1) A man's attitude toward society may be, in the author's opinion, either radical or conservative, and either of these qualities may permeate value types in social life. These value types were divided into six classes, namely, theoretical, economic, political, esthetic, religious and social, and from these value types a number of two-character Japanese terms of radical and conservative natures were selected. Combining and arranging the radical and conservative words into pairs according to the order of merit, the author chose thirtysix stimulus words. Then the radical words out of these stimulus words were classified into six value ranks according to the order of merit, and the same thing was done with the conservative words. 2) In the experiment, the author presented these stimulus words for recall and recognition in a tachistoscope with respect to each categorical value. A total of eighteen subjects - all college students - took part in the experiment. The results of these experiments were as follows. (1) Radical words were recalled and recognized more rapidly than conservative ones in each value rank. (2) In both radical and conservative groups, higher-valued words were recalled and recognized more rapidly. (3) With most stimulus words, the time for recognition was shorter than that for recall. 3) The fact that radical words were recalled and recognized more rapidly than conservative ones must, to some extent, be attributed to the fact that college students were used as the subjects. For the present, the author wishes to point out that (1) radical words were recalled and recognized faster than conservative ones and (2) the higher in value the stimulus words are the more rapidly are they reacted upon. Therefore, the author wishes to emphasize the point that the individual's social attitude and his bearing for higher-valued words, resulting from past experiences or motivations, have an important influence upon his intellectual reaction.
Three experiments were undertaken to determine the effect of inter-trial interval, work and hunger drive on the alternation response of white rats. Exp. I. A simple T-maze was used. After exploration and pretraining, 30 white rats were divided into 5 groups. Inter-trial intervals differed from 0, 10, 20, 30 to 60 seconds in each group. All rats were given two blocks of 11 successive free choice trials per day for 5 days following approximately 24 hrs. of food deprivation. A 5 min. rest period was introduced between the two blocks of trials. The following two days constituted an extinction period. Results : It was found that : 1) The percent alternation during the experimental period decreased as the inter-trial interval increased. The scores of groups IV and V were lower than chance. Following the 5 min. rest period, alternation was higher than during the 60 sec. interval, and after 24 hrs. it returned to the chance score. 2) The percent alternation during extinction in all groups was higher than chance. 3) The higher the alternation, the longer the running time. Exp. II. Three types of T-maze were used. Type A was the same as used in Exp. I. The arms of type B were 125cm. longer than A. In type C, the arms used in type B were inclined 6 degree from the choice point to the goal boxes. Thirty white rats were divided into 5 groups which differed in amounts of work and inter-trial intervals (see Table 2). The rest of the procedure was the same as in Exp. I. Results : It was found that : 1) Increased work resulted in indreased alternation in the same intervals. 2) The alternation increments due to increasing work were constant whether the interval was 20 or 60 seconds. 3) The alternation increments due to decreasing interval were constant whether work was A or C. 4) All groups showed above chance alternation during extinction. Exp. III. Eighteen rats were divided into three groups. The hours of food deprivation were 12, 24 and 48 respectively. The interval was 20 seconds. Results : It was found that : 1) The percent alternation decreased as the hunger drive increased. The score of the 48 hrs. group was lower than chance. 2) A parallel relationship was found between alternation and running time. 3) The extinction scores of all groups were higher than chance. Conclusions : The results indicate that alternation. depends upon the three factors studied. In some cases, the percent alternation decreased below chance. Because these findings have shown that repetitive responses occured above chance, some facilitatory effect must be considered as an explanation of the phenomena. Previous authors have asumed only an inhibitory factor in explaining alternation responses. The results of three experiments showing higher alternation during extinction and the results of Exp. III suggest a facilitatory effect closely related to reinforcement, although the animals were permitted to take food whether they chosed the right or the left turn. The fact that a shorter interval and a greater amount of work resulted in higher alternation would indicate that an inhibitory effect produced by the response might be the cause of alternation. The parallel relationship between alternation and running time also comfirms a response-produced inhibition hypothesis. From the above considerations, it was felt that alternation responses result from the opposing processes of facilitation and inhibition which waxed and waned in different manners and at different speeds.
