The present investigation was designed to study the effect of area and exposure time of stimulus upon the fusion time of visual sensation. In the dark room two flashes of light were presented successively at an identical location for equal brief durations. Two kinds of thresholds were measured. One of them Was the threshold of fusion and this was defined as. the longest time internal between the two stimuli which produced a single impression (tf), and the other was the threshold of separation and this was defined as the shortest time interval which produced an impression that the second stimulus appeared after the complete disappearance of the first stimulus, i. e., the shortest time interval for perceiving dark interval between the stimuli (ts). So the present experiment was different from the flicker experiment in several points. Using the monocular and foveal vision, the following results were obtained. 1. As the area of stimulus was enlarged, ts became smaller. But after ts reached its minimum value at some area, it remained approximately constant within some range of area, then it increased when the area was further enlarged. The value of tf was much smaller than ts, and, in addition, tf became smaller when the stimulus area was enlarged. 2. As the exposure time of stimulus was lengthened, ts became smaller. 3. Regardless of the length of the exposure time, tf remained approximately constant. 4. Presenting two stimuli in differentloci successively, the threshold of simultaneity (tsi) was measured for comparable time interval to the above tf. The threshold of simultaneity was defined as the longest time interval that both stimuli appeared simultaneously. It was found that tsi increased in proportion to the logarithm of the visual angle between the stimuli within 19 degrees of visual angle. When both the visual angle and the perceived distance between the stimuli were held constant, the value of tsi remained the same, regardless of the variation in the objective distance between the stimuli on the one hand and the observing distance on the other.
A fifth grade school class of Kyoto City, which consists of twenty nine boys and twenty one girls was observed as to its group structure. The observation was continued throughout three months of the autumn in 1954. The observer participated in every class activity as a member of the class, and all events and social behaviors among class members which might reveal the group constructions of the class and their inter-relations were recorded. Informations concerning unrevealed troubles among them were also collected. A good deal of materials thus obtained enabled us to know some actual features of the group structure of the class, which might not be revealed by means of questionaire or sociometry. Though the class was composed of boys and girls as mentioned above, this report will be limited only to boys, as the boys' group was separated discretely from the girls'. We can describe the principal features of the group structure of the class as follows : 1. Ten of twenty nine boys were found to have important roles in class activities, and seven boys (K, Y, H, I, T, D and F) among them constituted the central group (Group A). Group A was dominating over all other groups which were found in the class. 2. In Group A, three boys (K, Y and H) were the leaders of the whole class. Among these leaders there had been a kind of tension. Once K and H were intimate to each other and opposed to Y. Later, the relationship changed, and K allied with Y and rejected H. H was submissive to K. 3. Three boys (K, I and T) had usual contact with each other, forming the core of Group A. The leader of this core group was K. In contrast with K, who was rather kept at a distance with awe by the class members, I played an important role to make the Group A friendly. T was of humorous character and was indispensable to animate the activities of Group A. 4. D and F were at peripheral positions in Group A and submissive to leaders. 5. Outside of the Group A there were three important members (J, S and W) in the class. Among them, J had more interest in the Group A than S and W. Rorschach Test was administrated to every member of the class. As to ten principal boys above mentioned (except K and T) it was found that their response patterns were similar with each other and different from other nineteen boys. Main findings were as follows : 1. The response pattern common to principal members (except K and T) was characterized by the facts (a) that the experience-type was M-type, and (b) that both M and O+% were significantly higher than the average of twenty nine boys on the other hand. 2. Three members who were outside of the Group A and D who was the peripheral member in the Group A showed alike M values as higher than eight. As to their color values it was found that D and J, who were on the boarderline of Group A and always attracted by the activities of the Group A, showed much higher values ; S and W, who were quite outside and had less interest in the Group A, showed lower ones. 3. All of T's responses consisted of popular and common responses. 4. I and F, especially I, showed well-balanced distributions of determinant symbols. 5. Each of the response patterns of three leaders was peculiar in its symbol distributions, and was considered to correspond well to each personality characteristics. Y was characterized by the excess of S and dAH responses, and H by the surplus of F% and 0+%. K was so peculiar not only inkhis response pattern, which was C-type in experience-type, low in W%, and high in dd, but in his response manners which implied that his personality had to be treated as a unique one among others.
