The aim of this monograph is to investigate critically the method of ‘Single comparisons’, which is most commonly used for the study of ‘constancy of shape’ Under the conditions approximating to reduction, the larger the spatial distance between the standard object (KO) and the variable object (VO) becomes the rounder becomes perceived shape, so that the relation between the degree of inclination of KO and the index of phenomenal regression (shortened as I-p-r infra) cannot be considered so constant and simple as K. Eisler and K. Koffka say. I have found that the I-p-r, when the spatial distance between KO and VO is small and the degree of inclination of KO is smaller than 30°, will takes a minus value (Exp. I.). Perhaps this is due to the fact that the VO, the measuring scale distorts itself and appears rounder because when the spatial distance between KO and VO is small, KO and VO appear symmetrical or parallel. Thus, for example, even if VO, an eclipse, which is 200mm in the vertical axis and 190mm in the horizontal, appears to us equal to an eclipse which is 200mm in the vertical axis and 194mm in the horizontal, we always calculate I-p-r by supposing that KO appears to the subject equal to the former eclipse. I have by an experiment, demonstrated that the objectively constant objects which are presented to a subject in the frontal-parllel plane (shortened as F-p-p infra) appear differently shaped according to conditions, and will appear alike only when the objects are placed under the same field-conditions (Exp. 3.). This result shows again the defect of the method of single comparisons. If the method of single comparisons is without defect the object which is objectively presented in the F-p-p must always appear to us to have the same shape. Truly, in the method of comparisons we have given the VO a role as a measuring scale of the perceived shape of KO, but it is a scale which is physico-geometrically established. In this sense VO is an ‘objective’ scale. But it does not mean that the VO can also be an objective scale in the field of comparisons. Hitherto, it has rather been assumed that VO which is objectively presented to a subject in the F-p-p and constant in its ‘real shape’, is hence constant in its retinal as well as in its perceived shape. Under such assumptions experiments have hitherto been conducted. However, the results of our experiments show that the object, even if it is objectively presented to us in the F-p-p will present different perceived shapes depending on conditions, and will look alike only when the field condition in which the object is placed is constant. That is the change in the condition of KO necessarily bring about a change of the perceived shape of VO, and this change in VO, in turn, affects the KO. The measuring scale affects the object to be measured, and the latter, in turn, affects the former. Therefore, VO can no longer serve as a valid measuring scale. The measurement value obtained by this method shows no more than the relative relation between KO and VO. The comparison of the results of experiments conducted under different conditions have no significance. Such a misconception arises from the overvaluation or misunderstandg of the F-p-p. It is questionable whether the F-p-p, can be an absolute standard. Theoretically, the F-p-p may be considerd as the ‘absolute standard’ or a ‘normalorientation’: and the F-p-p can be the ‘absolute standard’ or a ‘normal orientation’ only when ‘absolute localization’ or ‘ego-central, localizaltion’ takes place. But, even in the experimenta situation the localization of objects is determined relatively, and the F-p-p cannot be considered as the ‘absolute standard’. The ‘relative localization’ between KO and VO, the framework, the spatial situation, the pattern-system and the homoor
In an earler paper I have reported that the structure of visusl space when we bend forward and look backward between the spread legs, that is, when we assume ‘matanozoki-posture’ (shortened as M-P infra. ‘Matanozoki’ is a Japanese word) is different from that when we assume a normal erect posture (shortened as N-P infra) (3). Now, why does this change in the visual space take place? The following factors may be taken into consideration as relevant to the solution of this problem: 1. the framework-effect of the spread legs, 2. raising or lowering of the eyes according as the bearing of the position of the eyes upon the object varies (2), 3. the change of relations between the directions within the process of visual perception and the gradient within the tissue of the visual center (3), 4. the change of the field of visual perception according as the physical Ego varies. It is assumed thad this change in the visual space under M-P is due to the change in the organization of the field of visual perception which is caused by one or the combination of some or all of these factors. However, it was shown in a previous work of mine that the factors 1 and 2 are not essential in this respect. (4). The present article is an outcome of my attempt to clarify which of the factors 3 and 4 is essential, or whether both of them are essential. I made this study using the slight variation in the degree of size constancy (shortened as c infra) as a clue. In the first place, I made a comparison of two c's, c when the whole visual field is in a normal erect position (at 0°) and c when the whole visual field was turned upside-down (at 180°). In either case the body of the subject was kept in a normal erect posture. Further, in