心理学研究
Online ISSN : 1884-1082
Print ISSN : 0021-5236
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20 巻 , 4 号
選択された号の論文の8件中1~8を表示しています
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  • 中村 克己
    20 巻 (1949 - 1950) 4 号 p. 1-10
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    I. Das komplizierte Denken soll wissenschaftlich als Bedeutung des sprachlichen Verhaltens (verbal behavior) der Versuchsperson betrachtet werden, etwa wie bei der Stevenschen Operation, wobbei das Bewusstsein operational als Bedeutung des Reaktionsverhaltens des Organismus konstruiert wird. Es waere wissenschaftlich sinnlos, vom Denken als Bewusstsein im Sinne der direkten Erfahrung (direct experience) zu sprechen.
    II. Man kann aber zum Verfahren der Stevanschen Operation kritisch stehen, indem man sagt, dass die Bedeutung (intervening variable) des sprachlichen Verhaltens der Vp. bloss subjectiv konstruiert sei, sodass der objektive Gegenstand, worauf sie hinweisen sollte, fehle. Der Mangel an der Gegenstaendlichkeit beim Operationismus Stevens' oder Tolmans ist nun von Weber, Israel u. Goldstein, Crissman und Kattsoff u. Thibaut hervorgehoben. Ein solcher Operationismus sei nach Kattsoff u. Thibaut bloss pragmatics und nicht semantics im Sinne von Morris.
    III. Man moege auf einige Theorien kommen, welche etwas dazu beitragen koennen, das operationale Verfahren vom Mangel am objektiven Gegenstand zu befreien. -Mit diesem vom Verfasser geforderten objektiven Gegenstand ist selbstverstaendlich keine psychische Substanz gemeint. -Zuerst koennte man meinen, dassnicht nur public stimuli, sondern auch private stimuli im Sinne Skinners in Betracht gezogen werdenmuessen, um die Bedeutung des sprachlichen Verhaltens der Vp. genauer bestimmen zu koennen. Es ist so schwer, beim komplizierten Denken diese Reize an der Vp. festzustellen, dass dies nicht zu erwarten ist. Und wenn das einem auch etwa gelingen wuerde, so muesste man doch zugebon, dass das operationale Verfahren mit Hilfe dieser Reize immer noch bei pragmmtics bleibt; man hat in dieser Hinsicht keinen wesentlichen Untersehied der Skinnerschen von der Stevenschen Operation. Man koennte dann versuchen, die operational bestimmte Bedeutung des sprachlichen Verhaltens, wie bei Hull etwa mit “habit”, als Postulat zu betrachten, welches sodann durch die Verknuepfung mit direkt beobachtbaren Tatsachen wie Reizen und Reaktionen in der mathematisehen Form verifizierbar sein soll. Aber man kann sichmit solchem Verfahren nicht von der Schwierigkeit befreien; die Verbindung des Postulates mit Tatsachen beim komplizierten Denken ist noch schwerer zu erwarten als etwa bei “habit” von Hull, und selbst das Vetfahren Hulls ist noch nicht semantics. Schliesslich kann man mit der sprachlichen Operation Bridgmans (verbal operation) auch nicht auskommen, da bei ihr die Verbindung mit beobachtbaren Tatsachen nicht in Frage kommt, obwohl man mit ihrem “syntactic” (im Sinne von Morris) Verfahren die Bedeutung des sprachlichen Verhaltens eindeutig und nicht pragmatic bestimmen koennte.
    IV. Es seien nun zwei experimentelle Verfahren, wobei es sich etwa um das komplizierte Denken mit dem sprachlichen Verhalten handelt, angefuehrt, um zu untersuchen, wie es dabei mit der Bestimmung ider Bedeutung des sprachlichen Verhaltens steht! a) Chrisofs Experiment ueber die Denkfunktion. b) Nakamuras Experiment durch Denkdiagnose. Dann kann man finden, dass bei den beiden Versuchen die Bedeutung des sprachlichen Verhaltens der Vp. etwa syntactic bestimmt ist, und diese Bestimmung sich etwa auf die Relation zwischen Reiz und Reaktion an der Vp. stuetzt, obwohl das Verfahren noch nicht von Maengel frei ist. Es ist ja auch klar, dass man in den beiden Experimenten noch nicht soweit gekommen ist, semantics zu sein.
