心理学研究
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12 巻 , 6 号
選択された号の論文の6件中1~6を表示しています
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  • 山根 清道
    12 巻 (1937) 6 号 p. 223-252
    公開日: 2013/05/21
    ジャーナル フリー
    Probleme:
    1) Wie und wieweit können wir die gekrummten Langen mit der Geraden vergleichen?
    2) Wieweit können wir es im Vergleichen zwischen verschiedenartig gekrümmten Langen bringen?
    3) Was ist die psychologische Eigenschaft der “gekrünunten Linien”?
    4) Was ist die psychologische Bedeutung der Lange der Linien?
    5) Die Analyse des Vergleichsprozesses.
    Experimente:
    1. Vergleich von 5-artigen Bogenstiicken mit Geraden. (Abb 1.)
    N.:{I K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 Gerade, 1/32 Kreis, 1/16 K., 1/8 K., 1/4 K., 1/2 K.,
    V.: Gerade (etwa 11cm lang).
    Dicke der N. und V.=0.5mm.
    Jede ein Paar Figuren (N.-links, V.-rechts; od. V.-links, N.-rechts) sind mit schwarzer Tusche auf weissem Papier gebildet. Apparate: siehe Abb. 2. Jeder N. wird von Vp. 8-mal verglichen und gemessen. Bel Methode der bestmoglichen Herstellung, Gleichwertigkeit und Durchschnitt.
    2. Vergleich von 8-artigen Bogenstücken mit Geraden.
    N.:{I A B C D E F G H Gerade, 1/8 K., 1/4 K., 3/8 K., 1/2 K., 5/8 K., 3/4 K., 7/8 K., Kreis
    N.-Länge=5cm. (Abb. 4)
    V. und. Methode sind gleich wie Exp 1., abet nur auf dem. Fall von N.-links V.-rechts.
    Mit denselben Apparaten werden auch nächste zwei Experimente versucht
    2a. Mit nach oben konvexer Bogenstüicken.
    2b. Mit nach links konvexer Bogenstücken.3. 8 verschiedenförmige Bogenstucke init einem bestimmten Krümmungsgrad.
    N.:{A' B' C' D' E' F' G' H' 1/8 K., 1/4 K., 3/8 K., 1/2 K., 5/8 K., 3/4 K., 7/8 K., Kreis.
    N.-Länge: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8cm.
    Der jeden Bogenstück einhaltende Kreis hat etwa 1.27cm. Diameter . (Abb. 11)
    4. Zwei Gruppe der gleichförmigen Bogenstücken mit verschiedenen Krümmungsgrad.
    N.:{3/8 Kreis.: C3, C4, C5, C6, 1/2 Kreis.: D3, D4, D5, D6.
    N.-Länge.: 3, 4, 5, 6cm.
    Die Methode der Exp. 3. und 4. sind gleich als Exp. 2. (Abb. 13)
    5. Vergleich verschiedener gekrummten Länge mit den bestimmtförmigen Bogenstücken.
    N. sind gleich wie Exp. 2. V.-Form=3/8 Kreis.
    V.-Länge: 34, 36, 38...48, 50, 52...66mm.
    Jeder N. und jeder V. ist auf weissem Papier gebildet. Die Vp. vergleicht jeden N. mit jedem V. bei Methode der Minimaldnderungen.
    6. V.-Form=5/8 Kreis. Alle andere Bedingungen sind gleich wie Exp. 5.
    Betrachtungen der Resultate:
    I. Im Vergleichen von Länge zwei verschiedenformiger Krümmungen wird es erstens beide Krümmen auf irgendeinem Felde aufeinanderzusetzen versucht. Demgemäss werden die Formen beider Krümmen auf irgendeinem Prozesse näher zu machen bestrebt.
