The present investigation was undertaken to examine the emotional disturbance induced by Rorschach cards in an ordinary test situation and its possible relationship with the formation of test performances therein. The emotional disturbance was checked through changes in GSR. Experiment I : Thirty university students served as one group of subjects. The other group consisted of twenty psychoses in the Inokashira Mental Hospital, Tokyo. Each subject was administered the Rorschach test individually, during which the continual measurement of GSR was made. The order of the presentation of the Rorschach cards was systematically rotated and the modified Latin square design was employed so that it may counteract the adaptation effect of GSR and may also preserve as nearly as possible the normal Rorschach sequence. GSR records were analysed ; (A) by initial change upon the presentation of each card, (B) by the sum total of changes during the period each card was presented and (C) by the total number of frequency. In sheer contrast to the performance of the normal group, the psychotic group showed marked increases of GSR during the period when card VI, card VII and colored cards VIII, IX, X were presented (Fig. 1). Statistical analysis revealed that this group for there existed a significant difference between the non-colored and the colored cards (Table 2). In Rorschach test performances, a relatively high frequency of color and color-form responses of psychoses was noted (Table 3). The mean number of verbal responses in the psychoses' group showed decreases upon card VI, card VII and complete colored cards (Fig. 2). Experiment II : Instead of Rorschach cards, seven color stimuli were projected, and the concomitant changes in GSR were read. One group consisted of 21 students, the other 21 psychoses. No significant difference between these two groups was noted (Fig. 3). The implication is that the color stimuli without form-elements, by themselves, might not induced any significant difference between the two. Experiment III : Another twenty university students served as subjects. The procedure was kept the same as in Exp. I except that two additional cards were presented before the ordinary Rorschach cards. This procedure was adopted as the result of careful examinations of the results of Exp. I, in which the effect of position of cards in the series was found highly significant and might cover a possible difference between colored and non-colored cards. The effect of positions in the series was eliminated (Fig. 4). The result revealed that even in the normal group there was the significant difference between the reactions toward card V and complete colored card VIII, but nevertheless the difference between the cards was found statistically insignificant (Fig. 5, Table 5 and 6). In conclusion, while the mere existence or non-existence of color on the cards does not disturb the emotionality of the subject significantly, colored cards induce emotional disturbance, especially upon the emotionally ill-controlled subjects, when perceptual activities set in. It might be argued therefore that with such subjects the presence of color hinders their perceptual activities and arouses their emotionality which, in turn, casts further limits upon perceptual activities and consequently is apt to deteriorate Rorschach performances. Normal Subjects in which form perception dominates show less emotional disturbance and a relatively low frequency of color responses.
In connection with some criticisms on the multiple choice method, a typical group method of the Rorschach test, an attempt was made to increase its reliability and validity and to make its application to the clinical field more effective by adopting the ranking method as presented. by Eysenck H. J. While Eysenck merely altered a procedure from the multiple choice method to the ranking method in order to increase the reliability, the present study was intended to comprehend more directly the psychological mechanism which takes place in selection of responses prepared for each stimulus card ; namely an effort was made, without losing the original purpose of the Rorschach test, to grasp the psychological mechanism of perception and response to a stimulus card, for the personality diagnosis. The ranking method is con-sidered as more dynamic for the item analysis than the multiple choice method which is merely to analyze the response items selected by a subject. The results of the present study are summarized as follows : 1) The subjects consisted of a normal group, a schizophrenic group, and a delinquent group. Since one percent of significant difference was found between the mean scores of each group, the ranking method might be considered as a valid tool for the clinical diagnosis. 2) The reliability of the test was measured by the retest method, and a relatively high reliability was obtained and thus it was shown that the rating was not arbitrary. 3) No influence of the intellectual and the chronological factor on the test score was found. 4) Since some response items are not appropriate for the clinical diagnosis, a further study should be made to improve about this point.
