According to Köhler and Wallach's satiation theory, “test-objects displaced from the satiated area” is the fundamental principle of figural after-effects. So, the displacement of the test-dot from the inspection-dot would be the most simplified situation of figural after-effects. The author studied the spatial factors determining the displacement in such situation. In the first place, the apparent growth and shrinkage of the distance between two test-dots (s) were measured as a function of the distance between two inspection-dots (h) (Fig. 1). The results showed that the maximal growth occurred when h/s=1/2, and the maximal shrinkage was obtained when h/s=2, and that the optimal condition of displacement did not depend primarily upon the distance between the inspectionand the test-dots (Figs. 2, 4, 5). These results are just the same as those of the inspectionand test-circles as investigated in the previous paper (this journal, 1954, 25, 195-206), the only difference from the previous results being that the amount of after-effect increased only slightly and not proportionally, as s increased. In the second place, the apparent rise and fall of a test-dot were measured as a function of the distance between the inspectionand the test-dots (Fig. 6). These results (Fig. 7) were compared with the results of many experiments of the author and other researchers, but we could not find any consistency in the optimal distances between inspection- and test-objects (Table 1). These facts suggest that a mosaic model of displacement mechanism is not suitable to explain figural after-effects even in the most simplified situation. Next, the author studied the after-effect of two inspection-dots upon the two test-dots which were not on same line with inspection-dots (Fig. 8). It was found that after-effect (shrinkage) decreased as the line of inspection-dots became distant from the line of test-dots, but it did not disappear up to a considerable distance (Fig. 9). The effect of the size and the shape of inspection-objects was also investigated. After-effect increased slightly when inspection-dots were enlarged, but it did not when inspection-dots were replaced by horizontal bars and their length was extended (Fig. 10).
The apparent size and distance of the tangentially and radially moving objects are analysed in this investigation. The apparatus used is the same as in Ittelson and Kilpatrick's research (1951), but the analysis was done according to our own experimental designs. Especially the apparent sizes were objectively measured by the comparative stimulus throughout the work. (Fig. 1, 2. Table 1, 8) Experiment I. The apparent size of a tangentially moving card in a conflictinvolving situation which was produced by the reversible trapezoidal window was measured by comparative stimuli at two positions, E' and F'. (1) The unexperienced group perceived the rectangular window and S-shaped movement of the object in monocular and binocular observation. (2) The experiencedgroup perceived the same phenomena that the unexperienced group perceived in monocular observation, but in binocular observation the former perceived the trapezoidal window and the linear movement of the object (Fig. 1) (3) The apparent size of the object (AS) perceived by the experienced group is larger than that perceived by the unexperienced (Table 2, 3). (4) AS at E' (SE') is larger than AS at F' (SF'), and (SE-SF') with the moving object is larger than (SE-SF') with the stationary object (Table 6). (5) AS in binocular observation is larger than AS in monocular observation (Table 2). Experiment II. The apparent size of radially moving object along various tracks was measured by comparative stimulus. (1) When these tracks are presented successively, (Table 8), the apparent size of the object moving along the track presented later is little affected by that of the object moving along the track (or tracks) presented earlier. (Table 9, 10). (2) The apbarent distance of the moving object is affected in the unexperienced group but it is little affected in experienced group (Table 11, 12). (3) These experimental results are probably due to using comparative stimulusrand to using enough time for observation. (4) The apparent size in binocular observation is larger than that in monocular observation and the difference is statistically significant (Table 10). (5) In this, homogeneous space the size-distance-assumption works effectively. Experiment III. The apparent sizes of the radially moving and stationary objects were measured by comparative stimulus at 2 m. and 4 m. When Variable Ratio is shown in equation (i), the following relationships between four Variable Ratios (VR) ; VR of physical size (VSp), VR of retinal size (VSr), VR of apparent size of moving object (VSm), VR of apparent size of stationary object (VSs) are found. (i) Variable Ratio=1-(size at 4 m.)÷(size at 2 m.) and Variable Ratio>0 Relations : (1) VSr>VSs>VSm>VSp (2) VSr>VSs (homogeneous space)>VSm (homogeneous space)>VSs (normal space)>VSm (normal space)>VSp (Fig. 6). (3) The above results indicate that the moving object has stronger tendency to hold the same size and is more defined by physical size than the stationary object, in other words, the former has higher constancy than the latter.
