The senior author, Kotake, has studied the salivary conditioned responses in man for more than ten years. He has found several original facts; especially his method of differential reinforcement should be noticed. The present investigation on the galvanic conditioned reflex was designed in an attempt to find more details on the process of the conditioned responses. As the preliminary experiments were reported in the former paper by Kotake, this report concerns only with the main experiment on the delay of the conditioned galvanic skin reflex The galvanic skin reflex (GSR) was employed as the indicator of conditionig. GSR was measured by means of the method employing the external source of current through the electric condenser's circuits. The unconditioned stimulus was an electric shock to the right wrist delivered from a Porter's inductorium. The conditioned stimulus was a tone produced by the C-R frequency oscillator and given through a set of earphones. The tone was of 1000 cycles and its intensity was about 40db above the threshold. The conditioned stimulus was presented for 20 seconds. The interval between the onset of the tone and the delivery of the shock was 5 seconds in Group I, 10 seconds in Group II, and 15 seconds in Group III, On the first day of this experiment, however, every group was conditioned simultaneously. The experiments on the delayed conditioning took place on the second and the third day. Every group was reinrorced 10 times a day. The results showed that the delayed conditioned responses were feeble. It was found that, as the period of delay became longer, the delayed responses diminished, and the dispersion of the mean latencies of the responses increased. On the third day, the period of delay for Group I was changed from 5 seconds to 10. In this case the responses of Group I were stronger than those of Group II. In general, according to our experiments, the delayed conditioned responses were weaker than simultaneous ones. However, we could show, in details, the processes of the delayed conditioning in these experiments. Our purpose was to realize the possibility of delaying, and to analyse the process of it.
1. Three main problems were examined in this study, that is, tonic-clonic convulsion, subconvulsive reaction, misfit in this study. Is there any different learning ab ility in each of these three patterns? 2. If we accumulate these patterns according to different methods; such as, once at every other day, once a day, twice a day, three times a day, four times a day, and five times a day, is there any different learning ability in each of these patterns? 3. If we continue the cumulative method, can “electrodementia, ” of which Tominaga described, be recognized in the animals? 4. If the animals can be induced to the electrodementia, is there any different time at the end of reaching the state of the electrodementia? 5. Once animals the reached the state of electrdementia and the administration of electroshocks was discontinued, then is there any differem learniug ability in the process of recovery from the state of electrodementia? Procedure Suljects: We devide thirty cats (about 1 month old) into four groups, that is, nine as tonic-clonic convulsion group, eight in subconvulsive reaction group, seven as mistfit group and six as control group. Apparasus: The apparatus of electroshock was set up after the second simple method of lshibashi and Nakai. In learning situation, we placed two plates of 8cm. diameter, one on the other, made of alumium at the distance of 5.5m. from start, after putting food between the two plates, the five couple of plates on a line and the space of each being 0.5m. One of them (the second from the right, looking at from the start) is to be opened by animals. Learning: In order to become familiar with the room of learning, all animals were put into the room for twenty min. to thirty min. every day for a week. At that time there were no plates there. Then we let the animals learn every day in the morning and after-noon three times, with fifteen minutes intervais. When the animals finished six learning sessions a day without error, the scores were measured. When they received the electroshock, we practice the learning after the recovery of consciousness. Electroshock: We practice the experiment letting cerebral electroshock to be same pattern to each animal group by making each group as follows: tonic-clonic convulsionis passed 45V. AC., duration of 1sec; subconvulsive reaction 35V. AC., duration of 1sec.: misfit 20V. AC., duration of 1sec. In the cumulative methods of twice a day etc., aftre one hour of intervals of electroshock stimulus, next stimulus was put on. But in this case, if we did not make voltage higher or make duration of current longer, we could not get the same state as beginning, therefore we should control occasionally. Results and Summary 1. Tonic-clonic convulsion and subconvulsive reaction are on the same step, having remarkably much defect in learning ability, but on the contrary misfit had no influence in the learning ability. 2. If we accumulate differently, such as, once at every other day, once a day, etc., tonic-clonic convulsion and subconvulsive reaction have much defect in learning ability when accumulated much, while comparing with tonic-clonic convulsion and subconvulsive reaction misfit has not much influence. 3. “Electrodementia” was not observed in the animals during twenty-three days in the methods of misfit and once at every other day, but in other-methods it was observed. When the accumulations were much, the animals could reach the stage electrodementia earlier. 4. The process of recovery was slow when the accumulations are much. Comparing tonic-clonic conv sion and subconvulsive reaction gronps, the sub onvulsive reaction gronp showed quicker recovery.
