Eysenck made an attempt to integrate the findings of Thurstone, Carlson and Ferguson in the factorial study of social attitudes. It was found that when the original two centroid axis in each of thvarious analysis were super-imposed on each other, similar items from the diffefent researches fell into the four quadrants. The first axis or factor was interpreted as“radicalism-conservatism”. The second factor was interpreted as “tough-minded-tender-minded.” The first factor was called R, the second factor T. Proof for the correct identification of the two factors was obtained by some studies. The analysis of social attitudes into two main factors may thus be regarded as having a considerable degree of validity. And it appears to be relatively independent of the country in which the analysis is carried out for the particular items or scale employed. Some investigations recently have shown that a very similar pattern to Eysenck's finding in England emerged in different cultures, such as the American, Swedish, and the German, where the set of questions used in the previous analysis was given to samples in each of these countries respectively. We used Eysenck's original questionnaire. And we attempted to compare the factorial structure of social attitudes that we found in samples of the Japanese with their results. 355 males and females were selected randomly from the various social classes. Responses to the 38 statements were then intercorrelated. And the tetrachofic correlation coefficients were calculated. A factor analysis was carried out with the matrix, and two main factors extracted. These factors could be called definitely R and T as well as in Eysenck's result. These two factors were plotted in diagramatic form and we found the factorial structure of social attitudes in Japan. This result showed that almost every detail could be matched with the studies in various countries. But this Similarity is not complete. Such differences are relatively few, and are usually easily understood in terms of definite historical causes.
A table of Japanese nonsense syllables was already standardized by Umemoto in 1950 (1). But association values of Umemoto's table are generally too low, and it is very difficult to memorize a list taken from the table. So we measured anew the association value and meaningfulness of all possible Japanese two-letter pure-sound syllables. As our new tables contain many meaningful words, we thought it would be more convenient to express the index as 100-association value, and we called it non-association value. Furthermore the number of associated words per syllable were computed, and we called this the index of meaningfulness of the syllables. This index is the same as that of Noble (2). Subjects were 975 boys and girls of high schools in Kyoto city. The time allowed for association task was ten seconds per syllable. 1892 syllables were divided into 40 subtables. One and same control list was given to all groups of Ss for testing the homogeneity of groups, and according to the results some conversions were made. To test the validity of these tables, and experiment was conducted. Materials were three lists of seven pairs each, with alphabet capitals on the stimulus side and the syllables from our tables on the response side. The non-association values of response syllables were 0-4, 25-29 and 50-54. Ss were university students. Exposure time was two seconds. Anticipation method was used. Results showed as in Fig. 3 and Table 5, that the higher the non-association values, the more trials were needed to reach the criterion.
This paper is the first report on the Paired-associated learning process which are investigated by the method of forward-backward recall gradient (FB-RclG). This term is defined operationally as difference between forward recalls (S→R) and backward recalls (R→S). after paired associated learning. The present study intends to examine some variables of FB-RclG. Exper. I. FB-RclG as a function of paired materials. Materials are three in kind. Difficult materials, “N” (two letters, non-sense syllables with about 20% association values). Medium materials, “M” (two letters, meaningful words). Easy materials, “L” (one letter of Alphabet). Conditions of presentation are (1) N-N (S-diff., R-med.), (2) M-M (both med.), (3) L-M (S-easy, R-med.), (4) M-N (S-med., R-diff.), and (5) M-L (S-med., R-easy). Methods : The anticipation method is used. Forward and backward recall tests are performed at about 30 sec. after one perfect trial. Results show that the difference between cond. 1 and 3 is smaller than that between 4 and 5, as regard to number of trials. This fact supports Umemoto's finding-the difficulties of paired associated learning are determined largely by R factor rather than S factor (18). FB-RclG of cond. 1 is greater than that of 4, as well as 5greater than 3. When S is more difficult than R, FB-RclG is greater than when S easier than R. It is confirmed that FB-RclG is a function of materials in pairs. Exper. II FB-RclG as both function of degree of learning and interpolated recall effects. Materials are N-M, 9 pairs in a list. Methods are the same as Exper. I, except that recall tests are interpolated immediately after 1 presentation and after criteria of 3/9, 6/9, 1 perfect, and 3 and 5 successive perfect learning. Results show that FB-RclG increases gradually in early stage, and reaches its maximum in middle stage and then decreases (Fig. 1). The interpolated recall test during learning makes the amount of backward recalls increasing (but not statistically significant), while its effects to forward recalls are negligible. Exper. III FB-RclG as a function of difficulty of learning. Conditions are 3, 5, 7, and 9 pairs of N-N in one list. Except recall criteria, other conditions are the same as Exper. I, Recall tests are performed 3 times after about 1/2, 1 perfect, and 3 successive perfect learning for each list. Results show that EB-RclG increases as the length of list increases, when lists are overlearned. Exper. IVa, IVb FB-RcLG as a function of pair presentation methods. Methods : In stead of anticipation method, simultaneous pair presentation method is used. And after each trial, forward and backward recalls are tested. (Fig. 3). Results show that even under the situation which differs from anticipation learning (S-recognition and R-recall), the existence of FB-RclG is found (Fig. 4, 5). The Vincent curves show that FB-RclG is not unique phenomenon characteristic of anticipation method. Exper. Va, Vb Purpose is the same as Exper. IVa, IVb. Learning method is simultaneous pair presentation, Recall tests are interpolated not after each trial, but after 6, 12, and 18 presentations. Each list contains 3 kinds of presentation set, i.e. N-M, M-N, and N_??_M (alternative presentation). Results are consistent with the writer's previous experiments (Fig. 6). These facts suggest that the first member of pair may be called S, and the second R. Conclusion The differences in FB-RclG may be explained by the following three hypotheses : a) R is emphasized by the mode of anticipation method, in which S is only discriminative and R acquisitive. b) Based on the facts of Exper. IVa-Vb, one may assume a temporal (porality) factor in learning of paired association.
