One of the most difficult problems in the experimental study of the conditioned pupillary light reflex is the determination of the precise technique to use in recording the pupillary movement. Up to the present time, two methods have been available : (1) the use of the pupillometer, which could roughly measure the pupillary reflex but not detail of latency, magnitude, and configuration ; (2) the use of photography, but this does not provide a continuous pupillographic curve and besides excepting the infrared photography, the ordinary photography requires high luminosity wihch is disadvantageous to the experiment in conditioning. The present experiment was made possible by the newly introduced method in which the minute changes of the pupil were automatically and continually recorded. The apparatus consisted of parts for pupillary measurement, its recording and devices for the presentation of stimuli. The constant light was adjusted to illuminate the pupil of the left eye and was reflected so as to be received by a photoelectric cell which was placed in front of the nose and between visual lines directed to a fixation point. The amount of light reflected in accordance with the changing size of the pupil and iris was converted by the photoelectric cell to an electrical charge which was amplified and recorded by an ink-writing oscillograph. To the right eye, the light of the unconditioned stimulus which was isolated from the left eye and the photoelectric cell was presented and its consensual reflex on the left eye was measured. This study was concerned with time intervals between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli. Seven temporal relations were set up. One of them was the simultaneous presentation of the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli, four were successive conditionings with periods of delay of 1, 3, 6 and 9 seconds respectively, and two tarce conditionings of 0 and 3 seconds, where the du-ration of unconditioned stimuli was 6 seconds throughout. Good results were obtained in the successive conditioning of 6 seconds and the trace of zero second. Dynamic processes of the response in the period of delay and the latency in the course of the conditioning were observed. The pupillograph derived from this experimental technique provides a way to the study of inhibitiory mechanisms which frequently disturb the formation of the conditioned pupillary reflex.
The purpose of this study was to examine to what extent thedifferences at the distribution“patterns” in the partial reinforcement trials, which consisted of the same percentages and the same numbers of reinforcements, had influence on the acquisition and extinction processes. Using a single elevated straight running alley, 91 naive white rats were given the training of 20 trail per a day with reinforcement ratio of 50%. The first 4 days were the acquisition period and the nest day was the extinction one. As the regular reinforcement patterns, single double, triple, quadruple and pentaple alternation procedures were used, any moreover, continuous and irregular (random) reinforcement patterns on the acquisition and extinction process were compaired. The results were as follows : 1) When the regular reinforcement pattern compaired with irregular one, the latter was more excellent at the performance level, and greater in the resistance to extinction, too. 2) In the regular reinforcement patterns, the smaller the numbers of alternation unit, the more stable and the more excellent the performance level. Only in the single alternation pattern, the resistance to extincrtion was remarkably great, and among other patterns, there were no conspicuous differences. However, there was a tendency that in the later stage of extinction process, the reaction latency was apt to remain at relatively lower as the nembers of alternation unit were increased, and as the result of it, it could be said that resistance to extinction became relatively greater. 3) It was suggested that the more the numbers of unit, the more difficult the learning, and that there were some limits in the procedure of partial reinforcement. The same tendency was found in the process of extinction. 4) It seemed appropriate that the Denny theory of the secondary reinforcement and the Shefield's generalization theory of the after-effect of reinforcement are applied to these phenomena, but it is also possible to interprete these phenomena from the Humphreys' “expectation” hypothesis. Yet, in the case of measuring the effect of the partial reinforcement, such a proposition should be held that the relationships between the learning and extinction, and performance and the latency as is scale were uniquivocal. However, it is doubtful to accept those proposition from the results of those experiments.
1. Problem The present paper is a report of factorials study of social attitudes. It's purpose has been to throw some light on the organization, i. e, interrelations of social attitudes. The purpose of the experiment has been to ascertain the existence and nature of the two primary social attitudes i. e, , conservatism and radicalism And the hypothesis has been that one's attitudes in the realm of politics, religion, and social questions might be organized and stratified upon these primary attitudes (factors). 2. Previous Research The main researches, as far as the author has been able to ascertain, have been those of Thurstone, Carlson, Ferguson, Johnson, Eyesenck, and Sanai. Mrs. Thurstone called the first factor conservatism-radicalism and the second nationalism-antinationalism. Using Thurstone's technique of analysis, Carlson extracts three factors. Ferguson calls his first factor “Humanism”. Johnson found bipolar factor of radicalism -conservatism the most important. Eyesenck presented very convincingly the important problem of methodology ; he insisted that unrotated factors were not less but more meaningful than those obtained after rotation of the reference axes. And he obtained there unrotated factors, the first of which he called radicalism-conservatism. His second factor was called rational-scientific vs. sentimental-emotion, and his third factor was called “freedom from interference vs. fondness of coercion.” Sanai analyzed the results by Burt's general factor method by simple summation. The general factor was called a factor of progressivism vs. conservatism. The second factor was bipolar and named a factor of socialism-atheism vs. “Social”progressivism. The third factor was bipolar also and called a factor of socialism vs. atheism. 3. Procedure The selected attitudes were attitudes to word (1) Americans, (2) Russians, (3) Chinese, (4) Koreans, (5) War, (6) Criminal punishment, (7) Capital punishment, (8) Friendly relations between man and-woman, (9) Prohibition, (10) Sports, (11) Movie, (12) Marxim, (13) Christianity. 305 subjects (157 males and 148 females) were selected randomly from 781 students in fourteen universities and high school. The results were factor-analysed by Thurstone's centroid method. Our viewpoint does not agree with Thurtone and Guilford that centroid the methods before rotation are always devoid of meaning. Factoring the correlation matrix, we extracted two important factors. We called the first factor conservatism-progressivism, and the second nationalism-antinationalism. The variables heavily loaded with progressivism were favorable attitude toward Russians, Chinese, KOreans, Friendly relations between mas and woman, Marxism, Movie. In the opposite direction were found attitudes favorale toward War, Sports, Christianity. The variables heavily loaded with anitinationalism were favorable attitudes toward Russians, Chinese, Koreans, Sports, Marxism, Christianity. In the opposite direction were found attitudes favorable toward Americans, War, Capital punishment, Criminal punishment, Movie, Friendly relations between man and woman.
