Purpose : Examining Köhler's “displacement-effect” experimentally, we tried to see whether or not our results can support his theory of “self-satiation”. At the same time, we conducted experiments on Gibson's “adaptation”, and tried to compare it with Köhler's “self-satiation”. Experiments : Apparatus-Apparatus and conditions in the present experiments were the same as those in the previous experiments (see Report I). Stimuius figures-Fig, 1 indicates the stimulus figure used in Exp. I and Exp. II fig. 5 and 7 those used in Exp. III and Exp. IV respectively. Procedure-Exp. I, III and IV were done in similar ways. For a considerable length of time, Sub. fixated the fixation point which was on the left side (or right) of I. F. (Inspection Figure), while V. F. (Variable Figure) was covered with a white screen on the other side. When the white screen was removed, Sub. could see V. F., Sub. compared I. F. with V. F. in respect of apparent size (in Exp. I), apparent curvature (in Exp.III), or with the breadth and length (in Exp. IV) of the figures. With various lengths of inspection time, we measured amounts of “displacement” using Wirth's “Complete series method”. In Exp. II, the procedure of projecting the figure was the same as that used in the previous wark (see Report I). Results : 1) Under prolonged inspection, an object diminishes its apparent size ; a circle becomes smaller, while the distance between the parallel-lines becomes narrower and the length of them becomes shorter. We must add here that the amount of diminution by “self-satiation”, is generally slight, and the personal difference in the amount of effects is considerably large. 2) The rate of diminution due to “self-satiation”(and also to Gibson's “adaptaion”) is at first comparatively large, then gradually becomes smaller till it draws closely to zero. Here, we must say that these phenomena depend greatly upon the experimental procedure ; the curve which shows the amounts of the effects in the case of Exp. I differs from the one obtained in Exp II (see Fig. 2 (Exp. I) and Fig., 3 (Exp. II)). 3) From these experiments we can conclude that Gibson's “adaption” is the same phenomenon as Köhler's “self-satiation”. 4) Investigating these phenomena, we are inclined, contrary to Köhler's theory of “displacement”, to think that every part of a figure displaces itself from a weak satiated area to an intensive area. We, also, conclude that the phenomenon of “self-satiation”, as Obonai says, is a phenomenon which results from the process in which the intensively satiated area appears smaller than it's objective size. 5) “Self-satiation” must be distinguished from “after-effect”, for the former is the prerequisite of the latter ; the former exists as a phase of development of the exciting-process, while the latter exists as a phase of the decline of the exciting-process. In this repect, Köhler's “theory of figural after-effects” seems to have a defect ; it makes no distinction between “self-satiation” and “after-effect”. Therefore, it can not help but fall into explanatory difficulty. However, Köhler would be able to explain his facts without inconsistencies, if he did not regard the phenomena of “self-satiation”-as he did in the explanation of “after-effect”-as the reactions of the figure-current of T. F. on the figure-current of I. F., but regarded it as an action of the figure-current of I. F. itself. 6) The phenomenon of “self-satiation” appears more remarkably on color and depth symptoms than they do on displacement symptoms.
The aim of this study was to trace the course of the unfolding of the developmental principle of differentiation and integration by way of the experiment on Charpentier's illusion (the size-weight illusion) in children. The first two experiments (Exp. I and II) showed clearly that the weight illusion through size made rapid development between 4 and 5 years of mental age. The mentally retarded children of the same mental age as the normal children showed similar development with this illusion. However, the children under 4 years of age seldom experienced the illusion. This may be accounted for by the following two statements : (1) The weight perception among these younger children is not so well developed as in the adult. The behavior of those children who belonged to the 3rd group in Exp. I and whose average age 3 years showed no differentiation between their visual and weight perception. As the result, when they compared two objects which differed in size, their weight perceotion was disturbed by visual impression. (2) As Friedlander said, Charpentier's illusion is caused by the contrast between the real weight and the expecting image that the bigger object is heavier. In younger children this expecting image does not appear because of less experience. In Exp. III three kinds of test were given to mentally retarded children, 1) arrangement of five objects according to their size, 2) arrangement of the same sized five objects according to their weight, 3) arrangement of four objects differing in size according to their weight. Among the three tests, the last one was the hardest for our observers. The results of this experiment would show that weight perception is a higher mental function than visual perception and that it is formed by differentiating and integrating the various fields of perception. The result of Exp. IV, In which size illusion through weight was tested, underlined the correctness of the above statements. In conclusion, it may be said that the perception of weight is perfected by the differentiation and integration of the various fields of, perception and in these processes one's experience iu his life situation plays an important role.