Continued from the previous report where the interaction between P (the chooser) and o (the choosee) was mainly investigated, he present report deals with the interaction including q (the third person). This situation contains three relations : P's attitude towards q (R1), P's attitude towards o (R2) and P's perception of q's attitude towards o (R3). Though they are considered as mutually interdependent, let us, in the present study, suppose that R3 is dependent on R1 and R2 which are independent respectively. We got a clue to the present study from F. Heider's hypothesis on the relationship between attitude and cognitive organization. When every relation considered was divided into two categorigs (+) and (-), he assumed that there existed a balanced state if either none or two of the three relations were (-). Then we nypothesize that R3 will be determined as to bring a balanced state in Heider's sense according to the “type” (the combination of signs of R1 and R2). But we believe it is impractical to divide interpersonal attitude or its perception into two categories as Heider does. So we take a trichotomy by adding a neutral category (0). The S's in the present study were children of six classrooms from fifth to seventh grade. In each class, twelve pairs of children of the same sex each were selected on the basis of data from a near-sociometric test and a test where S's where asked to mention some pairs which they thought either remarkably intimate or hostile in their class. These stimulus-pairs were arranged in random order and presented to S's. They were asked to judge, and to rate the attitude the child on the left side of a (q) pair should have towards the child on the right side of the pair (o). The responses of R3 thus gained were compared with those of R1 and R2 gained from the near-sociometric test. The results of statistical testing showed that our hypothesis led by Heider's might be said to be verified on the whole. The verifiablity of the hypothesis, however, was found to vary with the six “types” of the independent variable ; the results in some “types” accorded well with the hypothesis, while those of the others did not. But a further analysis of the data showed that our results differed from the Heider's hypothesis in two important points. (1) R1 and R2 contribute differently in determining R3. 2) the distribution of R3 is more or less contradictory to what is expected by the hypothesis, when R1 is (-). These two facts can, however, be included harmoniously in the generalized expression of our results that the sign of R3 tends to be same as that of R2 independent of R1, though the Powerfulness of the tendency is dependent on R1. It may, therefore, be concluded that we need not rely, in order to explain our results, on the Heider's hypothsis which is universal and abstract, but on two factors which have a more concrete psychological meaning : the general tendency described above and the factor of “assumed similarity” presented by F. E. Fiedler.
1. Sterneck and Gilinsky assumest that the farther half of visually bisected distance is objectively not shorter than the nearer. The present investigation was undertaken to test the validity of this assumption in a space comparatively near to the observer in a dark room. 2. Experimental setting was a modification of the Bourdon's bright spot. A minute bright spot out of a dark box containing an electric bulb was used to mark the distance. On the side of the box toward the observer there was a circular hole covered with paper. Spots of different diameters were used for different distances, so that their phenomenal brightness was kept constant for all distances. Two bright spots placed at the level of observer's eyes were moved along tracks diverging at an angle of 3 degrees from the point of observation. Care was taken to remove all the reflected light from the bright spot and to remove any other secondary cues of distance. 3. With monocular vision every observer's discrimination of distance was entirely at sea. With binocular vision each observer was able to discriminate rather easily. Four observers who have normal visual (vernier) acuity gave the average depth acuity of 1.4′ in a two-spot setting, and 1.0′ in a three-spot setting. In both cases the values of depth acuity were consistent regardless of observation distance. These findings would mean that the visual factor participating in the measurements was confined only to convergence. 4. In an experiment which used the two-spot setting, bisections were performed by stopping a movable spot at a point that appeared to be just halfway between the observer and the stationary spot designating the total distance to be bisected (Table 4). In another experiment, the task of observer was to bisect the interval of 2 (Table 5) or 4 meters (Table 6) at various distances of observation. Each interval was presented by means of two spots ; one indicating the near-end and the other the far-end. 5. These experiments revealed that the phenomenal midpoint was farther than the objective one at the observation distance between 2 and 5 meters, in other words, the farther half of the distance was overestimated as compared with the nearer half. The amount of overestimation had a tendency to decrease in accordance with the increase in observation distance, though there were individual differences (Fig. 2). 6. It seemed that non-visual factor might participate in the process of the overestimation of farther distance, and that the overestimation might correspond with the overconstancy of size.
Up to the present time, the effect of the figure on its ground has been measured by various methods. For instance, Yokose and Uchiyama used the light-stimulus-threshold method and formulated the integral equation from their experimental results showing the field-force of figures. They intended to develop a field theory of perception. However, further facts are necessary to establish the field theory of the perception of figures firmly. This investigation studies the effect of the figure on its ground by the use of flicker method. Procedures- we presented a light-figure to the subject in the dark room and projected a flickering point on the ground of the figure and measured the c. f. f. of the flickering point. The c. f. f. was measured under a variety of stimulus condition : circle, rectangle, triangle, straight line and so on were used as stimulus figures, the distance from the figure to the test point and the light intensity of figures were changed. Result- The effect of the figure on the c. f. f. of the flickering point was as follows : (1) The effect decreased with the increase in the distance between the figure and the test point. And the effect of the minute area of the figure seemed to be in inverse proportion to the square of distance. (2) The disposition of the effect around the figure depended on the structural character of the figure. (3) The effect increased with the increase in the light intensity of the figure within certain limits. And the experimental curves obtained under various conditions showed the tendency considerably similar to the theoretical curves obtained from Yokose's theoretical formula and Uchiyama's empirical formula under the same conditions.