The purpose of the present study is to scrutinize the character of twins seen from the physiological aspect by the analytical measurement of their G. S. R. which appeared under the situation of mental stimulus, and to confirm the intra-pair mutual resemblance based on heredity, and the degree of the influence of heredity-environment factors. The results have been compared with the findings about the heredity-environment factors involved in mental and physical qualities which have already been reported. The subjects studied are 38 pairs of twins (21 paires of identical twins, 15 pairs of fraternal twins, 2 pairs of unlike-sextwins) and 20 pairs of the comparative groups of unrelated individuals. The latter group was made up of children of the like-sex and of the same birth date, and were picked up from the class in which the selected twins were enrolled in school. The stimulation for the G. S. R. is constituted by 41 questions, orally put to the subjects, relating to the need and frustration, and those affairs and situation which were believed to arouse ellotion of fear and unrest. As for the intra-pair resemblance of the recorded curves of the G. S. R., calculations of the ration of the concurrence between the pairs were made on the basis of the existence of the response curves, the number of the curves corresponding to each stimulation, and the degree of the general intrapair resemblance in the recorded response curves. Moreover, about the ratio of the response curves to the number of stimulation, and the number of responses, the time of reaction, the degree of provisional responses corresponding to each stimulation which were all treated by the definite method, the intra-pair mean percentile deviations (E) and the ratio of heredity and influence of the environment of the twins based on F. Lenz's formula, and the intraclass correlation (r') by the analysis of variance were calculated in order to examine the heredity factors by comparing the resemblance between the oviparous distinctions. 1) The ratios of concurrence between the pairs on the basis of the existence of the response are as follows : 77.6% in identical twins, 70.1% in fraternal twins, 63.0% in the comparative group. The ratios of concurrence about the number of responses corresponding to each stimulation are as follows : 47.6% in identical twins, 41.2% in fraternal twins, 32.9% in the comparative group. 2) Through all the diagnostic items, the identical twin group showed the smallest, the fraternal twin group comparatively large, and the comparative group the largest, mean percentile deviations (E). (Table 3). 3) The hereditary numerical values calculate by the Lenz's formula from E are as follows : Ratio of response 1.55, Number of response .60, Time of response 1.41, Degree of provisional response .31. But, when the results of the calculated mean probable errors of these numerical values are taken into account, the hereditary factors are not recognized to be greater than the environmental factors. 4) The intraclass correlation coefficients obtained through the analysis of variance are : .442 - .713 in identical twins, .227 - .513 in fraternal twins, -.115 - .321 in the comparative group. The r's in the identical twins has the significance of at 1% level, and the numerical value of 70% of r's in fraternal twins has the significance at 5% level, but r's in the comparative group have no significance even at 5% level. (Table 4). These results show nearly the same thing as the results of the Kraepelin Numerical Addition test, The Adjustment inventory, The Moral judgement test and Rorschach test, but when compared with the results of the finger print, physical qualities, intelligence and scholarship, faculty of bodily movement and special faculties (the results of which have already been reported by the present author), the intra-pair resemblance is in a low state.
The present study was conducted in order to find out whether the presence of the rapport between the examiner and the subject in testing has any influence on the performance. Studies of this kind have recently been reported by Miller, S. M. (9), Gibby, S. G. (5), Cole, D. (3), and Sacks, E. L. (10). In our study three kinds of intelligence tests were used by three examiners on three groups of feeble-minded children whose mean IQ and CA were 50 and 15 respectively. The tests were given according to the experimental design which is shown in Fig. 1 (p. 23). The examiners consisted of a person who has been living with the subjects for more than two years, one who has become friendly recently with the subjects through his visit to the institute, and one who has never met the subjects before the testing. Analysis of variance was used to find the interrelations among three factors of tests, examiners, and subject groups. A significant difference was found between the test scores of the groups of good and poor rapport, and also between those of fairly good and poor, but no so much between those of good and fairly good. This is the preliminary report of the study still going on. In the next step the same experimental study will be made with respect to normal children.