Introduction : It is to be regretted that very little is known about the relation between the index of cohesiveness and the actual human relations existing in a group. The object of this paper is to examine the validity of the six kinds of indexes of cohesiveness obtained by various formulae. In order to determine whether an index can actually indicate the social relations in a group, it will be essential to ascertain first the hypothesis that the work-groups are the most efficient when the index is high. Subjects : The subjects of this study were 211 girls (age : from 17 to 28) living in the workers' dormitory of the Kanegafuchi Spinning Company. The subjects were divided into thirty-one groups in size from 5 to 11 persons. The girls had lived together for at least six months and thus knew each other well enough so that they were supposed to be capable of making meaningful sociometric choices and rejections. Method : 1. The writer administered a sociometric test asking the subjects to select as many friends as they would with whom they wanted most to live together. And then, the indexes of cohesiveness were computed respectively in each group, counting up the number of those who were selected by each girl in every group. 2. The subjects were measured for their intelligence and character for the purpose of clarifying the traits of these group members. Besides these traits, the wages, the length of service, and the number of absences of these subjects were also examined as indicators of the characteristics of group productivity. Results : 1. The cohesiveness index of a certain group in the dormitory were not constant and were changeable according to the formula used in the procedure. 2. The inconstancy in these indexes seems to be due to the differences of the structure of formulae used. The partial correlations between the indexes were obtained. The results showed that “Icc”was quite different from any other index in terms of structure. 3. Trying to detect the correlation between sociometric index and personality variables, the writer correlated the indexes with the personality measures. Though a considerable variation was found between the correlations, the relations between “Icc”and intelligence score tended to be clearly positive, but those between “Icc” and V. Q. were negative as shown in Table 7. Similarly, statistical significancy was found in the correlations between “I” and intelligence score or in those between “I” and V. Q. But the correlations between the indexes obtained through any other formula and personality variables were not significant. 4. Comparing the indexes with the variables for the group productivity characteristics, the relations were found to be very low. In their recent paper, Schachter and Berkowitz have demonstrated that the group cohesiveness has not necessarily a close connection with the group productivity. Although “Icc” and “I” are not closely related with the characteristics of group productivity, the indexes computed here exhibited the objectivity of group cohesiveness, because the indexes computed showed a high degree of relation with personality variables of the group. 5. Why are those indexes effective and valid indicators of group cohesiveness? As one of the reasons, it may be pointed out that the distribution of “C” or “E” is approximately Poisson, whereas the distribution of personality variables is normal. Generally speaking, the coefficient of correlation is a measure showing the extent to which changes in one variable are associated with changes in the second variable. If a series of variables are normally distributed, and if the second one shows Poisson distribution, it may be said that better prediction of the correlation can be made by using a correlation ratio.
Several different scalings of gray series of surface color have been attempted thus far but none of them are satisfactory from the point of view of psychological uniformness. Meanwhile the problem is becoming increasingly important in the field of the applied visual sciences connected to TV engineering, and others. The Lagorio gray scale was spaced rather a priori on logarithmic steps of reflectance implicitly assuming Fechner's law, but its psychological uniformness has not necessarily been assured We checked the psychological distances of grayness over Lagorio scale in terms of the discrimination limen of grayness and constructed a new scale from the obtained threshold values. In the first part of the experiment, the averages of discrimination limens of grayness at five different points on the Taguchi's modified Lagorio gray scale were determined with 30 adult subjects. The conditions of illumination of the gray samples were about 1000 lx in the day light and about 50 lx under electric light. Backgrounds were of three kinds, i.e., white, gray and black. As the results, we obtained the formula ΔR/R=(-.0903) log R+.2429 for the condition of daylight and white background, where R is the relative reflectance of the grayness. For other experimental conditions. the linear prelations as above held good but with different coefficients. Relative discrimination limens at 33 different values of R were computed from this formula and a new gray scale with supposedly equal sense distance was constructed therefrom. In the second part of the experiment, several gray samples were specially prepared from the new scale and the discrimination limens at several points were checked. The limens expressed in terms of scale values were found to be equal to the gray series and the uniformity was confirmed. It was concluded that the differential limens in Lagorio scale values were not uniform in such a way that the higher the reflectance is, the smaller is the limens, and likewise, the lower the former, the greater the latter. The new gray scale is offered as much more adequate than Lagorio scale.