For the purpose of studying the field of the figure in visual perception, the displacement in Figural after-effects and Simultaneous-illusions was studied experimentally. The effect was measured quantitatively. That is, the amount and the direction of displacement were measured, presenting the dots inside or outside of the square successively in one case and simultaneously in the other case. In part I, we dealt with the displacement in Figural after-effects, and bound he difference in the effect between the solid figure and the contour figure. The results may be summarized as follows : 1. With respect to the direction of displacement, a similar tendency was found generally in both figural situations. 2. As the Köhler's principle predicted, the amount of the displacement of the dots depended on the distance from the square, that is, it increased rapidly at first, reached the maximum, and then decreased gradually, according as the distance increased. The incremental and decremental curves were similar in form in both situations. 3. When the dots were presented outside of the square, the amount of the displacement in the case of the solid square was greater than that in the case of the contour figure, but this relation was reversed when they were presented inside of the square. In part II, the displacement was measured in both cases of Figural after-effects and Simultaneous-illusions under the same figural conditions. The results were as follows : 1. In Figural after-effects, the direction of displacement was opposite, in general, to that in simultaneous-illusions, but in a few places outslide the square, it was found that the direction was similar in both situations. 2. The maximum amount of the displacement in Figural after-effects was at the remoter point from the square than in Simultaneous-illusions. So, the curves showing the relation between the amount of displacement and the distance from the square in the two situations were not symmetrical to each other with regard to the abscissa. 3. It could be said generally, that the amount of displacement in Figural after-effects was greater than in Simultaneous-illusions. In these experiments we ascertained that the results did not always correspond to the Köhler's principle of displacement, but the so-called distance-paradox phenomenon existed distinctly in all occasions.
This research was intended to explain in terms of the guessing-sequence hypothesis (a) the fore-gradient of the ‘spread of effect’ and its relative weakness compared with the after-gradient and (b) the higher level of repetition in the Thorndike situation than that in the non-1earning situation. Experiment I was designed to find gradients around chance repeats in a number-guessing situation. Ss wrote a number one through 10 in response to a 3 sec. signal without given any rationale other than an experiment in psychology. No systematic responses such as 1, 1, 1, ..... or 1, 2, 3, ..... were allowed. Two series of 240 such responses (24 rows and 10 columns) were obtained. Numbers of repetitions in the three positions around chance repeats on 6th, 13th and 20th rows were computed and the percentages of repetition are shown in Table1 (see Text). A clear fore-gradient as well as an ordinary after-gradient obtained, can be explained by number-guessing habits. If a chance repeat was, say, 3-3 and if an S had a tendency to say 2 before 3 or 3 after 2, a repetition of 2-2 would be expected before 3-3. The fore-gradient can be explained by the same principle as the after-gradient. No supra-chance stimulus-number connections may be hypothesized as suggested by Jenkins and Cunningham. In Experiment II, two numers in every column were presented by E after an extra 3 sec. pause in order to avoid any voluntary number responses after an S was given numbers. Only an after-gradient was obtained around pairs of the same numbers specified by E (see Table 3). The lack of a fore-gradient was assumed to be due to interruption of S's guessing sequences by being given specified numbers by E. This was somewhat comparable to the Thorndike situation in which S's guessing sequence would be discontinued when a rewarded word was presented and he responded to it with the number he knew correct. A higher after-gradient than that in Exp. I was interpreted to be caused by the fact that guessing sequences were strengthened after the numbers given by E, because these numbers were isolated. The same effect of isolation was obtained in Experiment III with only extra 3 sec. pauses and no numbers given by E (see Table 5). Experiment IV was fundamentally a repetition of Exp. II without extra pauses before specified numbers. S's were carefully instructed to write down a number given by E immediately after it was heard. The results were similar to those of Exp. II, indicating an extra pause was not essential to the increase of repetition level (Table 8). In the same experiment, gradients of repetition around pairs of the same numbers, one member of which was given by E and the other by S himself were computed. A lower after-gradient appeared (Table 10) suggesting that even though guessing habits after specified numbers were strong, those after numbers chosen by S were weak. Experiment V was different from Exp. II only in that two responses in every column were called ‘immportant’ and no numbers were specified by E. A weak gradient preceding chance repeats which were called ‘important’ was shown. This was because S's guessing sequence was not discontinued. On the other hand, a strong after-gradient appeared (Table 11) and was explained that E's calling ‘important’ isolated the numbers and thus guessing habits the numbers and thus guessing habits thereafter would be strengthened. In conclusion, the fore-gradient can be explained by the guessing-sequence hypothesis and the lack of it in most of the previous studies was caused by interruption of guessing sequences by S's responding to rewarded numbers with specified numbers he learned on previous trials. The higher level of repetition after rewarded repeats than after chance repeats was attributed to the fact guessing sequence were strengthened after isolated numbers and rewarded responses were isolated as suggested by Zirkle.