Problem: In view of finding, as a first step in the research on mental tempo, to what extent the “Vp” s' mental tempo holds its constancy with respect to a definite stimulus, a series of experiments has been conducted for a comparatively long period on the measurement of the mental tempo in the fycld of perception and motion Procedure: The general proeedure was similal to that of Frischeisen-köhler (1) For measuring the mental tempo in auditory perception, each “Vp” was instructed to listen to a metronome. (2) For measuring the mental tempo in visual perception, each “Vp” was shown in a dark room a small flickering lamp synchronized ai wth metronome. (3) For the same purpose, eaoh “Vp” was instructed to watch the motion of a small sheet of white paper attached to the top of the pendulum of a metron-ome. (4) For tapping, each “Vp” was asked to tap a steel stand with the tip of his or her middle finger. (5) Each “Vp” was asked to tap the table with a mental bar. (6) Each “Vp” was asked to tap the floor with the heel of his shoe. (7) Each “Vp” was asked to bend and stretch his middle finger, using an ergograph (8) Each “Vp” was asked to walk under a definite condition. (9) Each “Vp” was asked to draw a straight line with a pencil. In adition to the above, several experiments were performed in order tosee whether or not the “Vp”s' tempo was kept constant under distraction. Subjects: 28 students (including 22 male and female students) Date: July, November, Desember, 1950 Results: (1) According to Frischeisen-Köhler, there wasn't much sexual difference in the tempo with finger-tips or a metronome, it being slightly quicker in women than in men. In the present research, however, men's tempo, which showed nearly the same figure as in Frischeisen-Köhler's, proved to be considerably quicker than women's. (2) For each “Vp” the coefficients of correlation between the results of different days throughout the entire period of experiments were not always high and at times no correlations were found. Neverthess, the tempo of each “Vp” for the same day showed high constancy, which should be interpreted as indicating that in a new field whether normal or abnormal (i.e. under distraction) a new tempo was established and that this tempo was constant. This makes us assume that mental tempo is constant within a field but it varies with different fields. (3) The correlation between the results under normal conditions and those under distraction was high. From this it can be inferred that, as Frischeisen Köhler says, the constancy is high even under an abnormal condition. (4) A few “Vp”s showed extremely low constancy in their tempos. These subjects were seen to be sufiering from nervous prostraction or schizoid mixed with a certain complex. This makes us believe in the possibility of applying the above mentioned measurement of mental tempo to the clinical examination of a disease of character or emotional instability.
