When a very small point is cast in the neighborhood of various kind of figures, the point is influenced by the figures and is displaced in various directions. These directions and the quantity of displacement have been studied in detail in relation to (1) distance between a figure and the point; (2) size of the figure; (3) characteristics of the figure; (4) inside and outside of the contour figure. The findings were as follows: 1. The point cast around a figure is displaced in the direction away from the figure at a place close to the figure. As it is cast farther away from the figure, iti is displaced toward the figure, showing the greatest magnitude of change in between, and as it is cast still farther away, the magnitude decreases gradually. (Cf. Figs. 4-7) 2. With change in the size of the figure the process of displacement of the point varies slightly-i.e. when the figure is larger, the highest magnitude of displacement occurs at a point slightly farther away from the figure. But it cannot be said that the magnitude of displacement always varies in proportion to the size of the figure. (Cf. Figs. 8-10) 3. On the outside of an angular figure, the point is drawn toward the figure, and the magnitude of displacement decreases is the distance is greater. On the inside of an angle, the point pulls away from the angle when placed near the angle, and in reverse as it is cast farther away it is drawn toward the angle. The greatest magnitude of displacement is attained in the environs of the line which connects the ends of the two sides of the angle, and from there on it gradually decreases. (Cf. Figs. 14, 15) 4. The point cast in a closed contour figure is on the whole drawn toward the center of the figure and the magnitude od displacement largest near the contour line while it decreases as the point is cast toward the center. (Cf. Figs. 11-13) From these results it is concluded that the phenomenon of the displacement of the point seems to be influenced by the direction of the field force of the figures in the psycho-physical field.
1. Purpose: The aim of this experiment is to investigate the speed of conditioning in children, its relation to their intelligence, physique and neural types. 2. Procedure: We modified F. Mateer's experimental procedure in some points. We used the method of placing an opaque water-glass over the eyes of the child just before food was placed in his mouth. The opaque water-glass came to serve as the conditioned stimulus, eventually evoking mouth opening and swallowing movements before the food was presented. The movements were recorded on the poly-graph (myograph) from tambours fastened under the chin and on the throst, and number of mouth openings were counted by experimenter. An opaque water-glass to serve as the conditioned stimulus was kept over each eye for 20 seconds. In the eleventh second the child was fed a bit of HERSHEY chocolate (1g), or cider candy (0.7g) and the opaque water-glass was removed at the end of the twentieth second. Then the child was allowed to see pictures-books, and to talk freely with experimenter. Three-minutes interval was used, and I reinforced ten times on the first day. When more repetition were needed the procedure was continued at twenty four hour intervals until the desired result was obtained. 24 hours later the second process was carried out. This was memorial functioning of the association. As soon as the associate functioning was re-established in the child, the third process was begun. This is the experimental extinction. And the fourth process was studied, immediately after a three-minutes interval had elapsed after the completion of the extinction. This is the test of reassociation. The subjects used in this experiment were 17 kindergarten children, and 2 elementary school pupils. The range of their ages were 64-84 months, and I.Q. were 65-127. 3. Results: 1. The conditioned response in children was established by using a bit of chocolate or cider candy as unconditioned stimulus, and conditioned stimulus was to cover the eyes with an opaque wate-glass. 2. The formation of a conditioned response requires from 2 to 9 trails (in case of mouth opening as the index of conditioned response), from 2 to 16 (in case of swallowing as the index of conditioned response). 3. The range of number of trials needed to develop a response after 24 hours is 1-8 (mouth opening), 1-13 (swallowing). 4. The number of trials needed for developing the experimental extinction ranged from 2-6 (both mouth opening and swallowing), the number or trials being greater for the boys than girls. 5. The re-establishment of the conditioned response requires 2-3 (mouth opening), 2-5 (swallowing). 6. The following correlations between the speed of conditioning, chronological age, I.Q. height, weight and great of the chest were found. a. Chronological; (mouth opening) +0.0170 (swallowing) -0.1045 b. I.Q. (Binet test rsvised by Suzuki); (mouth opening) -0.4682 (swallowing) -0.1060 c. The Otomo's mental test; (mouth opening) -0.3735 (swallowing) +0.1065 d. Height, standing; (mouth opening) -0.5625 (swallowing) -0.2389 d. Weight; (mouth opening) -0.5024 (swallowing) -0.3281 f. Great of the chest; (mouth opening) -0.3448 (swallowing) -0.1500 7. The correlations between conditioning and retention (after 24 hours) was +0.3555 (mouth opening), +0.7349 (swallowing). And correlations between conditioning and experimental extinction was -0.387 (mouth opening), -0.3021 (swallowing). 8. There are marked sex differences, more of the boys developing the conditioning rapidly, more of the girls requiring a greater number of trials. And the number of trials needed for developing experimental extinction is smaller for the girls than for the boys. 9. We found that there was positive relation between the speed of conditioning and temperament, so called neural type. But more extensive studies must be conducted in order to confirm this point.
