Bei diesen Experimenten suchten wir, die psychologische Bedeutung der so genannten intermodalen Erscheinung am Geruch klar zu machen. Methode: Um die Erlebnisstruktur des Geruchs zu analysieren machten wir folgende Experimente. 1) Bei diesen Experimenten. mit Assoziationsmethode versuchten wir, mit welcher Vorstellung der Geruch zusammenhängt. 2) Wir versuchten die Beziehung des Geruchs zum Gefühl nach der Aussage von Lust-Uniust-Gefuhl der Vpn. 3) Wir liessen die Vpn. das Attribut des Geruclis mit eigenem Urteil analysieren. 4) Wir liessen die Vpn. den Geruch mit dem Ton ebenso den Geruch mit der Farbe vergleichen und eine intermodale Qualität jeweils zwischen beiden entdecken. Material: 66 verschiedenartige Riechstoffe. (Siehe S. 97) Diskus (verschiedene Instrumente; Violin, Viola, Cello, Double Bass, Piccolo, Flute, Oboe, English Horn, Clarinet, Bass Clarinet, Bassoon, Contra Bassoon, Horn, Cornet, Trumpet, Tenor Trombone, Bass Trombone, Tuba, Tympan, Harp, Celesta. Nippon Columbia J230l2A-B J230l3A-B “Instruments of the orchestra”) Farbenkarte (“Schikimeisohkan” S. Wada) Vpn.: Psychologen Ergebnisse der Experimente: 1) Assoziation des Geruchs. Mit dem Geruch assozieren wir hauptsächlich Schönheitsmittel, Nahrungsmittel, Arzneimittel, Pflanzen, u. a. Und unter 66 Riechstoffen 40 (60%) assozierten 2 oder mehr Vpn. identisch. Einige Riechstoffe assozierten nicht als tatsachlich vorhandene Sache, sondern lösten andere Empfindungen wie Geschmacksinn, Tastsinn, Farbensinn aus. Es gibt also Riechstoffe, die mit der Stimmung assozierten. II) Gefühlsmassigkeit des Geruchs. Wenn man den Geruch nach der Richtung von Lust-Unlust beurteilt, so drucken unter 66 Riechstoffen 35 konstante Gefühle aus. Sie können mit der Richtung der Gef¨uhle sehr innig zusammenhängen, und. der Rest wird nicht von der Richtung des Lust-Uniust-Gefühls bestimmt. Wenn man also versucht diesen ars etwas anderes als das Lust-Unlust-Gefuhl darzustellen, so kann man denselben von den Empflndungen absondern. Der absolute Geruch ist mehr zuständlich als gegenstandlich. Nun möchten wir untersuchen welches die Eigenschaften des zuständlichen Geruchs sind. III) Attribut des Geruchs. Die Eigenschaften, die von den Vpn. ars Attribut des Geruchs beurteilt wurden waren, waren “Schwere”, “Leichtigkeit”, “Helligkeit”, “Dunkelheit”, “Wärme”. “Kälte”.u.a. Solche Eigenschaftenhangen viermehr von dem charakter der Vpn. als von dem Charakter der Riechstoffe ab. Ein und derselbe Riechstoff kann verschiedene Attribute bei verschiedenen Vpn. ergeben. Es ist ungewiss ob die “Helligkeit”, die bekannte intermodale Eigenschaft, ein blosser Attribut der Empfindung ist, Sollte es nicht einige weitere gemeinsame Eigenschaften zwischen “Helligkeit” und “Leichtigkeit,” sowie “Dunkelheit” und “Schwere” geben? Die Beurteilung der Attribute von den Vpn. ist verschiedenartig je nach der Intentionalitat der Vpn., und die Bedingungen welche die Richtung der Intentionalitat bestimmen, hangen von dem Charakter der Vpn. ab. IV) Die Beziehung des Geruchs zu den TOnen odei Farben. Die Intermodalität des Geruchs mit dem Ton beruht nicht unmittelbar auf dem Attribut der Empfindungen, der Geruch und der Ton werden analogisiert indem sic andere Empfindungen, Gefühle oder Assoziationen vermitteln. Aber bei der Vergleichung des Geruchs mit Farben zeigt sich die intermodale Erscheinung. Das System der Farben stimmt nicht immer dem System des Geruchs überein. Die Eigenschaften, bei denen die Übereinstimmung zwischen Geruch und Farbe vorhanden ist, waren “Helligkeit”, “Intensität” und “Wärme”.