This is a report of the studies, continued from the previous work, as regards the mode and law of modification of imaged, by the experiment on imagery fusion which is observed in a post-hypnotic hallucinatory state. We investigated chiefly whether these images where integrated according to the configuration law of the Gestalt school, or whether they were nothing other than the overlapping of images. Various experiments were performed, using according figures (Fig. 1), discordant figures (Fig. 3), the composite images partly changed in size (Fig. 4), the incomplete figures with concrete meanings (Fig. 5. A) and the figures in which perception and meaning were discordant with each other (Fig. 6). The results were as follows : 1. There were some subjects whose images were clear, and others whose images were vague. In general the iamges were clear in the deep hypnotic trance, and vague in the medium trance. 2. In the case if the clear images, they were prominently overlapped, while in the case of the vague images, they overlapped one another and were disjointed or integrated. 3. After conditioning two kinds of figures with two kinds of sounds, a composite iamge could be around by the two stimuli. In this case by changing the tempo of one kind, a part of the composite image was changed. This fact would prove that the composite images were combinations of elements. 4. In the case of the integrated images, the modification of both clear and vague images could be explained satisfactorily not by the Gestalt theory but by the intervention of the meaning. Moreover, the hypothesis of the hierarchy of cerebral functions corresponding to these phenomena was possible. 5. Modification through meaning was more frequent in the vague images than in the clear ones. 6. The spontaneous effect of meaning on the images was dependent on the depth of trance. This effect was comparatively weak in deep trance and strong in medium trance. It was assumed that in mudium trance which reproduced the integrated images, meaning activity still remained. 7. Having presented incomplete figures with concrete meaning to examine the effect of meaning, it was clear that the modification of images by meaning took place distinctly under the influence of suggestion. 8. If perception and meaning of the figure were made to be in discord with each other, the meaning suggested at the time of conditioning produced more effect on the modification of the images than that at the time of recall.
The present paper is a report of a study of heredity and the influence of the environment on the degree of physical maturation, intelligence proficiency in the language in twins. The subjects studied are 50 pairs of twins, -25 pairs of identical twins, 18 pairs of fraternal twins, 7 pairs of unlike-sex twins, and 11 pairs of the control group of unrelated individuals. The last group is made up of 11 pairs of children, aged from 6 to 12, of the like-sex and of the same date of birth, and were picked up from the classes in which the selected twins were enrolled in school. The intelligence was measured by the non-language group intelligence test. The proficiency of the Japanese language was examined by the present author's test for each grade. The rough scores of the tests were converted to standard scores. The degree of bodily maturation was determined by the degree of ossification, which is evaluated by the measurement of the X-ray pictures of carpal bones, and is represented by Growth Quotient, G. O. = (the total of the areas of the subject's wrist bones) ÷ (the standard area obtained by the author's formula)×100. In the first place the author calculated the correlation between each of the I. Q′. s or proficiency in the language (Z-Score) and the bodily maturation degree (G. Q.). In the second place the author tried to determine how much influence heredity and environment have on each of the G. Q.′s and the I. Q.′s, and Z-score and calculated the ratio of heredity and environmental influence on the Concurrence Quotients (C. Q.) which are the index standing for the proportion of concurrence of I. Q. and G. Q. (I. Q./G. Q.×100), of Z-score and G. Q. (Z-score/G. Q.×100), or of Z-score and I. Q. (Z-score/I. Q.