1. A vertical light of 5cm×.5cm moved horizontally in the dark room with ascending velocity until it was seen as a stable light belt, instead of a moving light. The observer was able to defferentiate seven stages as to the mode of appearance or “Erscheinungsweise” of the moving stimulus up to fusion. In order to find a relationship between the velocities which initiated the seven modes of appearence on the one hand and the length of path and the size of stimulus on the other, the experiment was designed to see whether or not Brown's laws concerning visual velocity and the size of the field worked in these cases. The results were consistent with Brown's laws. It was also found that in a certain type of stimulus appearance, the path of movement was always phenomenally reduced. 2. The results indicated that the path of a moving stimulus was reduced in visual length as its velocity increased. The decrement in visual length was proportional to velocity up to a critical point, beyond which it did not enhance with velocity and this critical velocity was a function of the physical size of the path. The ratio of the decrement to the whole length of the path increased as a function of the latter up to the critical point but it decreased thereafter. The results also showed that the decrement of the path enhanced as the length of the stimulus increased, however, the width of the stimulus did not cause any noticeable reduction of the path. The intensity of the stimulus increased the amount of decrement. What was common to all these was that the critical velocity where we had the maximum decrement was a function of the respective stages of “Erscheinungsweise” of the moving stimulus. 3. There were great individual differences as to the apparent shift of the path as a whole for the moving stimulus. However the shift was always the same in nature for each observer and if the movement was reversed, the shift was also reversed. The apparent shift of the path enhanced with velocity and it depended upon the locus of fixation point: when the observer changed his fixation point, the path as a whole, shifted to the same direction. It was to be noticed that the apparent shift disappeared when the subject fixed his eyes upon the end phase of the path. 4. Our results did not support any functional relationship with the Froelich-phenomenon. On the other hand we found very high similarities between our findings and Scholz's results on the visual reduction of distance between two successive stimuli, but the function of fixation in our experiment was different from his. 5. It was tentatively suggested that the visual reduction of the path of real movment is due to cohesive force among the processes which correspond to the whole path, and the process corresponding to the start phase of movement (which precedes any other processes in time) has an extensive effect upon the process corresponding to the end-phase of the movement. In other words, the apparent reduction of path occurs only when the process for the start phase of movement is dominant, to a certain degree, over that for the end-phase. However, the theory of cohesive force daes not provide enough explanation for the visual shift of the path as a whole. Further studies on the physiological correlate of cohesive force are urgently called for.
1. The induced movement has been studied experimentally in the visual field. K. Duncker (1929) wrote that the behavior of the moving objects could be explained as the displacement of the objects with respect to the frame of reference. This Phenomenon occurs also in the perceptual space of the observer, which contains his own body; it appears between the visual objects and his body. Recent experimental studies (H. Kleint (1937), P. Christian (1940) and W. Metzger (1940)), showed that the nature of this movement between the visual objects and the body was analogous to that of Duneker's. 2. The purpose of the following experiments was to see whether or not such an induced movement will occur between the parts of the body, if they are moved actually under conditions similar to those of the predecessor's experiments. These experiments took place in a dark room. The observer sat down on a rotating chair and put his right arm on the board of a kinematometer, making a right angle with his trunk. The chair and the kinematometor were turned simultaneously or alternately to opposite directions at a certain rate in such a way that the distance between them was increased. The observer reported on the apparent movement of his trunk and of his arm, and on the directions of these movements. The speed of the movement of the chair and the kinemato-metor was changed from 5′/sec. to 20′/sec. and the distances covered were from 10° to 20°. The following three cases were examined; a) When the speed of the moving chair (here after called B) was equal to that of the moving kinematometer (here after called A), b) when A was faster than B, and c) when B was faster than A. Results. The apparent movement of the arm was prevalent throughout all the experiments. (See Table land 3 in the Japanee text) The arm movement was especially dominant at the speed of about 10′/sec.; this was the optimal time for the induction of the movement of the visual objects (Duncker). However, the direction