    V. Man frage sich, wie es sich mit dem Verfahren zur Bestimmung der Bedeutung des sprachlichen Verhaltens der Vp. beim komplizierten Denken verhalten soll! Wir wollen beim komplizierten Denken in solcher Weise sprachlichlich operational die Bedeutung des sprachlichen Verhaltens bestimmen, dass diese operationale Bestimmungsweise sich auf die ganzheits-funktionale Relation zwischen Reiz und Reaktion am Organismus stuetzt. Dieses Verfahren unterscheidet sich
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  • 柿崎 祐一
    20 巻 (1949 - 1950) 4 号 p. 11-17
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    In the experiments previously reported, we found that, in binocular rivalry of two antagonistic figures, the preceding stimulation of one or both eyes by one figure had an effect which made the other figure dominant in succeeding rivalry. And we concluded that this after effect was due, in the main, to the figurality per se of the preceding stimulus.
    It remains to examine more closely the factors influencing our results, in order to make any theoretical assertion based on them. But at present we can only describe some facts we have found in the supplemen tary experiments, as to the timporal course of the e effect, the effect of voluntary control of the rivalry, and the effect of figurality other than on ealready mentioned.
    1. The relation between the duration of the preceding stimulation and its after-effect was examined, following the same procedure as in experiment 1 in the previous report. The duration of the preceding stimulation was varied from 15 to 120 seconds every 15 seconds (In the original experiment this was 90 or 120 seconds.)
    Fourr observers participated.
    In general no linear relationship was found to exist, but in some cases even 15 seconds' duration of preceding stimulation showed remarkable effect and made the antagonistic figure dominant in succeeding rivalry.
    2. With four observers the after-effect was assured to endure at least 5 or 6 minutes, by continuous observation of rivalry for about 15 minutes directly following the termination of preceding stimulation of 120 seconds.
    The effect could last not so long when the observation was not continuous.
    3. Two figures as before were presented one to each eye, and one of them was voluntarily controlled to dominate the other for 120 seconds, and then the ordinary observation of rivalry for 60 seconds fallowed. In this case, the effect of the preceeing dominancy of one figure was not present.
    4. Two figures were alternately presented one to each eye, and the time one figure was exposed was longer than the other. Only one observer was employed. He showed the tendency that the longer the duration of the one the greater the dominancy of the other in the succeding rivalry.
    5. In our experiments, the stimuli had hitherto been [
    L_??_·R_??_] the left eye being stimulated with _??_, the right eye with _??_, in reality, five oblique lines in a light patch. Now, one observer was tested by some different types of figures. In those cases also the same effect as before was significant. Further, the situation of binoculer colour rivalry was examined, and the result was not contradictory to our previous findings.
    6. Instead of binocular rivalry, observation of reversibie figure was resorted to. Here again the similar effect was found, though not so clear enough as in that of the rivalry.
    Some observations were obtained that these effects of the preceding stimulation may not only be a matter of retinal change, e.g. retinal adaptation or fatigue, but also and essentially of dynamical reconstruction or reorganization of structure in the higher system.
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  • 水澤 清江
    20 巻 (1949 - 1950) 4 号 p. 18-22
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    1. Introduction.
    With Meumann's time sense apparatus, we are unable to carry psychological experiments on acoustic sense, because as we know, it makes noises, it is troublesome for us to operate, and also takes long time to finish one experimental series. In addition to these defects, it is, therefore, hardly possible to give very short stimulus-time exposures successively in a short time. we have then made an apparatus which is quite free from any noises, and can easily give any short stimulus-time and time-intervals from 10sec. to 1/1.000sec. by mere rotations of its dial.
