Why does a view appear to us more attractive when we bend forward and look backward between the spread legs, that is, when we assume ‘matanozoki-posture’ (shortened as M-P infra. ‘Matanozoki’ is a Japanese word)? And do not the colors also appear changed? In an earlier article I have reported that under M-P the whole field of visual perception decreases its strength 9. From this point of view M-P may be considered to cause the change of ‘Oberfächenfarben’ (surface-colors) into the ‘Flächenfarben’ (film-colors) or at least the approaching of the former to the latter (that this sort of change or approaching is caused by decreasing the strength of perceptional field has already been shown by Gelb 5.) Von Allesch says, “Many specialexperiments and observations about the natural things and the paintings have shown that the especially aesthetic appearance of a color is that of Flächenfarbe……” 1. This fact enables us to understand how a more attractive view is obtained under M-P. Thus, if the Oberflächentarben turn into, or approach to, the Flächenfarben when we assume M-P, may we not think the degree of color-saturation in this case has been increased? But before we undertake to solve this problem, it would be better for us to investigate what change of brightness may take place under M-P, because a color has always a certain degree of brightness. I investigated the change of birghtness in the case of M-P by making use of two color-mixers and Japauese standard colored-papers. According to the results of these experiments the degree of brightness alnays increases under M-P. This fact may also be due to the decreasing of the strength of perceptional field. Then, I performed several experiments on colors by using Japanese standard colored papers and found that saturation of two lighter colors yellow and bitter orange, increased under M-P, but with respect to other colors the result was not so definite.
In the successive comparison of brightness, when the time interval between two stimuli is short, or when the ground is lighter than the stimuli, the positive time-error arises. In these two cases in wnich the positive time-error arises, a common factor seems to be operating. The results of our experiments suggest that the inhibitory effect exists in both cases as a common factor. When two stimuli are presented successively, the after-effect of the first excitation will remain in the nervous system. This after-effect will weaken the excitation of the second. Consequently the seocnd stimulus appears darker phenomenally. We name such an after-effect the inhibitory effect. We posit this effect as a physiological hypothesis. In the former theory of the time-error, arter-effect of the first excitation upon the next excitation has been neglected and the time-error has been explained only by the change in the trace of the first excitation. The results of our experiments have proved that the former theory is deficieat. Our experiments of the successive comparison of brightness gave us the following results. 1. When the time interval between two stimuli is short, the after-effect of the first excitation inhibits the second one and pnenomenally the second stimulus appears darker. In such a way the postive time-error arises. 2. When the ground is lighter than the stimuli, the after-effect of the excitation by the ground preceding the stimuli inhibits the next excitation by the first stimulus, the trace of the first stimulus assimilates the trace of the ground between the stimuli, and tne after-effect of the excitation by the ground nhibits the next excitation by the second stimulus. The ground following the second stimulus does not essentially influence the judgment of comparison i.e. the timeerror because the snbjects make judgmemts as soon as the second stimulus is presented. In such a way the positive time-error arises. 3. The inhibitory effect has the following characteristics. a) The longer the duration of the first excitation is, the stronger and longer does the inhibitory effect of the first excitation act on the second one. b) The longer the time interval between the two excitations is, the weaker is the inhibitory effect of the first excitation upon the second one.
I. Problems of the present study and historical review of the previous studies; The present study attempts to clarify experimentally the development, as well as situational difference, of visual size constancy in early infancy Previous studies on the development of visual size constancy made by Frank, Beyrl. Burzlaff, Akishige, Thouless. Weber & Bicknell, Locke, etc. used very rarely infants who were younger than one year of age. Subjects of Frank's study (8), for instance, were 30 young children, of whom 29 are older than one year. Ruth M. Cruikshank's experiment, under the direction and planning of Brunswik (6) used 73 babies from 13 to 49 weeks old. The present study starts with the criticism of her experiment. She set up three stimulus situations, A B and C, using two rattles large (57cm long) and Small (19cm long). In A, the smaller rattle was presented at 25cm distasce from the eyes of the subject, while in B, the larger one was shown 75cm far, and in C, she presented the larger rattle 75cm far. She assumed that “equal reactions to situations A and B, but lack of equivalence for Situation C would represent the positive aspect of size constancy” (p. 336). We might derive from this assumption the major premise that the subject would show the same response to the object of the same apparent size. This premise was criticized in the present study which started in an attempt to experimentally test the assumption that the infant might prefer the object of the larger apparent size. Even if the premise derived from Cruikshank's assumption was admitted, Acritical study of the learning curves in her study showed that she was not