order to see more clearly the relative degree of c's at 0° and at 180°, I also measured c's in three different situations, 45°, 90° and 135°, as the whole visual field was beig turned to the right from 0° to 180°. The turning of the visual field was effected by means of a trapezoidal prism, and monocular regard was adopted. As a result of these experiments, it was found that the transitional relation of the degree of the c's in different situations took the form of c at 0°C>……>c at 90°C<……>c at 180° and that c at 0°=c at 180°. Thus it may be concluded that the factor 3 is not essentiasl in the determination of the structure of the visual space under M-P. Next, I compared c in M-P. with c in N-P. Under various conditions (binocular regard, monocular regard, use of a redudtion-tunnel, etc.). The results showed invariably that in each case c in N-P>c in M-P, suggesting the factor 4 might be the only essential cause of the change in the structure of the visual space under M-P. The change of the physical Ego (factor 4), however, takes place in two directions, (a) the change in the relation between the body and gravity and (b) the change in the bending of the body and thus we have to determine which of the two is the more essntial in our case. I compared, in the first place, two c's, c under the normal erect posture (at 0°) and c when the body of the subject was turned upside-down (at 180°). In addition to this, I measured c's in three different siuations, at 45°, 90° and 135° as the body was being turned to the left (so that the whole visual field was being turned to the right) from 0° to 180°. Here also I found that the transitional relation of the degree of c's in those different situations took, as in the case of the factor 3, the form of c at 0°>……<c at 180° and that c at 0°=c at 180°. This indicatcs that quite likely the factor 4-a may not play any important role in the determination of the nature of the field of visual perception under consideration. Thus, there remains only the factor 4-b to be tested. I have compared c when the
PROBLEM. The objective of these experiments is to determine the effects of preceding retinal stimulations upon the dominancy of one figare in the binocular rivalry. First, we begin with the conditions where, preeeding the rivalry of two antagonistic figures, one of them is given to one or both eyes. APPARATUS. and PROCDURE. Two circular light patches (1°15′ in visual angle) with five parallel odlique lines are exposed one to each eye on a sort of haploscope. In binoculrr image these two sets of lines are at right angles to each other and here riv lry can be observed. The duration of the appearance of each figure in seconds (t) and the nuuber of the appearance (n) are noted by two electric keys manipulated by Os' own hands. The observations which last 90 seconds with 30 seconds pause are repeated several times in direct s quence. The dominancy of one figure over the other is defined by ΔΔr=(tr/tl)2⋅(nl/nr) where r amd l refer to right and left respectively. If Δr>1 the right figure is dominant, and vice versa. In the following experiments, the figure applied to the left eye has always the same lines_??_ (in reality five lines), and to the right_??_. The condition is schematized as (L_??_·R_??_) in what follows. EXPERIMENTS AND RESULTS. 1. Precedi g the cnndition of rivalry we stimulated (a) the left eye with_??_, or (b) the right eye with_??_. The schema: (a) [L_??_·-]→[L_??_·R_??_] (b) [-·R_??_]→[L_??_·R_??_] In one O out of 5, the figure which preceded showed dominancy in rivalry, but in the other four cases the opposite figure became dominant more or lets significantly. In the following experiments we omitted the first O, in view of the main purpose of our investigation, and also of his personal incov nience. Hence the problem of the individual differenee in this respect is posiponed to future investigation. 2. To the remaining Os., a mere ci cular light patch was given to one eye as the preceding stimulus. Under this condition also, the figure given to the other eye showed dominancy, but the effect in this case is not so sigeificant as in 1. 3. The direct comparison of the effects manifested in 1. and 2. The results were not clear enough. 4. The same figure was given to both eyes as the preceding stimulus. Namely: (a) [L_??_·R_??_]→[L_??_·R_??_] (b) [L_??_·R_??_]→[L_??_·R_??_] The results showed the dominance of R_??_in (a). and of L_??_in (b). From these results cults we may conclude that the effect shown in 1 was not only the effect of mere light and of the figure upon retina, but was also influenced by the figurality i.e. the direction per se of oblique lines. 3. Here we gave the antagonistic figures as the preceding stimulus. Namely: (a) [L_??_·-]→[L_??_·R_??_] (b) [-·R_??_]→[L_??_·R_??_] The results were not clear. Perhaps, the effect of light as the preceding stimulus (shown in 2) and that of the figure (shown in 1 and 3) had canceled each other. 6. To one eye the preceding stimulus was the figure and to the othermere circular light patch. Namely: (a) [L_??_·RO]→[L_??_·R_??_] (b) [LO·R_??_]→[L_??_·R_??_] In (a) R_??_ was dominant while in (b) L_??_ was dominant. So the effect of figurality is greater than tha of mere light. CONCLUSION. We may conclude from these res lts that in the field of binocular rivalry, a preceding stimulation has an effect in point of its figurality. In our Os, it manifest itself as an effect which makes the figure antagonistic to the preceding one dominant in succeeding rivalry.
