It has been known as Heymans' inhibition that the absolute threshold of a light stimulus on a point of the retina becomes raised with the presence of an additional light stimulus at the other part of the retina, i.e., the influence of the latter works on the former “inhibitorily”. Undoubtedly, this phenomenon is mediated by some physiological processes which are to be considered as arising within the retina-cerebral neural field as a result of the existence of such an additional stimulus. Although the the processes are physiologically almost unknown, it will be fairly possible to account for it as an anstance of what is called “the psychophysiological induction” which T. Obonai has propounded. The variation in the absolute threshold is just one of the phenomenal outcomes of the induction due to the additional stimulus. In this point of view, the name of “inducing stimulus” may be given to the addtional stimulus and the name of “test stimulus” to the stimulus, of which the threshold is measured. And to determine the absolute threshold of the test stimulus is nothing but measuring the induction in terms of the thresholds. The purpose of the present experiments was to find out some of the characteristics of psychophysiological induction as functions of intensity and quantity of, and distance from, the inducing stimulus by the method of the threshold measurement of test stimulus. The following facts were ascertained; (1) As to the relation between the intensity of inducing stimulus and the absolute threshold of test stimulus, neither Heymans' law of inhibition nor the power-formula was a general law. As a fact, when the intensity of inducing stimulus was as low as the magnitude of its threshold value, it acted on the test stimulus facilitatively, i.e., the threshold of test stimulus was not raised but rather lowered. As long as the intensity of inducing stimulus was about from eight to ten times as large as its threshold value, the facilitation effect was observed. When the intensity was increased beyond this point, the inhibitary effect began to appear for the first time. The temporary faciliation and the rtansition to inhibition with the increase in the intensity of inducing stimulus seems to be the general nature of psychophysiological induction. (2) The inhibition was a negatively accelerated growing function of intensity and quantity of inducing stimulus. (3) The inhibited absolute threshold of test stimulus was inversely proportional to the power of the distance of test stimulus from inducing stimulus. (4) The summation of two inhibitory effects dne to two inducing stimuli was an occluded one. Howevere, the resultant inhibition on the test stimulus by complex inducing stimuli was not simple. (5) The other three factors which brought out the high threshold of test stimulus with the existence of the additional stimlus were considered. The first of them, the entopic stray light, was kept at a minimum in the experiment by holding the intensity of inducing stimulus as low as possible. The second was the size of the natural pupil. This was controlled easily by the use of an artificial pupil. And the last was nystagmus. This factor was avoided to a certain extent by preparing a fixation point. Facilitation and inhibition are supposedly antagonistic two phases of psychophysiological induction. In order to know not only the static characteristics of the induction but also the dynamics of these two processes, the time factor must be taken into consideration and the effect of induction must be investigated before they reach a stabilized states.
The patient K. Y. a 25 year-old man, found himself having lost his memory concerning his name, address, family and his past when he was just walking out of a public phone booth. Next day he was taken to a hospital where he staved for about six weeks. On the 21st day he was recovered from the amnestic state by electric shock treatment given three times every other day. He had never experienced any fugue or amnestic state before, but somnamblism in his infancy. Various psychological tests were adiministered before and after the electro-shock treatment. The following results were obtained. 1. In the eary stage of the disease, there was marked deteriopation in recall and judgement, but it disappeared a few days later ; intelligence was fairly high (Binet & other intelligence tests). Neurotic symptoms (Rorschach's test, respiration curve) and characteristics of schizothymie (association test) were observed. No psychotic Symp on was observable (all tests). 2. The patient was restored to normal state after the shock treatment and it was found that no foundamental changes had occurred in the results of the tests, but neurotic symtoms (respiration curve during adition-work test, Rorschach's test) and characteristics of schizothymia (association test) were observed. 3. Even in the state of amnesia concerning his self and life history, positive responses were obtaine against them (association test, T.A.T., G.S.R.). The self and life history in the patient's conception in amnestic state was the expresion of his suppressed desires and was mixed with imagination which had some relation to the facts inreality.