Purpose. To grasp the behavioral characteristics of the individuals in the frustration situation in reference to their learning processes. Subject. 65 primary school boys, aged 10 years 9 months to 12 years 11 months (40 and 26 in Exps. I and II respectively). Procedure. Both Exps. I and II consist of the following three stages : 1) Pre-Frustration Situation (PFS). -In the control and experimental groups alike all subjects have to learn the random (Japanese) letters in a certain orders. The 20 sets of 4 letters each arranged according to a definite order are exposed one by one (cf. Fig. 1). The response demanded in Exp. I is substituting numerals for each set of letters (“1, 2, 3, 4” is the correct answer), and in Exp. II reading the letters (for example, “Ka-na-mi-ri” in the first row in Fig. 1 is correctly read is as “Ka-mi-na-ri”). 2) Frustration Situation (FS). -The set-up is such that the experimental groups (FrGr) are made to fail in the pezzle tasks and that the control groups (NFrGr) are permitted to succeed in the same tasks. 3) After-Frustration Situation (AFS). -The random letters are given as in the first situation, but the arrengement of the letters is different. The correct answer is “3, 4, 1, 2” for the letters in Exp. I and “se-to-mo-no” for “mo-se-no-to”Exp. II (cf. Fig. 2) The three stages above are given successively. Both Exps. I and II are given individually. Results. Exp. I. -For the FrGr the learning in AFS is more difficult than for the NFrGr, i.e., with the former the reaction time required unitl correctly answering the random letters is longer than with the letter (cf. Figs. 3 & 4). Moreovere, the number of individuals who require more reaction time for the correct answers in PFS than in AFS is 7 in FrGr and 15 in NFrGr. On the contrary, the number of individuals with whom the reaction time is longer in AFS than in PFS is 11 in FrGr and only 3 in NFrGr (cf. Table 3). These differences are statistically significant (P<.05). Exp. II. -The number of indivduals who show the error of reading random letters in AFS according to the order learned in PFS is 9 and 5 in FrGr and NFrGr respectively, and those who do not commit such an error are 3 and 8 in the respective groups (cf. Table 4). Although the differences between the groups is not statistically significant, the trend toward difference is sufficiently established (P<.10). Conclusion. The experiments reconfirm the widely accepted hypothesis that for the individual, who has been in hte frustration situation, it is generally difficult to adapt himself to the new learning situation. This, the explanation of the present experiments would suggest, may be due to the fixation of responsese to the learning in the pre-frustration situation.
When two stimilar stimulus figures (lines or points) are presented simultaneously on a horizontal plane with a certain distance from each other, we perceive the distance sometimes greater and someties smaller phenomenally in according with the sonditions of presentation. The aim of this experiment was to examine these phenomena in relation to (1) intesity of stimuli (ratio of rad. lux), (2) size of stimulus figures, (3) objective distance between two stimuli. The finding were as follows : 1. The stronger the intensity of stimuli becomes, the greater becomes the phenomenal distance, and the amount of over-estimation becomes less with the increase in the objective distance. 2. The longer the length of the lines (stimuli) becomes, the greater becomes the phenomenal distance. The amount of over-estimation becomes larger with the increase in the objective distance, but the proportion of over-estimation is the greatest at a certain distance, and then it becomes smaller as the objective distance increases further. The result seems to be affected also by other factors such as observer's attitude or inspection time, etc., so it is necessery to analyse these factors next time.
The non-response to the items in a questionaire is analysed in the corresponding relationship between responses by the yes-or-no method and those by the multiple choice method. 1) The non-response becomes, to a considerable extent, a positive response by using the multiple choice method, which mearns that the non-response in the yes-or-no method is not always located just between “Yes” and “No.” 2) The quality of the non-response is influenced by the distinct inclination of each subject, contects of questions, or perhaps even some expressions of the questionaire items. There are some case, therefore, where the response to the items comes to have not a small partiality. 3) In the yes-or-no method, the meanings not only of the non-response but of the negative response-“No”-are multivocal, too. It can them be seen that the negative response is not a genuine, positive response to the questionaire item. 4) The negative response is not, therefore, to be estimated to be equivalent to the positive response in its absolute value. 5) The negative response, also, has a partiality influenced by individual subjects or some forms or contents of the questionary items. 6) In both of the yes-or-no method and the multiple choice method, it is only the positive response that is considered to have a corresponding relationship. It seems inadequently, to use as questionary items those which are of low corresponding relationship of the positive response in both of the methods. 7) In follows natually that the quality of every response (i.e. every kind of response from the positive to the negative) to each item comes into question, which is one of the problems taken up by the present study. The paper attempts an analysis of the meaning of neutral and negative response in the multiple choice method. 8) From those results, the further problem to pursue will be how to prescribe the meaning of the questionary items.