This experiment was undertaken on the assumption that the phenomenon of Autokinetic Movement was dependent for its appearance upon a central rather than a peripheral process, such as eye-movement. Two light boxes (93×70×38mm and 200×24×16 mm) were used for presenting the stimuli. One end of each of these boxes was equipped with opal glass, covered with a sheet of black cloth paper, out of which stimulus figures were cut. A miniature lamp (1.5v) was placed inside the box so that when this was on, the stimulus figures were lighted. The brightness of the lamp was controlled by manipulating the rheostat connected with it. The subject, seated about 2 meters away from the box and with his head resting firmly upon a head-rest, observed the stimulus through very small round apertures (each about 2.5mm in diameter) cut in a screen which stood close to his face. The results of his observation were reported minutely with illustrations after the manner of experimental phenomenology. The results were as follows: 1. When a small arrow figure (about 1cm. length) was presented contrary to our expectations, the direction of the arrow had no influence on the direction of autokinetic movement. 2. When points of light were presented, they held generally a reciprocal and intimate relationship, marking a harmonious, large-scale movement together. 3. Sometimes a special and labile area was produced around the small arrow or around the two light points, and this area as a whole streamed in the dark. 4. In the case of two light points the fixated point played the leading role in the whole movement and was more stable than the other. But at the presentation of a line and a point, the fixation did not produce such an effect. The line always controlled the whole movement and the point moved along the line. 5. By straining and relaxing the muscles of head, jaw and arm, we found that there were some relations between autokinetic movement and the tonus of muscles. But we could not determine these relations accurately. It seems that the muscles operate as a whole, but not in separation. 6. The general bodily state of the perceiver determined the manner of movement of the luminous point. To the feeling of stability of the subject himself corresponded the stability of the subject himself corresponded the stability of the autokinetic phenomenon. 7. The light point came to restrain the range of movement, when the subject pointed it with his finger or held the stimulus box with his fingertips. It was easier to control the autokinetic movement by holding the box than by mere pointing. In both cases the finger played the rôle of the framework in the darkness, but for this the attention should be directed and concentrated to the stimulus. From the above, we may conclude that the autokinetic movement can be restrained or even extinguished when an object obtains an anchorage in the “object-world” which stands face to face with the “ego” or in the “ego” itself, as in our experiment with finger-tips.
