1. When we see ordinarily a certain object moving in a definite direction, the visual field, in which such a movement occurs, contains many points of anchorage and usually a fixed spacial level is formed. Now, we may ask what a phenomenon appears in the path of seen movement, if the conditions for the formation and conservation of such a spacial level are absent. We took off all points, of anchorage, leaving in total darkness one single point alone, which was moved actually in different directions. The apparent movement of it was very uncertain, unstable and variable. In spite of the real path, which was a linear one, it showed curved displacements, which were different for different directions; it was stable for a vertical direction, one of the main spacial axes, in comparison with the others, and there was a difference too between “upwards” and “downwards”, the former being more stable than the latter. 2. Observers were instructed to observe monocularly throughout the experiments, and in this series of experiment they were especially instructed to fixate, not the moving point itself, but some other points and were asked to report on the displacement of the path especially in relation to these points. The results showed that the path bent towards the fixation-point. The degree of displacement, however, was different for different conditions, among which the distance between the fixation-point and the moving point, their relative spacial positions and the direction of actual movement were prevalent. As for the fixation-point, it moved also towards or away from the moving point in the form of induced movement. It was analogous to the behaviour of well known autokinetic movement, for instance, investigated by J. P. Guilford (1928). On the contrary, when the moving point was fixated, while another point was located in the visual field, the following two cases were reported, viz. 1) the resting point moved inductively towards the moving point, while the path of the latter did not curve, or 2) the path of the movement was drawn to the resting point, which stood still. In such a case, as soon as these two points appeared in the visual field, there was a direction formed between them. We may call this direction a figural one and distinguish it from a spacial direction. 3. Such figural directions established between two or three points were investigated in the following series of experiment. Among the figural directions, a direction of the line, which was made up by the resting points, was especially dominant, so that the moving point moved parallel to or perpendicular to it , so far as the discrepancy between the figural directions and the direction of movement itself was not too large. Next, the relation between the figural direction and the special one was examined in such a way, that a line of light was exposed in a definite arrangement instead of the resting points. The moving point moved along to the lighted line, so far as it stood parallel to main spacial axes within a certain limit of shifting. Consequently it is explained that the spacial level is not always determined by the real space or the retinal one, but characterized by the objective-phenomenal property, which has been indicated by E. Oppenheimer (1935) , and sometimes it can be also substituted by the figural directions. 4. When all resting objects are removed from the visual field, the movement of single point may have an egocentric localization. Observers were instructed to incline the head to 45° sidewards throughout this experiment. The results showed that the path of movement deviated from real one as follows: in the vertical direction, the upwards movement bent in a direction similar to the inclination of head, but the downwards one to the contrary to it, and in the horizontal, both the rightwards and the leftwards movements curved to upwards.
Problem: It has been precisely and accurately written especially by Koffka that the perceived depth was the product of organisation and not to be explained by many other factors. Therefore whether a plane figure is seen as solid or not depends upon the prevailing organisation. But if we accept the proposition that our tridimensional space in its totality is the product of organisation, we can no longer be satisfied with such a vague thesis. A step farther, we must find systematically the determining factors of such a tridimensional organisation.Experiments: For this purpose, we used large and small light-lines as distant stimuli and exposed them in quick succession for the sake of stimulus reduction. Two light-lines (0.5cm. wide, 10cm. length; 50cm. wide, 20cm. length) were presented vertically in dark room 3m. apart from O's eyes, and the distance between these two lines was chiefly 5cm. At first I made the experiment to determine the time-relation of stimulus condition by keeping the size of objects and the distance between them constant. Then keepipg the time-relation constant, I tried to vary the size and the quality of objects. Next I attempted to vary the situation of objects. At the end of series of these experiments, I tried to vary the structure of space in which the experiment was pursued. Results.1) The time-relation as stimulus condition, in which optimal movements were seen, consisted of long exposition-time and short interval-time. 2) The relation between the stadia of apparent movements and the degree of perceived depth was not univocal, but it was sure that if any movement at all was seen, the perceived depth was decidedly clear. Therefore it can be said that the seen movement determines the perceived depth. 3) But further I found that the form of movement was a more inclusive factor, therefore perceived depth was not so much determined by the movement itself as by its form. 4) Even if the form of movement determines the perceived depth, it is, too, included in the factor of the structure of space in a broader sense.