    2. Principles of Apparatus.
    The circuit diagram of this apparatus is shown in Fig 9. In Fig 9., we find the high voltage source (I), R-C circuits (II), constant voltage discharging tubes D, D1, thyratron tubes, and relay circuits (III).
    The principle of this apparatus is as the following: Using the resistance connected in parallel with the constant voltage discharging tubes and the series circuit of the condenser, the saw-toothed oscillation with any period is to be generated. The period is proportional to the relaxation time T=RC. (R is value of resistor ‘Ohm’ and C is value of capacitor ‘Farad’). And the thyratron tube is discharged by pulse current induced by oscillation, and so the discharging current of thyratron tube moves the electro-magnetic relays.
    In Fig 1., R shows the resistor, C the capacitor, D the constant voltage discharging tube, the discharging voltage of which is V, and G the high voltage source.
    When we assume that E (the terminal voltage of high voltage source) is larger than V, we can find the following circuit equation:
    dq/dtR+q/C=E………(1)
    where q is the positive charge in the condenser.
    We can obtain the solution by resolving this diffrential equation, then
    q=Q(1-ε-t/RC)………(2)
    Where Q is the maximum charge charged by supplying voltage E, and ε shows the exponential function.
    From the equation (2), the terminal voltage of condenser at any time is:
    v=E(1-ε-t/RC)………(3)
    So we can define the period of the saw-toothed oscillation as follows:
    T=-t/RC=log(1-V/E)
    At the movement when the terminal volltage of condenser climbes to be discharging voltage, discharging tube D discharges, and the charge of the condenser discharges for a moment through the D and r0. Thus the grid of thyratron changes from negative potential to positive ptential.
    At the same time when the thyratron tube discharges, a large current flows through the electro-magnetic relay. (See Fig 3). And we can find that r0' has shunt C′ by switching of the electro-magnetic relay in Fig (9), and r0 has been opened while the relay is not working.
    The condenser C′ is, therefore, not charged at first. At the moment when the thyratron A is discharged, and relay begins working, r'0 opens and γ0 shunts the condenser C inversely, till C′ is begins charging.
    After a while, the terminal voltage of C′ reaches the discharging voltage, and D′ and B will be discharged.
    Before explaining the next work of the apparatus, I should explain the following facts, shown in Fig (4), that the condenser Co connected detween the plates of thyratron is being changed, while thyratron A is discharging.
    At the moment when the positive potential becomes negative potential, it becomes constant voltage, and so the thyratron A stops its discharge, because the grid voltage is negative. Then the electro magnetic relay stops it's work, while γo opens and γ'o shunts the condenser C′. The condenser C begins charging and C' stops.
    After the time-interval determined by relaxation time T, the thyratron
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  • 倉橋 克
    20 巻 (1949 - 1950) 4 号 p. 23-25
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    The writer made a study of the family line of a pseudologist and found that there were at least 18 persons with degenerative dispositions in the three generations investigated. The results may be summarized as follows:
    1st generation: 1 psychopath
    2nd generation: 2 “mehr” schizothymies
    3 alcoholics
    3 sexual anomalies
    1 psychosis
    3rd generation: 1 feebleminded
    6 psychopaths
    1 psychosis
    The pseudologist in questicn belongs to the third generation in this family line, The investigation revealed further that his brather, father and aunt were also pseudologists. However, the writer failed to discover any environmental influences in this connection. It would seem that, since they all came from the same line of degenerative family, their disposition is hereditary and constiuttional in nature. It was impossible, on the other hand, to decide whether or not this tendency to make false statements were causally related to other degeneratine tendencies running throngh the same family line.
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  • 田中 賢
    20 巻 (1949 - 1950) 4 号 p. 26-32
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 20 巻 (1949 - 1950) 4 号 p. 33-40
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 20 巻 (1949 - 1950) 4 号 p. 40-55
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 20 巻 (1949 - 1950) 4 号 p. 56-61
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
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