×100). As a statistical procedure the writer adopted, first, the method of calculating the degree of resemblance of twins by the percentile deviation (D = A - B/A + B×100) of measured values or index, and the ratio of heredity and influence of environment on twins based on F. Lenz's formula and others. Then the author resorted to the method of analysis of variance by which one may obtain the intraclass correlation (r′). The correlation coefficients and the correlation ratios thus obtained are as follows (Table 1) : Table 1 ** 1 percent level. Table 2 The resemblance of twins calculated from the mean percentile deviation (ε= ΣD/N) and the ratio of heredity and influence of enviroment obtained by the Lenz's formula follow (Table 2) : Since the homogeneity of variances as regards the trains under consideration is the fundamental assumption underlying the analysis of varance by which one may obtain the intraclass correlations, L-tests are run for the comparsions of properties for the twins and the control group. All of the L-values obtained indicate the homogeneity of variance at 1 percent level. The author then proceeded with the test of hypothesis that the trails of individuals are independent of the particular twin pair to which the individual belongs, by calculating the F-ratio. Then, when the result thus obtained is significant at a specified level of significance, the author calculated the intraclass correlation. The intraclass correlation coefficients (r′) thus calculated on G. Q., I. Q, , Z-Socre, and each C. Q. are as follows (table 3) : From the author's observation based on his above-mentioned study, it is evident the heredity exerts on influence not only on each realm of intelligence, proficiency in the language and the physical maturation degree but also on the degree of concurrence of each pair of the two properties among them. Then it is also observed that the correlation between intelligence or proficiency in language and the bodily maturation degree is based upon the hereditary factor which is some Table 3 ** 1 percent level * 5 percent level common trait in mental and physical development.
E. C. Tolman has found that mice formed the spatial learning very easily. The author supposed that hens form the spatial learning more easily than the mice ; and he anticipated that the spatial learning interacts with the problem of the visual perception in the hen. The author endeavored to study the relation between the spatial learning and the size constancy in the hen. (Control Group) Two hens were trained to go to F2 in Fig. 2. Then, an effort was made to train them to start from the southern entrance but they still chose F2. (Fig. 5) Successive experiments indicated that the sense of smell and light rays had no influeuce on the choice of F2. The author studied the relation between the choice of F2 and the nest box and found a close relation between them. As was discovered by these experiments, the hens were believed to choose the food location on the right as viewed from the nest box. For example, the nest box and the apparatus were moved as in Fig. 7, and the hens still chose F1. Then the author connected nest box to the southern entrance ; but again they still chose F1. The author concluded by these experiments that the hens can learn the food place very easily depending on some visual cues, and in these experiments, their decisive cue was their nest box. (Experimental Group) Two hens, el, and e3, made up this group. E1, was trained to choose the bigger card (8cm×8cm), and e3, learned to choose the smaller card (7cm×7cm) in Fig. 4. The smaller card was placed nearer than the bigger card to the starting entrance. Their distant ratio from the starting entrance was always 3 : 4. At first they were made to start from the northern entrance in the nest box. At A, the positive card of el was placed in his trained place (the palce 30cm from the northern entrance), and at B, the positive card of e3 was placed in his trained place at A, e1 chose the positive card more frequently than at B ; and at B, e3 chose the positive card more frequently than at A. These results indicated that the positive card was more easily chosen at the accustomed place. Then the hens were made to start from the southern entrance. (Fig. 9). In this case also, they chose the positive card more frequently at the accustomed place (30cm from northern entrance). Next, when the author removed the nest box from their visual field, their responses were very much distturbed. The author connected the nest box to the southern entrance. At the place 30cm from the nest box the hens chose the positive card frequently than the place 30cm from northern entrance (the original place). From these experiments, the author concluded that, if there was some cue in the visual field, the problem of visual perception will interact with the spatial learning. In these experiments, the hens' cue was the nest box. The author thinks, however, if we put them into the homogeneous experimental situation, the spatial learning still will interact with the experiment of their size constancy.