In another paper (1), I have pointed out that the negative time-error was dominant in the suc cessive comparison of visual lengths. But American experimenters report recently that the positive time-error may arise, too (2 etc). The purpose of this experiment is to make sure of this situation and to determine from what factors these differences result. Lines of various lengths were presented to the subjects by projection on a sdreen. The standard line was 200mm long and nine comparison stimuli were 240, 230, 220, 210, 200, 190, 180, 170, and 160 mm. in length. After a signal the first stimulus was presented for 1.5 sec. and after a 1.5, 3, 4. 5, 6, 8 and 12 sec. interval the second stimulus was presented also for 1.5 sec. The subjects were asked to write down immediately whether the second line appeared longer than, equal to, or shorter than the first line. In these experiments, I could get the following results. 1. In all the cases, the time-error was negative, and no positive results were obtained. 2. The difference between conditions of the pre-presentation of the stimulus and its post-presentation had no significantly different effect on the time-error. (In this case only a 8 sec. interval was used.) 3. The enlargement of the experimental series reliably shifts the time-errors in the positive direction and eliminates the negative time-error altogether. (In this case the conditions were the as those in 1.) In the other experiment in which the dominant personality group, and the submissive personality group, rated by a personality inventory, were asked to draw the medium live out of one-serial lines, we could not find any significant correlation between the personality traits and the drawn lines. But when this experiment was repeated many times, we found shifts in judgement scale. Moreover, it was found that the way the time-error occurred is different, depending on the children above or below the 4th grade in the primary school. There were found reliable differences in the results between normal and abnomal children. The enlargement of the experimental series uniformly and reliably shifted the time-errors in the possive direction in normal children, but the results failed to show this tendency for abnormal children.
Problem: To determine the effects of cooperative and competitive situations upon the consensus and change of opinions in a group. Subjects: 14 experimental groups were established; each group was composed of ten female college students. Seven group were assigned to cooperative situation, others to competitive situation. Procedure: The students individually rated six personality traits of professors in the order of their desirability for the college education of women. Members of each group were then asked to discuss and evaluate those personality traits and to make final group decision as regards to desirable traits. Before discussion, the members of the cooperative group were told that the group would be rated in the relative goodnesss of the discussion techniques of the group in comparison with those of the other group. The members of the competitive group were told that their discussion techniques in comparison with the other members of this group. After discussion the students as individuals were again asked to rate the six personality traits of profes ors. Result: The amount of agreement of opinions before discussion was almost the same in both groups. The amount of agreement after discussion in the cooperative groups was significantly larger than that in the competitive groups. The members of the cooperative groups changed their opinion more toward the group decision after discussion than those of the competitive groups.
This experiment was performed in an attempt to clarify some of the basic preblems arising from the “paradox of reinforecement”. In the situation of reinforcement at a fixed ration including the continuous reinforcements, the ratio and the absolute number of reinforcements, were changed step by step systematically with different experimental groups in accordance with the following plan: Thus, there were twelve groups altogether in the two dimensional experimental design. In treating the results, I examined the time of reaction in acquisition and extinction, the member of reactions in extinction and the latency in acquisition and extinction in their relation to one another. The results showed that only under the condition in which the same number of reinforcements was given, the resistance to extinction with partial reinforcement was stronger than that with continuous reinforcement. On the other hand, Hull's principle of reinforcement was confirmed with respect to partial reinforcement when the number of reinforcements was taken into consideration. This is a blind spot which has hitherto been overlooked. As the proportion of reinforcement became less and less, the resistance to extinction increased paripassu-within the range of comparatively law rations, provided the same nember of reinforcements was given. However, at a certain high ratio (a critical ratio), it began to decrease aud continued so with the increase in the proportion of reinforcement. It would seem that at night ratios the extinction process goes on and partially counteracts the process of acquistion. This is another blind spot that has been overlooked not only in the principle of reinforcement but also in the very principle of expectancy. Generally speaking, on the one hand, the gradual change in the ratio of reinforcements produces a bidimensional curve like a parabola whose crest represents the point of criticalratio, and on the other hand, the number of reinforcements may function as an independent variable of the exponential curve in a given ratio group. Then, there is a question why the resistance to extinction with partial reinforcement is stronger than that with continuous reinforcement. In my opinion, this difference is due to secondary reinforcement. It seems that responses preceding the reinforced one bring out the secondary reinforcement. From this point of view, Hull's equation should be re-examined and revised. There still remains a problem of ‘unit’ hypothesis. In the reinforcement at a fixed ratio, the latency, due to reinforcement, changed periodically in the sequence of acquistion. The latency immediatelly after the reinforced response was eminently longer and thereafter it gradually diminished until the next reinforcement. Thus, the series of latency made a kind of goa gradient, This ‘unit’ of responses was formed in the early period of acquisition and it made some difference in extinction in the different ratio groups.