of the apparent movement had relation to the relative spatial positions between the arm and the trunk; the arm and the trunk sometimes moved acparently to the same direction, while they actually moved to the opposite directions (Table 2 and 4). The direction of the apparent movement was determined by the direction of the actual movement. When B was moved actually and A was still, the direction of the apparent movement was determined by B; when A was moved and B was still, it was determined by A; When both A and B were moved, it was determined by A. 3. The relation between the actual movement of the arm and the trunk and their apparent movemet was examined by actually moving A and B to the opposite directions and by decreasing the distance between them. Results. The simultaneous apparent movements of both A and B were prevalent (Table 5 and 7). However, their directions had no relation to the relative spatial positions of the arm and the trunk. There was also no relation between the direction of the apparent movement and that of the actual movement. The direction changed with the speed of the actual movement (Table 6 and 8). 4. E. Oppenheimer and W. krolik (1935) found that the directions of the induced movements in the visual field were not always determined by the actual movement, when the relative spatial positions of the visual objects were invariant. The induced movement between the visual objects and the body (Kleint, Christian, and Metzger) was similar to that between the different parts of the body (present study), but the former was entirely determined by the behavior of the visual objects and the latter was not. It was determined by the directions of the actual movements. Therefore, we may distinguish between the function of the relative spatial positions of the moving parts and that of the actual movements themselvels, For this purpose we conducted the following experiments. Both A and. B were moved
In this study the writer has determined the association values of 1016 Japanese two syllable nonsense words. These syllables were divided into four groups, and each group was read to two classes of Ss in reversed order. Ss were 404 high school students. After giving sufficient information on the nature of the association performance, the E reads the syllables at the rate of one syllable per five seconds. Ss were instructed to write down any associated word, while attending to the experimenter's reading. When there was no time to write down any, Ss had to mark a circle on the syllable. When they found the word impressive, though not meaningful, Ss had to mark a triangle. The association values ranged from 82% (o-pe) to 3% (pu-nu), the average was 26.02%. The reliability was tested by caliculating the coefficients of correlation between the results of two classes of Ss, performed on the same list, and between boys and girls in the same class. These values were r=0.49 and r=0.76 respectively.
In a previous paper, I reported the results of a set of two experiments (Exp. I and II) dealing with the problem of the relation between the processes of reproduction and recognition. These experiments showed that the process of reproduction would confuse the original trace probably by producing a new one and that this might be the reason why recognition contradicted reproduction at times. The following investigation is a continuation of the work started in the previous experiments. [Exp. III] This experiment studies the effect of the change in the time interval between reproduction and recognition upon recognition. Procedure: 1. Stimulus figures: a, a′, c (these frequently showed positive relationship in the previous experiments) and b (control). 2. Time interval: Reproduction experiment took place 30sec. after the observation of these figures and recognition experiment followed immediately after reproduction. 3. Recognition list: A few figures were added to the list used in Exp. I and II. 4. Subjects: College students who did not participate in Exp. I and II. Otherwise, the general procedure was the same as in Exp. I and II. Results: (8) In the above experiment, we found that there were twice as many cases of the negative relationship between reproduction and recognition as there were in the former experiment where the recognition experiment took place two week after the reproduction experiment. However, the cases of the positive relationship were still twice as many as those of the negative relationship (Cf: Table 12 in the Japanese text). [Exp. IV.] In this experiment, I tried to deter mine the effect of the change in the time interval between the initial observation of the stimulus figures and their recognition afterwards upon the memory trase. Procedure: 1. Stimulus figures: a, a′, c, b. 2. Subjects: Group I-5 students, Group II-3 students. 3. Time interval: With Group. II the recognition experiment took place immediately after observation, with Group I a week later. 