Problem: The ‘induced reproduction’ here meant is reproduction caused by remote association, which is, to the writer's belief, due to the same mechanism as that of psycho-physical induction on the level of perception. In his pioneer work entitled ‘Uber das Geddchtnis,’ Ebbinghaus has shown that, in learning a series of syllables, associations are formed not only between immediately adjacent items, but also between those which are not immediately adjacent, the strength of this remote association declining with the increasing degree of remoteness. The purpose of the present investigation is to attack the same problem from a wholly different angle, studying it by the recall method instead of by the saving method devised by Ebbinghaus. The associative prosesses examined in the following experiments are of various degrees of complexity. They range from a simple process such as an associative response to a single digit, to more complex activities such as the constructing of nonsense syllables, the free-association-test following the Kent-Rosanoff's technique, etc. As we shall see in the following report, all these phenomena can be deduced from the principle of induced reproduction discovered in simple association experiments. Experiments and Results: Experiment I: Experimental procedure is as follows; subjects were requested to write a digit between 1 and 9 when they heard a stimulus digit (digits used as stimuli are those from. 1 to 9). Instruction was given to avoid mere repetition of a presented digit as well as an immediate sequence in number order suck as 5 (stimulus)6 (response) or 5.(stimulus)4(response) A large number of responses was collected by successively , presenting a series of digits. Each response was scored for its serial position relative to a stimulus digit; that is, the remoteness of each response digit from a stimulus one was computed. The data were then massed in tabular form and the graph was constructed from this table. Inspection of Fig. 1 in the Japanese text p. 336 shows that the strength of the reproductive influence declines with the increasing distance of the numbers from one another. This finding is in harmony with the most direct expectation from Ebbinghaus experiment. Experiment II: The same thing holds true of the alphabet (a, b, c) and the musical scale (do, re, mi, fa) materials. See Table 2 (Fig. 2) and Table 3 in the Japanese text. We thus see how the recall of an image of various sorts may be conditioned by the principle of induced reproduction. Now, it is clear that, if a term ‘numerical distance’ be substituted for a ‘spatial distance,’ the present results reveal a close resemblance between the induced reproduction and the psycho-physical induction on the level of perception. Thus the reproductive and perceptual processes must be deducible from a single set of assumotions linking both fields. Experiment III: In the experiments described thus far, the remote association has been tested with a single-letter-stimulus. In the following experiments an attempt was made to test the concept with combined stimuli such as pt, nb, etc. or 27, 83, etc. These were presented in the same manner as in the previous experiments. Subjects were asked to write down two other letters when they heard a stimulus syllable (two-letters-syllable). An associative response in this experiment becomes, as might be supposed. somewhat complicated, since new associative connections in addition to the former one come into play. There is good reason to believe that every letter in a response syllable is, in some manner, connected with every other letter of a stimulus syllable. The most important of these, however, is that which leads from an initial letter to a final one in a response syllable. We may briefly show the situation as follows: stimulus response The experimental result was summarised in Fig.
