values of reflection factors. These specimens are painted with grey distemper which are obtained in mixing known proportions of black and white pigments and binding paste. They are very strong against fading and the surfaces are almost perfectly matt. A similar scale with thirty steps between 85% and 4% reflection factors is now under preparation by the hand of Iwaki Paint Manufacturing Co. Ltd., Osaka. The size of each specimen may be 79cm×55cm large.