It seems to the present writer that bi-dimensional figures seen as solid have the forms Y and ↑, generally, and those which appear as plane have the forms T, + and×. Now he has designed 44 new figures of three types ; the first type contains the structural factors Y and ↑, the second type has the structural factors T, + and × and the third type contains both of these structural factors. These figures, drawn on 7 pictorial papers, were shown to the subject, who was asked to report whether he saw the figures as solid or plane after observing for a moment. The subjects were 20 children of elementary school, 10 children of kindergarten and 14 university students. The results of the experiment were as follows : 87% of Ss saw the figures of the first type as solid and 89% of them observed the figures of the second type as plane (See Table 2). There were no essential differences among the children of elementary school and kindergarten, and the university students in these results. Thus we may conclude that each of the structural factors has its own power for making the figures appear eirher as three- or two-dimensional. Koffka, Kopfermann and Metzger have explained the depth perception of two-dimensional drawings by the law of Gestalt, i. e. the organization theory. However, one may explain this phenomenon by the structural factors of the figures, Y, ↑ and T, +, × as described above. All usual ambiguous figures and the greater part of the figures which Koffka and others have used in their experimental studies, may be interpreted simply in this way. Moreover, according to the above point of view one can clearly understand such a tendency of a figure to appear as three-dimensional in spite of its regular and good shape, the tendency that was pointed out by Wood-worth. Wallach and others have refered to the strong solid character of the form Y. They have ascribed its source to memory and experience. However, the author can not agree with this empiricistic explanation, because there are some perspective figures which reverse a familiar solid appearance, as in the case of the street figure with vertical parallels used in this study. After all, it would be true that the structural factors have the independent force, apart from the empirical factors, to make a drawing appear in three- or two-dimensions. The above explanation is not complete as Yet, because there are a number of figures which contain no structural factors of the type Y and the like, and yet appear as three-dimensional. The author intends to study these figures farther in order to get the complete understanding of the depth perception of two-dimensional drawings.
Many studies of interpersonal relation have been published since Moreno's pioneer research. It may be said that the aim of those studies has, in the main, consisted in searching for the reasons why people choose such and such persons as their co-workers or friends. For that purpose they were asked to explain the reasons for their choice. Data thus obtained have told us that several personal conditions, or “traits, ” of the person to be chosen exert some influence upon people's choice behavior. What we can see in such descriptive data is, however, limited to the knowledge of very superficial aspect of the process ot developing interpersonal relation. The process is too complicated to be understood by such a static approach. The only way to comprehend this process adequately, we believe, will be found in analysing choice behavior psychologically. And a clue for it is, we think, the interpersonal perception in relation to choice behavior. This paper is a report of parts of investigations designed to search for the relationship between choice behavior and interpersonal perception from this point of view. Three kinds of test were given to pupils of nine classrooms from sixth to nineth-grade ; (1) a near-sociometric test in the form of method of paired comparison the choice criterion of which is “Like-Dislike”, (2) a test in which they were asked to perceive their classmates' choice status in the forms of method of paired comparison and rating scale, and (3) a test in which they were asked to perceive other's feelings towards themselves in the form of rating scale. Results were as follows : (1) There is a high correlation between subjegt's degree of liking a classmate of his and degree of the classmate's liking him he perceives. In addition to this correlation, a further relationship was found : the more the subject likes a classmate, the more he overestimates the classmate's good feeling towards himself. (2) There is found a high correlation between subject's degree of liking a classmate and the classmate's choice status in the classmate's choice status in the classroom he perceives. Moreover, the more the subject likes a classmate, the more he overestimates the classmate's choice status. (3) A classmate's choice status the subject perceives and the degree of the classmate's liking the subject he perceives are in a high correlation. Also in this case, the higher a classmate's perceived choice status is the more the subject over-estimates the classmate's good feeling towards himself. These facts found may be interpreted in terms of (1) the consistency of people's attitudes in evaluating an object from several points of view (Heider's hypothesis), (2) a functional role of perception in action, and (3) the conformity of group members to the group standard. The three mutual relationships between choice behavior and interpersonal perceptions will play an important role in the process of human interaction. The exact functional or causal relationships between them, however, are left unsolved.