Part I Extinction, Delay, and Trace of Conditioned Salivary Reflex in Human Subjects Formerly we succeeded in establishing the conditioned salivary reflex in human subjects, of which Zebrowski, Brunacci, Richter, Lashley, Krasnogorski, and others have never been able to report any setisfactory result, and showed several phases of generalization, (c.f. “Ten Tears of Research on the Conditioned Response in Human Subjects” by Yasho Kotake, in Brain Study vol. 6). And here, after making efforts, we could catch the phenomena of extinction by the manometer which was connected to the suction disk. The sound of metronome was used as conditioned stimulus, and special care was taken for unconditioned stimulus, trying to establish complicated temporal scheme which is more advanced than simple basic scheme of conditioned reflex. And at last, we succeeded in establishing the delayed conditioned salivary reflex and the trace conditioned salivary reflex in human subjects, which have been thought to be impossible. The results of the experiments were showed in detail following the development of reinforcement process. The results have enough reliability as they were acquired by perfect arrangements of the sound proof room and our experimental technique mastered through ten years' experience. We made a psycho-physiological scheme of human being and found psycho-physiological laws of the functions of the human brain by executing just the same experiments as pavlov did on dogs. The laws which were drawn out from the relation between introspective data and establishing process of conditioned reflex, the facts about strengthening of differentiation, and especially time relation in trace conditioned reflex, are, we believe very interesting achievements. Part II A Method of Acute Establishment of Conditioned Reflex in Human Subjects. On the basis of the confidence acquired at Part I, we found acute method of establishing conditioned reflex in human subjects by extremely shortened reinforcing xprocess. And we succeeded with offering it as a research method of clinicalmedicine. The method is to measure galvanic skinreflex by simple electric condenser circuit. Thus weconditioned this galvanicskin reflex by weak electricshock as uncond itioned sti mulus and pure tone asconditioned stimulus. We have the conviction that conditioned reflex can be established by means of 14-25 times reinforcing trials within only 30 or 60 minutes. Comparing single reinforcing method and differential reinforcing method, We have found that the latter is more effective and reliable in human subjects. By this research an indicator of the function of the human brain was acquired. Certainly it may play an interesting rôle on the researches of psychopathology and brain surgery. There are many authers in U.S.A. who have reported on the conditioned galvanic skin reflex. However, it is the first time that it was offered as a practical method by introducing differential reinforcing method, being based upon the researches of conditioned salivary reflex for many years. Thus we could contribute to apply conditioned reflex theory to the new fields. Our second theme is to complete all the schemes containing generalization, trace, and delay of human conditioned galvanic skin reflex by this acute method of conditioning, and in future “Brain Wave” will be introduced in our experimental study. Part III Voluntary Cootrol of Conditioned Salivary Reflex in Human Subjects. In this part one of the most difficult problems for the experiments in the field of psycho-physiology is taken up. The problem is to prove experimentally the fact that conditioned salivary reflex in human subjects which hasthe most clear form is controlled voluntarily, and to make the basis firm for solviug the more interesting problems of reflex, volition and language. It was found that conditioned salivary reflex in human subjects is controlled voluntarily through five
1. purpose of the Experiment. The present experiments were designed to study the conditioned behavior of a white rat in the Skinner-Perin box. Especially, the reaction latencies in the process of conditioning were chief concern. And it was done to realize the moment of systematization of random bebaviors in the reaction latencies. 2. Experimental Procedure. A. Subjects. The subjects for the present experiments were 38 white rats. The ages of the animals ranged from 100 to 130 days in the first day of experiments. And their weights were about 100grs. for each. B. Apparatus. The apparatus shown in Fig. 1 is Skinner-Perin box. The brass bar which the animal had to learn to press projected into the compartment through the slot in the brass pannel. If the responses made, the circuit of release mechanism was closed and reinforce ments were given. A vertically sliding sheet-metal shutter in front of the brass bar was operated by the experimenter. It was lifted by the pulling of thread from outside the box when the animal had taken its place before if in readiness, and lowered when the animal gained the food cylinder from the food tray. C. Procedure. The animals were divided into three groups: the first (time group A), the second (time group B), and the third (frequency group). The first group was subdivided into three groups: 10 minutes group (2 animals), 30 minutes group (3 animals), they were trained freely in a given time per day. The second group was the same as 30 minutes group of the first (12 animals). The third group, however, was not restricted by time but frequency of responses, and was given 100 reinforcements, five responses per day (18 animals). The reaction latencies, that is, the time from the lifting of the shutter to the animel's reaction, were recorded. 3. Results. A. The first group. The frequency of responses increased as the number of the days of reinforcement increased, and contrarily it decreased as the number of the days of experiment increased. But 10 minutes group was failed to establish of conditioned behavior. The percentage distribution of reaction latencies longer than 20sec. was very zigag and irregular. It was found, however, that the percentage distribution of reaction latencies shorter than 20sec. resembled to the ditribution of response frequency, and was considerably regular. We think from these results that the moment of transformation from random to systematic behaviors lies in up to 20sec. from the view point of reaction latency. B. The second group. By the method of statistical paired comparison, we, from this experimental data, attained the determinati on of SER, SLR, and so on that Hull used in his Principles of Behavior as the intervening variabls. And thus we could find the probabilities of (SER-SLR) values when they exceeded zero value corresponding to the number of reinforcements. It was considered from the statistical point of view that the fifty percent probability of them was the moment of systematization of behavior, and it corresponded to the reaction latency, 11.6sec. C. The Third Croup. By the same method as the second experiment. we could determine the moment of systematization among the given reaction latencies: 11.8sec.