To explain the called pro active and retroactive inhibitions, there can be historically three main possible principles. The first is the theory of perseveration to explain the retroactives mentioned by G. E. Muiler and A. Pilzecker. The second is the transfer theory which prevails now in U. S. A. The last IS set forth by W. Kohler and K. Koffka. We want to name it as the “trace field theory.” The perseveration theory says as follows: inhibitions of original activity functions in a manner to ‘intensify’ the interpolated activity. The transfer theory makes the inhibition to be functions of “similarity” between the original and the interpolated learnings. The trace field theory admits the similarity to be an important factor of inhibition, but it does not say anything more, it assumes the “trace field”-the buildings of aggregation (Be reichsbildung) which occur dynamincally in this field are regarded as the important point to explain these inhibitions. The object of our study is to show from a new point which is the most plausible of these three explanations. The inaccuracy of perseveration theory was attacked by both transfer-and. trace field theory. My object, in short, is there fore, to see which is better of transfer- and trace field theories. I. The stimulus constellations of experiments are taken from Japanese Text p.380 Table 1. A, B, C. stand for materials of learning such as nonsense syllables, numbers, figures, etc. If the transfer theory is better there can be seen no difference in tendency of average right revivality for items of critical series. When the trace field theory is right on the contrary, there should be seen clear tendency for first constellation. Now, the results of six experiments made under different conditions were always better favourable for the trace field theory (See p. 382 Tab. 2). II. In the second experiments materials were two stimulus constellations from Japanese Text p.383 Tab. 3. Between S and N there are some similarity. If the transfer theory is better, the right revival of the items of critical series should be aiways small in lst constellation. When the trace field theory is better, there can not be such revival , at all. The results of experiment are more favourable for the trace field theory. (See p. 384 Tab. 4.) III.By these two foregoing results we can anticipatete the validity of the trace field theory.Next experiments are the verification of this theory. The stimulus Constellations are composed of the materials the Japanese Text p. 385 Tab. 5 gives. Materially four As, the critical items, are identical in both constellations. Experimental processes: 1) Pre-experiments are done by critical series only and decide the differential relations among the right revivality of four As in both constellations. 2) As the main experiments the learning of critical-and interpolated series are imposed successively, and then the differential relations of four As in both constellations are decided. If the trace field theory is to be adopted,the right revivaliry of four As in main experiments should be greater in the 1st constellation than in the 2nd. Because, from the view point of Gestalt theory, when the both series are learned successively each series can not be arithmetically added, but they build a new Gestalt in which these four As come to play quite a different part. This assumption was experimentally realized. (See p. 386 Tab. 6.) From all the above experimental investigations, then, we conclude .thhat the right principle of inhibitions is trace field theory. Taking the trace field theory as durable, we propose here that the same field is able to provoke two phenomena, the inhibitions and the accelearations which are contrary to each other.
What does it mean from a psychological point of view, that one word has, many different meanings? In order to know this function, I made a kind of simple experimental study about the concept-formation. According to A. Willwoll's method, I gave subjects a strange couple of words as stimulus, and made them form a superordinate concept common to these two words. Then I asked the subjects to give reports on their experiences during the process of concept-formation. As the results of this experiment, I am sure that the process of concept-formation is explained as follows: When a stimulus, which is adequate, is given, a certain thought-situation is formed according to the present total situation. At the same time a “Signalement”, which may be called “Figur” on this basic thought-situation, is composed, and this Signalement has three directions, viz. direction of sketch, of programme, and of intention. On the other hand, thoughtsituation is moveable and it makes its own completion entirely in proportion to Signalement's intention. In the meantime, reasoning, judgement, and abstraction, which are involved in the process of concept-formation, are performed in mutual dependence. For example, the abstraction does not mean to draw out only the common (a) from P(a, b, c) and Q(a, in, n) and cast away others as unnecessary. When (a) P and (a) Q are taken from original P and Q, immediately a new concept (a) PQ is formed. This process may be contained in “Umstrukturierung” in a broad sense. Three kinds of images were reported in this experiment, viz, the image of things, symbolical diagramatic images and verbal images. They are not always essential to concept-formation, but as far as they support and realize thought-configuration, they are useful. Emotion and will appear as essential and inevitable factors in the process of concept-formation. Will works as the intention in the process and emotion too, as far as it cooperates with will, does the same. However, more powerful as determining conditions on the concept-formation are subjects' inherent and acquired characters, circumstances, and worldliness of their lives. They operate as a unity and may be called the human context. The concept is generally formed in this way, but not every concept passes through this course. Some of them are formed at the same time when the thoughtsituation is formed.