Since Pratt (J. Exper. Psychol., 13, 1930, 278-285) called attention to the phenomenon that high tones were phenomenologically higher in space that low ones, several researches were made, but the results were not in accord with one another. The purpose of this study was to observe the tendency of tonal localization along the vertical dimension. Including the preliminary experiment, four experiments were carried out in the soundproof room using the sound-cage. Os were always blind-folded and were seated in the center of the sound-cage, 160 cm in diameter, without the head-rest. Six or seven pure tones from 250 cps to 4100 cps were used as stimuli. They were led from a TYPE M-III no. 5111 Oscillator to a telephone receiver and were presented in haphazard order, from various positions. Os were divided into four groups in Experiment I and II, and two groups in Experiment III, according to the degree of their knowledge about this experiment. The preliminary experiment dealt with determining the various direct conditions for the main experiments, such as headmovement, participation of other modalities in localizing response, and the method of localization, etc. In the first experiment, Os were asked to localize each tone with their arms. Six tones (250-, 500-, 1125-, 1750-, 2000-, 4100) were presented from seven positions (Fig. 1). With the exception of the case where the souhd source was at 90°(Fig. 2), the displacements of the localization'were measured (Table 1). In the second experiment, the localizations by the verbal indication of the positions on the scale were made (Table 2). Through these two experiments, the average values of the displacements, for every observer of the four groups, came out uniformly in the order, from top to bottom, 4100-, 2000-, 1750-, 1125-, 500- and 250-. In the third experiment, following the example of Dimmick & Gaylord (J. Exper. Psychol., 17, 1034, 598-599), the displacements were measured : Os were asked to localize with their arms the tones (250-, 500-, 900-, 1125-, 1750, 2000 and 4100) coming from a telephone receivers In this experiment, tones were led from two different sources : (1) The position No. 4. in Experiment II. (2) The position got by movingt the former horizontally to the right by 45°. The results were shown in Table 4. Throughout all these observations, the results might be taken as supporting Pratt's proposition that high tones were phenomenologically higher in space than low tones. However, it was found in the preliminary experiment that this proposition was not applicable exactly to the tones of extremely high frequencies and to small pitch differences.
The effects of area, voluntary control and prolonged observation on the figureground reversal were analysed by the continuous presentation method. The stimulus used was a circle divided into six sectors (Fig. 1). The following measures were adopted for the record and analysis of reversal process : total time of appearances for two shapes (Tα, Tβ), total undefined time (Tε=T-(Tα+Tβ)), the number of appearance (nα, nβ), relative dominancy (R=100Tα / (Tα+Tβ)), average duration (tα=Tα / nα, tβ=Tβ / nβ) and the frequency of first appearance (fα, fβ). By varying the sector angles of two shapes, we obtained quantitative relationships between the sector angle and each measure (Table 1, 2, 3, 4 ; Fig. 2, 3). Smaller shape appeared as “figure” more frequently at first view, persisted longer in reversal and was more dominant in the total time of appearance. The larger the areal difference of the two shapes was the stronger were these tendencies, and the slower was the reversal. By voluntary control, the relative dominancy (R) could be changed to some extent (Table 5). The amounts of shifts of R were almost equal in the three stimuli with various sector angles, but were different in two directions (increasing and decreasing). These shifts of R were based upon the changes in both Tα and Tβ, which, in turn, were depended mostly on the changes in tα and tβ. The prolonged observation (12min.) did not cause the acceleration of the rate of reversal which had been expected by Köhler (11). On the other hand, the prolonged observation resulted in the increase of the undefined time and the decrease of the favourable shape, and the slight shift of R to the neutral point (50).
The present investigation was conducted to study the effect of an extra line upon the successive comparison of the lengths. of two lines. Three lines were the black ones on a white background in horizontal position and successively presented at an identical location for the same brief duration, but the time intervals between the lines were varied within a short period. A standard line (N) of 30mm. in length preceded the comparison line (V), and the extra line (i) preceded N and V or was interpolated between them. It was understood that V was underestimated or overestimated due to the effect of the extra line according to whether the PSE, obtained by the method of complete series, was larger or smaller than that obtained without the presence of the extra line in a control experiment. The results were as follows : I. Proactive effect of i in the sequence i-N-V. 1) When i was 60, 45, or 30mm, in length, underestimation of V occurred regardless of the time intervals between the lines. 2) When i was 15mm. and both time intervals i-N and N-V were short, overestimation of V occurred. However, if either one of the intervals was much longer than the other, underestimation of V appeared. II. Proactive-retroactive effects of i in the sequence N-i-V. The effect of i was almost the same as in the above, except for a little differences in the amount of the effect and the way in which the effect varied with the time intervals. These differences were interpreted as due to the appearances of both proactive effect upon V and retroactive effect upon N of i which did not exist in the sequence i-N-V. The effect of the extra line upon the comparison of other two lines, as mentioned above, were assumed to be ascribed to an assimilation-contrast phenomenon. The present investigation indicates that the assimilation-contrast effect varies not only with the extent of the extra stimulus, but with its temporal relations with the standard and comparison stimuli respectively.