The aim of this experiment is to investigate whether the memory field is governed by the Gestalt law or not as perceptual field is. To examin this problem I take the method of successive reproduction and recognition of the simple figures. Procedures are as follows; Ex. I. The five figures (Fig. I) are used in this experiment and they are drawn with black ink on the pieces of white cardboard 9×6.5cm. in size. The instructions are as follows; look at the figure with the intention of reproducing it later as accurately as possible. Each figures are exposed for 5sec., and reproduction is requested, 30sec., one day, four days, 2 weeks later and one more day after recognition is requested. Ex. II. is the verification of the Ex. I. The four figures (Fig. 14) are used. Cardboard used is 22.5×15.5cm in size. Other procedures are the same as Ex. I. Rusults; (1) It is not difficult to find levelling and sharpening, when we see the figure its principal structual aspects, but when we see only in subparts, there are various modifications and we can not decide objective standard of the good Gestalt, and can not interprete all deviation from the standard in terms solely of sharpening and levelling. (2) We can not decide the objective standard of the good Gestalt in individual reproduction, so we sought the standard of the good Gestalt for the trends of changes or persistent deviation in the series of reproductions of a given subject. I regurated five types in them. 1. Streotyped Deviation. (S. D.) changes which appeared in the first reproduction maintained strictly unaltered throughout the entire series of reproductions. (28.6%) Fig. 4. 2. Ambiguous Deviation (A. D.) changes which appeared in the first reproduction maintained unaltered not strictly but rather ambiguously throughout the entire series of reproductions. (31.4%) Fig. 6. 3. Progressive Deviation (P. D.) changes show progressive trends of deviation in the direction of sharpening or levelling of the principal structural aspects of the figures. (20.0%) Fig. 5. 4. Non-deviated type have no changes, their reproductions are relatively same as the stimulus figure (8.6%) 5. Confused Deviation. Their changes have no persistent direction. (11.4%) Fig. 7. (3) Relationship between reproduced figure and recognized figure. (Table 2)……The structural characteristics of the figure recognized are carefully compared with the corresponding characteristics in the successive reproductions, and the first which eir character are generally equal are tabulated in terms of positive relationship (“p”) and the second which there are contradict between the principal structures of successive reproductions and the structural characters of the recognition are tabulated in terms of negative relationship (“n”), and the third which are midway between positive and negative relationships are tabulated in terms of midway rerationship. (“mid”) Only 8.6% of total numbers are continuous and show positive relationship with the figure recognized And total for all cases of persistent deviation (S.D.+A.D.+P.D.) in reproduction showing a positive relationship with corresponding characters in the figure recognized are 28.5%. On the other hand the cases showing a negative relationship with corresponding characters in the figure recognized are 35.7% (4) In the cases which show the negative relationship between reproduced figure and recognized figure, the subject first select two figure groups which have different structural character one another, from the recognition list, one group are similar to his own reproduction and another are similar to the standard figure, and finaly recognized the standard or relatively similar figure to the standard, in spite of his own reproduction (Table 7, the process of recognizing) (5) In reproduction, more complicated figures show the positive relationship and relatively simple figures