so positively in her attempt to clarlfy the developmental aspect of visual size constancy. The present study tries to show the developmental as well as situationally differential aspects of visual size constancy in early infancy. It comprises nine experiments. II. Method (a) Subjects: 457 babies 12 weeks to one year of age. (b) Conditions of stimulus situation and procedure. The first Second and third experiments used two red toy-gold-fish made of celluloid, one 10cm and the other 17.5cm long. The 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th experiments used two red tiny balls, (one 0.25cm and the other 0.45cm in diameter). These objects were presented, at distance 17.4cm from the eyes of the babies. The babies were assumed to show the preference to respond to the objects of the larger apparent size. In the 2nd aud the sixth experiments we presented the larger object at a distance farther from the subject than the smaller one. trying to make the size of the retinal image of the former iden ical with that of the latter. It was assumed in our experiment that if the subjects showed the preference of the larger object over the smaller one, then the existence of visual size constancy would be positively proved. III. Result. (1) The children in early infancy prefered the larger object under the situation set up in the present experiments. The preference of the larger toy gold-fish began at the 5th month of age while the preference of the larger red ball at the 6th month. (2) The tendency to prefer the larger ball was greater than the inclination to prefer the larger toy-gold-fish. The preference of the larger ball showed rapid development after the 11th month of age. (3) Cruikshank's experiment on the development of visual size constancy did not assume the babies' preference of thelarger object This is one of the short-comings of her study. (4) In the2nd experiment, the development of visual size con stancy, although very slight, was found after the 6th month of age when the red toy-gold-fish was used as the stimulus object. (5) In the 6th experiment, the development of visual size constancy was clearly found at the 6th month of age and was much more clearly observed after the 8th month. (6) The difference between these two modes of development in size constancy observed
In this study, the attitudes of college students towards literature were measured by a scale constructed after the manner of Thurstone's attitude scale (1) and compared with their attitudes towards sports as measured by Prof. Koga's scale (2) and with their emotional responses as tested by Terman's M-F Test, Part 111 (3). An attempt was made also to see if there were any relation between the results of these tests and the educational grades of the parents of the t stees. Construction of the scale……Out of about 200 opinions on literature collected by the writer, 53 were selected on the basis of K. A. Wang's criteria. These were rated by 54 judges and three of them were omitted on account of their high Q values. To test the reliability, the remaining 50 statements were then given to 372 students who gave ratings twice at an interval of two weeks. The statements finally adopted and their scale values folow: No. Statements Scale values 1. Literature is the highest art of mankind.………2.4706 2. L. teaches us how to live.………2.0863 3. L. cultivates a sympathetic attitude towards life.………1.9706 4. L. gives us a wider view of life.………1.8585 5. L. promotes the mutual understanding between men and women.………1.7321 6. L. gives us the pleasure of reading.………1.6800 7. L. has both good and bad effects upon us. 1.4964 8. L. exposes the dark side of life.………1.2964 9. L. is an amusement and nothing more.…1.0814 10. L. makes man sentimental.………0.9700 11. L. excites our curiosity about the opposite sex.………0.7678 12. L. is read by those who want to satisfy their vanity rather than by those who seek genuine pleasure.………0.5671 13. L. deprives us of scientific spirit.………0.1207 14. L. is apt to make man vainglorious.…0.0000 Discrepancies between the experimental scale separation and the calculated scale separation were 13% of the total range of scale values. This was perhaps due to the ambiguity of the meaning of literature. Results…The scale was given to three groups of students: the students of 1) Department of Literature, of Economics and of Law, 2) Department of Medicine and of Engineering, of Keiogijuku University and 3) Tokyo Girls' Medical College. The total number of subjects was 794. The results may be summarized as follows: 1. With respect to the attitude towards literature, there was practically no difference among the different groups of students. The female students showed a little more preference towards literature than the male students, however, the difference was found to be statistically insiginificant. 2. The scale used seemd to be inadequate to discriminate between the five general attitudes towards literature as expressed in the following statements: (1) I decidedly like literature, (2) I rather like literature, (3) I neither like nor dislike literature, (4) I rather dislike literature and (5) I decidedly dislike literature. However, it may discriminate 1) and 2) from the remaining three attitudes, 3) 4) 5). 3. The coefficients of correlation between the attitudes towards literature and sports were: (a) Dept. of Literature, Economics & Law…0.206 (b) Dept. of Medicine & Engineering………0.467 (c) Girls' Medical College………0.039 Application of null hypothesis (ρ=0) to (a) showed that the correlation was significant at its value. 4. The coefficient of correlation between the attitudes towards literature and the results of the emotional response test was -0.032 and that between the attitudes sports and emotional responses was -0.043. 5. The educational grades of the parents of the testees had no influence upon the