Behavior variability is one of the important aspects of human behavior. In order to establish the scientific behavior theory of the higher organisms, we must study the nature and characteristics of behavior variability. The writer believes that the best results of this investigation will be obtained by experiments using a monkey as a subject, because the behavior of a monkey is complex next to man, and is more easily observed than man under controlled experimental condition. The purpose of the present experiments is to investigate the response-intensity generalization phenomenon as one aspect of behavior variability. The apparatus used was a pulling response box. The main parts consisted of a pulling response ring, a food release mechanism, and a recording device for response intensity. The subject was one female monkey. The twenty-day conditioning taials (40 trials per day) were given. In the first half or ten days of experiment (Exp. 1), the reinforcements were given when the response ring was pulled to the extent of 1.5 kilograms or more, but were never given for the pull of less than 1.5 kilograms. In the last ten days (Exp. 2) the upper restriction of 2 kilograms, was imposed on ' the conditioned pulling responses previously set up under a 1.5-kilogram lower limit. Therefore, in Exp. 2, all responses above the 2-kilogram limit were eleminated. The following results were obtained : 1) The dap-to-day percentages of correct responses (reinforced responses) showed an increasing tendency, and more correct responses were found in Exp. 1 than in Exp. 2 (Fig. 1). 2) The mean reaction latencies decreased as a function af the experimental day (Fig. 2). And it was found that the mean reaction latencies calculated by trials on the last 2.5 days had similar decreasing tendencies in both experiments as the day-to-day process'(Fig. 3). 3) The response intensity distribution on the last 100 trials showed that a few nonreinforced responses below the lower limit still occurred in Exp. 1 (Fig. 4). And in Exp. 2, they were found outside of both upper and lower restrictions (Fig. 5). These non-reinforced responses were considered as the generalized respgnses on responseintensity dimension. 4) The range of non-reinforced responses below the lower limit was broader in Exp. 1 than in Exp. 2. Conclusion : The writer submits that these experiments confirm the possibility of instrumental conditioning study on behavior variability in a monkey. And he discusses the validity of Hull's explanation of response-intensity generalization, and suggests that there are many problems left unsolved.
The present study is one of the series of reports in which the authors have investigated the nature of imagery appearing in the socalled “post-hypnotic hallucinatory state”. In a previous paper the authors reported that images in the post-hypnotic hallucinatory state were influenced in their position and clearness by a visual stimulus which was present beside the hallucinatory image. In the present study the authors attempted to investigate what effect one mental image, not a perceptual one, might have on the another mental image in a visual field, and especially how interaction would take place between two mental images which appear in succession. Twenty-five subjects, who observed the imagery in the same position that the original stimulus had occupied, that is in the original position, were selected. In these subjects two successive images were induced by two successive conditioned stimuli at the following intervals ; simultaneously, immediately afterwards (0 sec.), and 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 secs. afterwards. Then, they were asked to report as to the form, position, and clearness of these images by means of drawings. The main results were as follows. Firstly, the effect of the successive interactions of the two images as to position and clearness was studied. When two images appeared simultaneously, they influenced each other as to their position and clearness. In successive appearence of the two images, not only the change in position and clearness, but also an impression of image movement was observed. As a rule, one image modifies the position of the other, causing the latter to take the following four kinds of position ; (1) a hallucinatory image “ix” appeared in the same position as the original visual stimulus “Ix”, (2) “ix”appeared between “Ix” and “Iy”, (3) “ix”appeared on “Iy” and (4) “ix” appeared beyond “Iy” (see Fig. 1). One image modified the clearness of another image in two ways ; (1) the latter disappeared and only the former remained, (2) two images co-existed in a strong-weak relationship or in equal clearness. In connection with the time interval of the successive images, the authors found the following tendency : the shorter the time interval of succession, the more conspicious the displacement of the first image as compared with the second, while the longer the time interval the more conspicious the displacement of the second as compared with the first (Fig. 2). As for the effect of the time interval on image clarity, it was discovered that the shorter the interval, the clearer the second image as compared with the first, while the longer the interval, the clearer the first as compared with the second (Fig. 3). From the above-mentioned facts it may be concluded that accuracy of original position and clearness of image vary side by side. Studying the movement of successive images, the authors found that there were two cases ; (1) image movement in which the image itself moved from one position to another, (2) an impression of movement of something which appeared between two stationary images. It may be said that the smaller the spatial distance between two sound-objects, used as conditioned stimuli, the more conspicious the movement. Also, the impression of movement was more conspicious when a sound-object was moved around than when treated as a fixed stimulus. From these results it may be concluded that the impression of movement is the effect of the visualization of the movement of sound stimuli. Two hypothetical considerations are offered ; first, on the interaction between two images appearing in succession, and second, on the movement of the image.