4. Recognition list: Same as in Exp. III. The method of what I may call the “single recognition” was used. The subjects were asked first to select as many figures as they pleased from the recognition list, which, they thought, had some resembrance to the original figures they had observed (initial selection); secondly, to select from among these the ones which, they thought, had the greatest resembrance to the original (hereafter called the figures of the first rank); and thirdly, to select those which ranked second in the resembrance to the original (figures of the second rank) Treatment of the Data: I arranged the figures in the recognition list on the basis of the tendencies shown by the subjects in the reproduction experiment (Tables 14-16) and composed the data obtained with Group I and Group II, using these tables as frames of reference. In these tables, “S” signifies the standard on the original figures, to the right of “S” point, the curve shows the effect of “sharpening” while to the left it shows the effect of “levelling”. The steps indicate the degrees of sharpening and levelling. Results: (9) The results of the initial selection by Group I and II are guite similar to each other. The curves showing the distributions of the selected figures have their modes in the position of “S” (Table 14). (10) With Group II, the figures of the first rank give the curve of distribution in which the mode coincides with the “S” point, while the curve for Group I is bimodal, having its two crests left and right of the “S” point (Table 15). (11) The distribution of the figures of the second rank for Group II shows no marked difference from that of the initial selection, on the other hand, that for Group I the mode coincides with the “S” point (Table 16).
The object of this paper is to construct a sufficiently comp ehensive framework of reference with which we can formulate theories of human behavior. The elementary behavioristics is directed on its first step to find a universal mode of description with which we establish general laws of human behavior. From this point of view, we will begin our work with logico-operational analysis about terminology such as behavior, valence, path, etc. used by Lewin, and will try to replace them by mathematically well-defined terms. Although any kind of behavior always comprises some change of human state, it never means that every change of human state is attributed to behavior. In the region of physics human being is also a kind of matter which changes its state in accordance with physical laws. Similarly in the region of physiology the state of human being as a kind of physiological system changes under the laws of physiology. Such a change shall never be called a behavior. On account of these conditions, we will classify all changes of human state into two groups, one behavioral and the other natural which is under the control of so-called natural laws. Now we may take such a mathematical space that every point contained in it has one-to-one correspondence to every mutually distinguishable human state, and that any continuous change of human state should be represented by continuous curved line in the space. We call this the “state space” of human being. There may be infinite number of lines in the space, most of which can never be traced by behaving. The rest traceable by behaving is called the “path” in the state space. Now, let us suppose that an individual traces a path and reaches a split-point. Since he can not stop even for a moment in the state space-for we regard the time as one of the coordinates of the space-he is bound to select instantly one of the alternatives and to continue tracing this path. Then, what may be the standard for this selection? In view of the conditions that the selection should be carried out at the location of a split-point, we are compelled to recognize the existence of a uni-dimensional quantity whose value is the standard measure of selection. And the path having the maximum value of this quantity should be always selected among others. We call this quantity “Behavior-function” or briefly “B-function” of path. Next question is to determine the form of this function in terms of components of path. In the space we may have the so-called desirable state. Putting it in our terminology, there exists such a state that any path passing it has a tendency to be easily selected at the split-point among others. As to undesirable state, it goes by contrary. This fact means that each point in the space has its particular cantribution to the B-function of the paths passing it. We name this contribution the “valence” of state, and the state which has a valence, “effecta.” B-function must be additive about valences. It is necessary, however, to account for one more function as a constituent of B-function. Suppose that there is one effecta and several paths connecting an individual with it. In this case, what path is the best one? Let us call to our minds that natural changes are also members of human state change as well as behavioral ones. While an individual is going on a path by a sequence of behavioral changes, some natural changes might occur which separate his state from the effecta so that he can no longer find a new path connected with the effecta. We might not be certain whether such occasion does or does not takes place on each path, but there may be a difference for each path about the quantity named by the “degree of certainty” for occurance. And it is clear in such a case that one selects the path which has the naximam probability for the connection between the effecta and him. Such a path, we distinguish