This study was takcn up to investigate the problem of so-called synaesthesia and was intended to determine experimentally the orders of apparent warmth and heaviness of colours. I Apparent warmth. Tree methods were used and the results were as follows: a. The order of merit method. 18 subjects were asked to arrange the coloured papers (10cm2) into a series ranging from th warm color to the cold. R→O→Y→V→G→W→Be→Bk. (R: red, O: orange, Y: yellow, V: violet, G: green, W: white, Be: blue, Bk: black) b. Paired comparison method. [Comparison of the coloured cards] 50 subjects. R→O→Y→V→G→Be→Bk→W [Comparison of the coloured fluids] Two beakers, identical in their form and volume, were filled with differently coloured waters equivalent in temperature The subject was asked to dip his fingers of both hands in each beaker at the same time and to judge the warmth of colored waters. Number of subjects: 10-20. R→O→Y→G→V→Bk→Be→W. II. Apparent heaviness Similar in methods as in I.. a. The order of merit method. Similar to I-a. Nnumber of subjects 15. Bk→Be→R→V→O→G→Y→W b. paired comparision method. [Comparison of the coloured cards] Circular cards were cut along their radius and a couple of them were put together at notch. The areas of both cards must be equal in one disc. Subjects were asked to tell when the slowly rotating coloured disc appeared the most stable. Subjects: 50. Bk→Be→V→R→O→G→Y→W [Comparison of coloured little boxes] Materials were coloured boxes (each 10cm3). Their weights were made equal when sand was put in them. Procedure: Subjects were asked to lift two boxes simultaneously with each hand. Subjects: 19. Bk→R→Be→V→G→O→Y→W. From the above results we arrived at the following conclusions. The order of apparent warmth of colour was: R→O→Y→V→G→Bk→Be→W. Excepting achromatic colours (W and Bk), this is roughly in accordance with the order of wave-lengths of light. In the case of apparent heaviness, the order was: Bk→Be→R→V→O→G→Y→W. Except achromatic colours, this order corresponds roughly with the inverse, order of apparent brightness.
An ideal personality may be regarded as tridimensional solid having ideal andreal aspects as two a bases. In infancy, nursery tales are both real and ideal at the same time, and their characters may live with real men on the same plane of reality. On the other hand, in adult's life, where people live between political ideals and real politics, their ideal personality is obviously tridimensional. The base of ideal personality on the plane of ideality cannot be grasped directly from the experimental group of subjects as a concrete region of personality, but we can investigate the bases of ideal personality on the plane of reality from the group, and then build up a solid from them. Accordingly we secure at first the crossing regions of ideal personalities with those of real personalities on the plane of reality, then calculated the correlation's quotients between the words which indicated the properties of the ideal personalities, and finally synthesized some ideal personalities according to the correation between them. The words, which indicate ideal personality, have 25 axes of opposite concepts, and are arranged according to their opposite nature. The group of subjects was given two instructions; -(1) “Think of an ideal personality of your friend (or teacher), and describe it concretely by the numbers of the words as much as you can”. (2) “Select and name one of your friends in this class (or your teachers in this school) who looks most like the ideal personality you described just now”. The test-papers were classified according to the indicated names and the numbers of the words at every names were calculated. At the next stage correlation's quotients between every two words were computed by the Pearson's method. Finally the words were picked up within certain limits of the quotients, which indicate the the degree of intimacy or strangeness between them. Thus we obtained certain numbers of ideal personality of pupils (or teachers) judged by pupils. In the pre-adolescent period, the ideal personality is much like the character in moral tales, and clearly shows the influence of heteronomous environment. At the level of the junior high school, the ideal personality begins to grow out of the moral tale and comes into the open field of frankness and humor, particularly in the ideal personality of teacher, the traits such as originality and sex are stressed. At the level of college, one can find the typical traits in the ideal personalities of pupils, and class-conscisousness and historical nuance concerning their interests are emphasized in the ideal personalities of teachers. In adolescence, in contrast to the early period, the traits of the ideal personaities are not indicated concentrically, but dispersively. The ideal personalities by the protected boys are