    1) Dabei tritt zuerst primär das Nähermachen der stärker Gekrümmten zur Schwacheren mit möglichst geringerer Veränderung ihrer Länge. “Kurve auszudehnen od. zu erdrücken” ist der Fall. Aber wenn die Gestaltheit der stärker Gekrümmten so stark ist (z. B. Vollkreis), dass sie nicht so leicht ausgedehnt (od. erdrückt) werden kann, so wird die Ernaherung beider Formen durch das “Biegen” der schwather Gekrummten erreicht. Und diese Richtung-von schwächeren zu stärkeren-kann sekundär auch bei Kurve mit schwächerer Gestaltheit offenbar werden.
    2) Abet wenn die Veränderung der Form in gegebener Form schwer ist, so zuweilen werden beide .Kurve in gleichen Teile geteilt, um ihre Formänderung leichter zu machen. Die Formen der geteilten Kurventeile jeder Seite können sich dadurch zueinander nähern.
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  • 黒木 總一郎
    12 巻 (1937) 6 号 p. 253-269
    公開日: 2013/05/21
    ジャーナル フリー
    S. W. Kraukov showed, in his experiments, that the visual acuity was influenced by the auditory stimulation, and infered that, by the summation of the excitation in the brain-centr, the excitation of a sensorial sector was increased by the indirect stimulation given through the other sense organs.
    In my investigation I tried to prove his hypothesis by showing the influence of light-stimulus upon the differential-threshold of the intensity and pitch of the tone.
    Procedure: Wirth's Mothod of “Complete Series” was used. The influence of light-stimulus was deduced out of the deviation of the threshold of N., in which the light was given simultaneously with the standard tone, from that of V., in which the light was given simultaneously with the variable tone.
    If light-stimulus, as Kravkov says, intensifies the tone phenomenally, the threshold of N. may shift upwards while that of V. downwards. So D (Sn.-Sv.)>0 (Sn. and Sv. are the points of subjective equality of cases N. and V. respectively.) On the contrary,if light-stimulus weakens the tone, D<O.
    Tones:474 d. v. or 800 d. v., 3.5-4.5 phon for the intensity threshold. 992-1008 d. v.,4 phon for the pitch threshold. Two tones were given successively for somparison, their durations and interval being 1 second respectively.
    As light-stimulus, the change of light (usually 5-200 watt) was used.
    Apparatus: Vacuum-tube Oscillator for tone-marking. The light was given hrough a small window (usually 1×1cm square) of a box (100×75×75cm) vith the electric lamps attached inside.
    Subjects: 22 members and students of our institute.
    Results: 1) Light-stimulus intensifies the tone phenomenally when the change f light is 5-200W. (See Tab. V. Fig. 2, 3 in Japanese text p. 258)
    2) Such influence of light is smaller, when the window is large. (4×4 cm, 6 x 16cm). (Tab. VII-XI in p.260-261)
    3) The influence of light is smaller, when the entire field of vision is illuminated.
    4) The degree of the Influence increases as the degree of the change of light tcreases. (Tab. XII, XIII in p. 262)
    5) When the starting point of light-stimulus does not coincide with the tone; the influence is very small, while the influence is great even when light-stimulus is given only for 1/3 second, if its starting point coincides with that of the tone. (Fig. 5., Tab, XIV, XVI, in p. 263-265)
    From this fact, the dynamical process, caused in the optical sector at the moment when light-stimulus is given, may be said to be more effective to increase the intensity of the tone phenomenally than the quasi-stationary process which follows the dynamical one.
    6) The tone is weakened phenomenally when the light changes from 200 w to 5w. (Tab. XVIII, Fig. 7 in p. 266)
    7) From the deviation of the threshold of pitch,we maysay thatl ight-stimulus makes the tone appear higher. (Tab. XXI, Fig. 8 in p. 268)
    As above mentioned, the light influences in two different ways upon the intensity of tone on one hand and upon the pitch on the other . This may be due to the context of the series of tones in, each case.