The Law of Prägnanz introduced by M. Wertheimer (Psychol. Forsch., 4, 1923) means that the perceptual organizations (i. e. seen or heard etc. Gestalten) will always be as good and simple as the prevailing conditions allow. It may be called then in other words the law of good segregation or law of simplicity; and this tendency to become simple and good is not characteristic only to perception, but should be regarded as the fundamental tendency for all psychological organizations, whether it be comparatively simultaneous process as visual perception or successive one as, for instance, mental action, which will also tend to be simple or good according to its whole situation. In this way we can proceed with our study into any other psychological field, where the Law of Pragnanz proper to it will be found out. Now when we consider the process of drawing things which has already been organized by the factors of perceptual segregation, what are the conditions or factors that determine this successive process of mental action, which necessarily has to start from one part and finish in any other part, and necessarily be thought to take good and simple way? In short, what are the orders and directions of the process, and what are the characteristics in this field? We wanted to examine them by means of contour figures, as Wertheimer did, for they are the best representations of the natures of things. The experiment was executed from Feb. 1935 to Jan. 1937, in the Psychological Institute of Tokyo Imperial University, with 54 sorts of figures, and 80 psychological students as subjects. The subject, sitting at the table, was shown a contour figure drawn on a white paper of 2×19cm for 2-10sec., that was thought enough for him to understand the figure. Then, after this figures was covered, he was required to draw it with a pencil on a similar but smaller white paper. Results: (Refer the numbers of figures etc. to the Japanese text.) I. Our drawing process as a sort of mental action has general and common tendencies, the origin of which cannot be explained from the view point of empiricism, but must be regarded as natural and spontaneous tendencies for the process; for children under five years of age who scarcely are thought to have drawn such figures frequently or taught how to draw them, do almost the same as the adult. (chap. I. & IX.) II. The segregations of the process of drawing are primarily subjected to Wertheimer's factors of perception (1. proximity 2. equality 3. good continuation 4. closure 5. good shape), that is, figures are drawn as they are seen; although there are many deviations from them in this field, and in fact it is very easy even to segregate voluntarily the process againt the spontaneous orders, which in perception is very difficult to change. (chap. I, Fig. 1-8) III. A drawing process as a successive action, moreover, segregates naturally according to its special law of segregation, in which the part drawn at first plays the rôle of anchorage and becomes the base, and the parts done subsequently are localized in relation to the former. Thus we can find the fundamental natures which make the superior parts as they are, and can call them the factors of Prägnanz in the drawing process. Considering the structure of our hands and the natures of objects, we can count the factors as follows: A. Factors of Spatial Orders. (chap. II. Fig. A, B. & 9-21, Tab. II-VII.) a) Upper side is superior to lower side. b) Left side is to right side (vice versa with left-handers). There are seen not only with straight lines, but also with separate figures; not only with the directions of strokes of parts, but also with those of the whole figures. These a) and b) are said to be the phisiolomechanical factors. c) Nearer (this) side is superior to further (that) side.
It has been proved experimentally by such investigators as De Camp, Tolman, Kuo, Clements and Anderson that when we make white rats choose between both paths in the maze, one of which is spatially or temporarily shorter than the other, they learn to prefer the shorter alley within certain limits of the experimental conditions. Now, that the animal preferred one path to the other is admitted by its beginning to take uniformal runs to the one path which is more advantageous, while up to then it had been running to either path irregularly. Those serial runs to the one side assume a habitual nature and tend to mechanize at last if they are continued. Before they shall have a mechanical turn, if we make them discontinue only with such small numerical repetitions as nine times or ten, then the animal has for some time a raw or transient habit to go to the side which has been adapted to. After the lapse of a definite length of time, the same animal can remake such a momentary habit, this time to the other path, under the reversed condition. These two experiments, one of the right path adaptation and the other of the left, made under the same essential condition, compose one experimental set and if several sets of this sort under the different teaction conditions are repeated one after another with the same animals at the given interval, in a certain occasion of a later set of the experiment the transient habit of each animal which has been formed directly before comes to stabilize to the path and now each animal will no more respond to the experimental condition, as if a pendulum which had been swinging somewhat asymmetrically to right and left were attracted to any one side with declining oscillations and came to standstill. Now, in case each animal assumes a transient habit as the result of the trialand-error runs, it displays some differences of adaptive easiness between on the right path and on the left, notwithstanding that the essential condition of reaction remains the same on either side. In most animals, those apparent handedness tendencies manifesting themselves on early occasion continue in the constant relation to the end through the experiments of several sets, although in some animals they become reversed, or in others ambiguous in the course. Therefore, in these connections, some types of stabilization can be sought after. To this experiment, subject animals had been attended to with regard to learning ability, disposition, sex, any test-experience and especially, age. Consequently, animals of either sex, four to six months old only had been chosen, because such ones can form adaptive habits to any one side path, in these repeated experiments, better and easier than the younger; each animal singled out ran to either food-box in the maze 8 times, or in one case 10 a day; two consecutive days of experiment, one off-day was given according to the Katz's experimental researches; the interval between experiments was restricted to ten days. The research was made with three kinds of experiment, one of which consisted in preferring the temporarily shorter path to the longer, the second the less obstructive path to the more and the third the spatially shorter to the longer. In the first experiment an U-shaped maze was used, each path of which was 150 centimetre long to either food-box from the entrance; while the ratio of the detention time length in one path to that in the other, in two classes, was decreased per experimental set, as 0.5':7.5' to 1':7.5', then to 2':7.5' etc., in the other it was increased, as 4':7.5' to 3':7.5', then to 2':7.5' and so on. In the second experiment, the ratio of the quantity of obstacles to be got over in one path to that in the other of the U-shaped maze was enlarged one set after another, as 2:3 to 2:4, or 2:7.5 to 2:8 and so on.