The problems of displacement-effect of eccentric circles, as against that of concentric circles, were studied experimentally. At first it was found that, as the inner circle which had evoked the maximum positive displacement-effect in concentric circles was moved in any direction from its concentric position, the displacement-effect diminished gradually with the increase in the distance between the center of the inner circle and that of the outer (the degree of eccentricity) ; and that upon contact, the displacement-effect became either zero or negative. Also, by moving the inner circle that had displayed maximum negative displacement-effect in concentric circles, we found the same tendency in reverse direction. However, displacement of the inner circle, in the case of “neutral” concentric circles which had evoked neither positive no negative displacement, had almost no effcet, the value being zero or near zero constantly. Comparing concentric and eccentric displacement-effects in various situations : 1) with the minimum gap between the outer circle whose radius was 90 mm and the inner circles kept constant at 12 mm, 2) with the circles inscribed, the following results were obtained : the absolute displacement of the inner circle was definitely larger in the case of concentricity, while when the circles were inscribed the displacement was zero or negative, so for as the present experiments could reveal. If that portion representing the greatest distance between the inner and outer circles in both cases can be considered as the determinant of the displacement-effect, the maximum positive displacement of both concentric and eccentric circles and the peak of the decreasing tendency in negative displacement of inscribed circles were both found to occur at the same point, i.e., when the maximum gap between circles was 30 mm. It may be possible to deduce from these results that displacement of the inner circle in eccentric circles including inscribed circles depends solely upon the absolute distance between the circles. It therefore seems somewhat questionable to explain this displacement-effect, as most of investigators have tried, by “figure and ground”relationship. By measuring the field-forces formed inside and outside the both circles in accordance with Köhler's-electric field hypothesis, we might clarify these problems more precisely in future.
The guessing-method has been widely employed to study the subjective inference of Ss who are observing a successive presentation of binary symbols. In applying the guessing-method, a sufficiently large number of Ss observing a series of symbols is asked at each presentation to predict which of the two possible symbols will occur the next time. The measure of guessing is defined as the ratio of the number of Ss who predicted the occurrence of a particular one of the two symbols to the whole number of Ss, and the value of the ratio is computed at each trial. Let F denote the guessing measure defined in this manner. When a random series of binary symbols with a constant probability of occurrence p was used, many experiments showed that F usually started from 0.5 and gradually approached to a level fairly near p. This fact can not be ascribed simply to the Ss' probability learning as Jarvik has explained. As one of the present authors once pointed out, there is no direct correspondence between F and the mean value of Ss' intuitive probabilities, but F depends more directly on the distribution of intuitive probabilities. More precisely, F is to be interpreted as the ratio of the number of Ss whose intuitive probabilities of the occurrence of the particular symbol exceed 0.5 to the whole number of Ss, insofar as we can assume that each S predicts the occurrence of the symbol of which his intuitive probability exceeds 0.5. It can not be assumed unconditionally, however, that Ss follow such a type of response, though it may seem self-evident. One can claim the legitimacy of this assumption only when it is guaranteed, for instance, through instructions, that all the Ss have the aim to get the maximum number of correct hits, because the above type of response can be proved to be the good strategy to take for any S with the aim. On the other hand, we can directly measure the intuitive probability by the game-method. Since the game-method provides us with the value of intuitive probability of each S, it also furnishes its distribution as well as the ratio of the number of Ss whose intuitive probabilities exceed 0.5 to the whole number of Ss. The ratio computed from the game-methgd data will be referred to as Fp. Then, as far as the above assumption holds good, F and Fp should be the same measure. Our experiments were designed for the purpose of testing this hypothesis. Two groups of female college students were selected-one consisting of 28 Ss for the guessing experiment ; the other consisting of 58 Ss for the game experiment, among whom 29 Ss who played the role X of the game yielded the data. Since no S could be used in common for both of those experiments, we could only test whether the difference between the sample estimate of F and that of Fp was of a magnitude usually expected for two independent estimates of a population parameter. Results are shown in Fig. 1. The x2-test established that the difference was not significant except for four trials. (Table 1) It should be tested, however, if there is any fixed tendency in the deviation between F and Fp, such as F>Fp or F<Fp, though the difference |F-Fp| may almost always be small. As long as we deal with the frequency measure defined over [0. 1], however, mere relation F>Fp or F<Fp is meaningless. We should ask whether F and Fp are on the same side of 0.5 and, further, which one of the inequalities, |F-0.5|_??_|Fp-0.5|, holds generally. The result of the non-parametric test on this matter is shown in Table 2. Our third problem to be analysed is the the relationship between F (or Fp) and the mean value P of Ss' intuitive probabilities. Theoretically, it is expected that there should be the following relation between the population parameters P and F except for very special distributions : (1) P and F are on the same side of 0.5 and (2) the inequality |P-0.5|<|F-0.5| holds.