Following the experiments by Hudgins and others, this investigation was attempted to get further understanding of the mechanism of the voluntary control of the conditioned pupillary reflex. Two experimental procedures were employed : one was the same as that of Hudgins, and the other quite different. Five subjects were nsed in each procedure. In the first experiment, using Hudgins' procedure, negative results were obtained with three subjects in the acquisition of the cinditioned pupillary reflex even in the first step. In another subject, the conditioned pupillary reflex which was established in the first step disappeared in the process of the second step. In the last one of the five subjects, the pupillary reflex was regularly evoked under the processes of voluntary control until the sixth day when the verbal commands given both by the experimenter and subject himself could no longer elicit the pupillary response. In the latter experiment perfarmed under our own procedure which was quite different from Hudgins' and in which the weak and long conditioned stimulus and the successive presentation of the unconditioned stimulus were employed, positive results in both the conditioned pupillary reflex and its voluntary control were obtained in all the five subjects after a few trials of reinforcement for three days. Conclusion-It seems quite difficult to get good results on the conditioned pupilltry reflex and its voluntary control under Hudgins' procedure. However, under suitable conditions, experimental procedures make it possible to control pupillary response by sub-vocal verbalization of the subject himself. It is, however, questionable whether such a result can support the hypothesis of voluntary behavior presented by the Hunter and Hudgins. Judging from our experience in the study of the conditioned reflex, and by using new experimental techniques, we expect to be able to confirm our view that the mechanism of the so-called voluntary control in this experiment may be explained in terms of the stimulus generalization or substitution.
The aim of this study is to investigate statistically, based upon the number of published articles, what the general trends are in Japanese psychology since the Association was founded. The materials that have been reviewed are papers that have been presented at the Conventions of the Psychological Association of Japan, abstracts by Japanese Psychologists appeared in “Psychological Abstract, ” from 1927 to 1942. The papers were collected and they were analized with special attention given to the following five questions. 1. What kind of progress has been made year by year in terms of the number and variety of articles written. 2. What specialized fields have been given the most attention by Japanese Psychologists. 3. The changes brought about in Japanese psychology before the Second World War. 4. The difference between the subjects treated by the Japanese Psychological Association and the Japanese Association of Applied Psychology. 5. What individuals have made the greatest contributions, judging from the number of articles written or papers presented. The number of studies published each year has fluctuated greatly, (see Fig. I) During the war the Association did not meet all for the three years 1944, 1945 and 1946. The most conspicuous trend as far as specialized fields of study were concerned was the great interest shown in the fields of SENSATION and PERCEPTION. (see Fig. 2) Since the close of the war the number of published works has increased greatly, but the subjects are pretty much the same as before the war (Fig. 3). However there seems to be more interest in Social Psychology and in Mental Tests in the year after the war. The only noticable difference between the Japanese Psychological Association (J.P.A.) and the Japanese Association of Applied Psychology (J.A.A.P) is the great number of articles on SENSATION and PERSEPTION on the part of he former Association, and the great number of articles on Social Psychology on the part of the latter Association. Finally I have attempted to make a list of the most productive psychologists in the order of the number of articles they have published. Obonai, Torao 33 articles Ohwaki, Giichi 17 Watanabe, Tooru 14 Akishige, Yoshiharu 12 Koga, Yukiyoshi 11 Kido, Mantaro 11 Those who made the most studies before the war are in order, Obonai, Kido, Awazi, Chiba, Uchida, Watanabe and Sakuma. As regards to “Psychological Abstracts” before the war Kuroda, Kido and Obonai were the most frequent contributiors for the J.P.A. and for the J.A.A.P. By hte way, these two associations consisted of the same members with only a few exceptions. In the J.A.A.P. Watanabe and Obonai were most active. I feel sure that many Japanese psychologists will agree with me that this is a fair summary of the trends in psychology in Japan based only, as I have said before, on the published works of members of the two associations of psychologists in Japan.