Out of many experiments on the crowing of cocks, I will report here the following four with their results. 1. Observation on the deafened cocks till the first utterance of the normal crowing. 2. Observation on the seasonal variation of the hours of crowing at the early dawn. 3. Effects of hormones on the crowing. 4. Effects of separation and cohabitation on the crowing of the cocks treated with hormones. 1. Cocks deafened 35 days after hatching begin to crow as development proceeds. 2 . In deafened cocks the interval between the hatching and the first utterance is ten days longer than in the normal ones. 3. As regards to the notes and the number of their change there is no essential difference between the deafened and the normal cocks. 4. The hours of the crowing are constant throughout the year. 5. The hours of the crowing are independent of the brightness of the environment. 6. The days to be spent between the hatching and the first utterance are less in the individuals treated with hormones than in the normal ones. They are in the mean 72 days in the individuals injected and 76 days in the individuals fed with hormones. 7. The interval between the first utterance and the normal crowing is constant whether or not the cocks are treated with hormones. 8. The treatment with hormones is, therefore, most effective from the time of hatching till the first utterance. 9. In the individuals treated with hormones a tendency to frequent periodical crows is very remarkable. 10. By treating with hormones the number of times of crowing is augmented as compared with the previous results; and the difference in the number of crowing between the cases of separation, cohabitation and reseparation is more re-markable in the individuals treated with hormones than in the normal ones. 11. In the individuals treated with hormones the change in the number of times of crowing is more obvious in the afternoon than in the morning. 12. The crowing of the cocks is induced by the stimulus of the sexual hormo-nes of their own, and the wax and wane of this stimulus appears as the change in the number of times of crowing. The testis is therefore the very centre of the crowing. 13. The crowing of the cock is in some sense a substitute for copulation . A slight stimulus of the hormones is alleviated by the crowing . When the stimulus is strong enough, the act of copulation is induced. It is why the crowing is more frequent in the case of separation than in the case of cohabitation. 14. The grade of sexual excitation and the frequency of the crowing go always. hand in hand. The latter can therefore be taken as an indicator of the former.
In the dark room two stimuli consisted of light points were successively exposed on both sides of and at various heights in relation to a certain fixationpoint under conditions that gave rise to optimal movements. When the stimuli were exposed at the same height in relation to the fixationpoint the movement appeared as if it passed through behind that point, namely the pathway lied in the third dimension of space. If the position of stimulation was at different level (upper or lower) to the fixationpoint the pathway described a curve convexly to the fixationpoint as though that was pulled by the latter. This amount of bending of the pathway was the most when the disparity of the heights of stimuli and the fixationpoint was medium and the amount was less when the disparity was very little as well as when it was very much. Even if the depth of the stimuli from observer was varied the appearance generally did not change. The fixationpoint, too, was changed to an extremely small one, but the form of the pathway remained unchanged. It was found finally that even when the fixationpoint was taken away the pathway bended quite as usual convexly to the spot which had been gazed.
In the various studies on time-errors, some authors experimented each timeinterval separately in discrete series, and the others combined several sorts of time-intervals in an irregular order in one series. The purpose of this study was to compare these two procedures as regards time-errors in the field of discrimination of auditory intensities. The experiment consisted of two series which were alike in all respects except that in series (A) only one sort of time-interval was experimented each day while in series (B) all sorts of time-interval were combined haphazardly. Wirth's Vollreihenmethode was used in both series. The intensity of the standard was 6 Barkhausen phon. For subject M. series (A) preceded series (B), and subject K. was given series (B) before sines (A). Results show that the time-errors were more remarkable in series (B) than in series (A). (See Fig. 1, 2. in Japanese text, which indicate the points of subjective equality for each time-interval.)