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  • 川島 眞一
    12 巻 (1937) 6 号 p. 270-289
    公開日: 2013/05/21
    ジャーナル フリー
    The influence of time-interval upon the time-error was shown by köhler and Wada concerning the successive comparison of the intensity or the pitch of tone.
    In my experiments, such influence was investigated by comparing the range of arm motion successively.
    Apparatus: Kinematometer.
    Procedure: Method: Wirth's method of ‘complete series.’
    The range of arm motion was indicated in angle; Standard: 10°, Variables: 7°, 8°, 9°, 10°, 11°, 12°. 13°.
    Kinds of time-interval: 1, 2, 4, 8 sec.
    Manners of arm motion: active-fast; active-slow; passive-fast; passive-slow.
    Results:
    1. When the manner of arm motion was active-fast and under good conditions, either the positive time-error decreased or the negative time-error increased with the increase of time-interval.
    2. When arm motion was passive-slow, such a relation was reversed.
    3. This difference may be due to the structure of kinematic perception the segregation in the perceptual field is greatest when the manner of arm motion is active-fast while the segregation is weakest when it is passive-slow.
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  • 太城 藤吉
    12 巻 (1937) 6 号 p. 290-308
    公開日: 2013/05/21
    ジャーナル フリー
    Tapping movements, when carried out consecutively, constitute a Gestalt and there are many factors determining its segregation and unification. I wished in the following experiment to clarify the temporal factors among them.
    The experiment was executed by means of two-targets tapping movements. The important results obtained were as follows.
    1. When the tapping movements at two targets were executed at spontaneous, natural rate, a compound form with articulation in figure and ground was built and the meaning of each separate tapping movement disappeared. But in case the movements were carried out at slow or fast rate the compound form above mentioned did not appear. At slow rate two tappings were entirely separated, while at fast they were, not separated at all but built a single whole movement without distinction of figure and ground. So it can be said that tapping movements vary their form according to their rate.
    2. The rate of movement consists of Tempo (duration, time interval) and Speed (distance/time), and they could be seen to have respectivel a determining power on the movement-form.
    3. Then, which of the two, Tempo or Speed, is a more powerful determining factor? The results of experiment were as follows. If Tempo was the same, no matter how Speed was varied, the movement-form was not altered. But even if Speed was kept constant, when Tempo was varied, the movement-form was altered also. Accordingly we can say that Tempo is a more powerful determining factor than Speed.
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  • 玉岡 忍
    12 巻 (1937) 6 号 p. 309-321
    公開日: 2013/05/21
    ジャーナル フリー
    I tested the so-called “Musical Talents” of pupils of several middle-schools and students of a university, using for the purpose Seashore's Musical Talent Tests, which consist of six sub-tests; the sense of pitch, intensity, time, consonance, rhythm, and the tonal memory. The first aim of my study was to investigate the correlations between musical talents and general mental development, and the second to ascertain the intercorrelations among the six tests and the results of the musical examinations of one middle-school. Finally, I intended to determine the number of factors and their loadings of these tests, and personal types based on them, using Thurstone's “Multiple Factor Technique” and its inverted application.
    The main results are as follows:
    1. The correlations between musical testresults and maturity are generally low, and the difference between the sexes is insignificant.
    2. The sense of intensity attained the largest mean. This fact reveals the generality and easiness of the test. The consonance and tonal memory tests had the smallest mean.
    3. The correlation coefficients among the six tests are not the same, nor are they so large. The correlations between pitch and the other tests are relatively large, but it is very small between consonance and the others, etc. Probably this indicates the specialities of these tests.
    4. These tests were factorized in three; the first-the General Broad Factorseeming to show the most important musical bearing of the tests, the second and the third the special narrow group factors. Among these tests pitch and tonal memory have the first factor loadings relatively larger than that of time, rhythm, and the others, and the personal differences depend upon those two tests, which have the larger first factor loadings.
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  • 丘 直通
    12 巻 (1937) 6 号 p. 322-324
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
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