We have several methods for the measurement of intuitive-probability, which are, however, all unsatisfactory in the strict sense. For instance, take the method in the conmonest use, i.e. the statistical nethod. This method consists of the following steps: First, an experimenter provides an exhaustive set of two exclusive events; Second, he asks subjects of a sufficiently large number to anticipate which one of the two alternative events would occur more certainly. Finally, he calculates the relative ratio of the number of the subjects having preferred a particular one, which is the measure of the intuitive degree of certainty as to the occurrence of that event. So far as the result of this measurement depends upon a particular distribution of intuitive-probabilities among the subjects, it is inevitable that substances derived from it are in general exceedingly poor. For instance, even in the extreme case, when 100% is obtained, we could say by no means that the values of their intuitive-probabilities are all 100%, but could only say they exceed 50%. Here we propose a new method for the strict measurement of intuitive-probability free from the defects comprised in the above-mentioned methods, which is accomplished mainly by means of putting subjects into a situation of game. The characteristics of our game display itself in the following rules: 1) An umpire and two players constitute the members of the game. 2) One of the two players plays a role denoted by X (estimater), the other Y (opponent). The roles are never interchanged throughout the game. 3) In advance of the play, the umpire provides an exhaustive set of two exclusive events, say A and B, about whose order of occurrence the two players should be informed alike. 4) The whole play consists of a sufficiently large number of sets. Points of the players are given at each finish of the sets, and the final gain and loss of the players are determined in proportion to their total points after the whole play is over. 5) Each set goes on in the following manner: (a) X chooses an arbitrary positive number “a” (≤1) and presents it to Y. (b) Y chooses one between the next two al ternative cases: Case (1); To make “a” X's point. Case (2); To make “a” Y's point. (c) After observing which one of the events has occurred, if the event A is act ually got, in Case (1), “1” is scored for Y's point, in Case (2), “1” is scored for X's point; and if the event B is actually got, in Case (1), “0” is scored for Y's point, in Case (2), “0” is scored for X's point. For conveniences, we used a set of cards printed “1” or “0” as the required set of exclusive events. Now we will explain the meanings of these rules in accordance with our example of using the cards. 1), 2) The experimenter should be the umpire and the two subjects are players. 3) The experimenter provides asufficiently large number of cards mentioned above and arranges them into the order wanted, about which the subjects are not informed or informed just alike. 4) The play consists of as many sets as the number of the cards. It is just this character of the game that makes us possible to study the laws governing the changes of the value of intuitive-probability following the accumulation of passed experiences. 5) X presents an arbitrary positive number “a” (≤1) to Y, and Y chooses one for his point between the number “a” and the number printed on the card, without knowing yet whether it is “1” or “0”. Now let us consider which one of the alternatives is better to choose in a given situation. Suppose Y's value of intuitive-probability for the event the card being “1” is “b”. This means that he thinks he would have “b” as the mean value of his points if he had resolved to
Purpose- 1) To measure the strength of the field-forces formed inside and outside a figure by estimating the stimulus threshold of a spot-light at different places inside and outside the figure. And 2) to test the hypothesis of Köhler's electric theory of visual field. Procedures- Stimulus figures were cut out of a card board in the dark-room. They were then lighted by a light coming from the other side of a clouded-glass. A spot of light was thrown on the figure by a spot light apparatus in the adjoining room. Position and light strength of the spot could be changed freely by a resistance. A volt-meter was connected to make the measurement of lumen exactly. Dark-room was used. Dark-adaptation for 15 minutes before beginning the experiment. Stimulus threshold was measured at various places on the figure by gradually weakening the volt-meter and light from a point where the light spot could be seen clearly. Repeated each experiment 5 times. Subjects were 3. Observation distance 50cm. Results- 1) The light stimulus threshold was weakened as the distance between the spot-light and the figure became greater. Consequently the strength of field forces (M) is in functional relationship with the distance (D) from the figure. 2) Then, the light stimulus threshold was strengthened with the figure. Consequently M is in functional relationship with the clearness (H) of the figure. 3) Other conditions being equal, the light stimulus threshold varies according to the nature of the figure. Therefore, M is affected by the particular figure structure. Theoretical Consideration- From above experimental facts M=f (D. H. E). can be inferred. Then upon seeking the functional relation of these based upon the experimental measurement value, the result on the outside of a figure was M=f EHd/Dd M=Strength of field-forces E=The figure particular structure H=Degree of clearness (Contrast of Figure and Ground) D=Psychological distance from the figure b & d=Constant And under the conditions of these experiments in the dark-room b=-0.5 d=0.544 Now, the field forces in physical Gestalt have been based decidedly on the experimental facts that they are proportional to the amount of electricity (y) and in inverse proportion to the distance squared (γ2). And, but, when we study the results of our experiments, that is, the strength of the psychological field forces measured by the light stimulus threshold, we find that the two are very much similar even in their functional relations. Consequently we may conclude that our results have fairly well proved the validity of the hypothesis of Kohler's electric theory in visual perception.