heteronomous and like the characters in moral tales, but the real personalities, which are measured by His contemporary tension method, have higher ambivalence quotients, and it shows that their personalities are more differentiated than the ordinary boys in a sense The words, which are used by His crossing region method, are as follows:- 1. tender 2. composed 3. gentle 4. firm 5. gay 6. modest 7. sturdy 8. tight 9. minding one's own business 10. original 11. patient 12. sensible 13. shrewd 14. leading 15. sympathetic 16. polite 17. quick to decide 18. straight forward 19. active 20. meek 21. serious 22. self-reliant 23. dexterous 24. generous 25. competitive 26. bold 27. light-hearted 28. proud 29. frank 30. sober 31. unyielding 32. cooperative 33. open 34. kind 35. conventional 36. lively 37. courteous 38. benevolent 39. obedient 40. outspoken 41. unceremonius 42. cautious 43. flexible 44. timid 45. vigorous 46. humorous 47. used to ascertain 48. prudent 49. good-natured
Problem: From the viewpoint that self-consciousness is the centre of human life, the psychological investigation of if has a great significance. Now in the investigation of it, I have determined to take the tendency of vanity as one of the phenomenal forms of it. In this phenomenon we can find the complexity of positive and negative self-feeling. That is to say, vanity could be regarded as due to the motive of the subject who, compensating, by means of trifle and invaluable things, for the consciousness of his inner anxiety, emptiness and inferiority which are caused by the uncertainty of self-estimation, tries to establish his superiority to others and feels satisfied with it. It is necessary for the purpose that the judgement of self is endorsed by others. Therefore, the “wish for recognition by others” becomes an important motive: that is why vanity is numbered as one of the social feelings. I proceeded with the investigation of these points in adolescence, which is marked by remarkable development of self-consciousness. Method. The questionaire, consisting of 17 questions, to be answered by yes or no, was used with girls. Out of 17 questions in all, fifteen deal with tendencies of vanity and can be classified in three groups. 1) The material self, questions dealing with one's own dresses personal belongings, etc.: for example, “Have you ever worried about your dresses when you came forward in the presence of others?” 2) The environmental self, questions dealing with the environment or circumstances of the self: for example, “Have youe ver spoken about others' mistakes and defects?” 3) The central self, questions dealing with that which attaches immediately to the self: for example, “Have you ever pretended to know?” “Have you ever wanted to show your works?” Also, In order to find out if there is any consciousness of one's manner and action or not, and if there is awakening of vanity or not, I have added two more questions. In some questions I required from the testees especially detailed explanation as well as general introspection. The questionaire was, during the period from May to July, 1947, put to 171 students and 242 pupils of a girl's high school, and for comparison, 51 male students of a normal school. The time required for each group was 15 to 30 minutes. The percentage of the number of responses for each question to the total answers was calculated and was named “the frequency rate of the response type” in which I read the general tendency of the individul. Then I calculated, in the same way, the avarage frequency rate of the students or pupils of a whole calss and made it the standard for comparison. Error of Judgement. I have tried to ascertain those who have erred in their self-estimation, that is, those who have no self-awakening although they show many positive responses to the fifteen questions dealing with vanity, in the follwoing method. I have regarded the number of responses to the fifteen questions as the degree of vanity, then I obtained the arithmetical mean of the degree of vanity of all the students of a class and made it the standard. Then those who show more degree of vanity above the standard will be reagdred as having so much vanity, compared with the average persons. I tried to ascertain this in these who did not have self-awakening for vanity. Results: 1) The tendencies of vanity, in general, increase with age and reaches the highest point in the 2nd year stndents of college (about 17 years old) and then they begin to decrease. Also introspection and self-observation becomes more exact and detailed in students of college. I think this shows a degree for development of self-consciousness. 2) By the comparison of boy and girl students of the same age it is found that there are differencesin the tendency of vanity according to the sex. That is to say, in the girl students it is found that they