This study tries to find psychological natures of the factors which are supposed to exist in the area of sociality, and to attempt an analysis and classification of educational objectives from a factor-analytical point of view. Thirty-four variables concerning sociality in the broadest sense were observed for eighty college students, both male and female and, of age 20 in average. Their lintercorrelations in terms of product-moment coefficients were analysed by the complete centroid method until five factors have been found. Rotations of the axes for a simpler structure made it possible for us to give justifiable interpretations to four of the five factors. The first factor is one which is characterized by emotional and volitional activeness, agreeableness, or sociableness in human relations. The second and the third factors are both related to intellectual abilities concerning social situations, and so can be called social intelligence factors ; but the difference is that the former relates only to the width of the social knowledge, while the latter to higher intellectual social abilities. The fourth factor is concerned with the range of activities for social amusements and recreations ; the motorial nature of this factor contrasts with the emotional and volitional features of the first, and with the intellectual character of the second and the third factors. The statistical results show that the first and the second factors are most important and the third factor comes next, while the last one has the least value so far as the present data are concerned. When we examine, however, the contents of these factors withs pecial reference to the problems of educational eyaluation, we find that they are abler to present factorial verifications to the general ideas of the taxonomies of educational objectives, and that, in order to inquire into the nature of sociality as one of the objectives, the internal structure of the first factor should be analysed into details by further studies.
The Temporal Fields (TFs) of momentary figures were investigated both by the two-Poinfs mefhod (first an IS, then two TS) and by the one-point method (first an IS, then the same IS and a TS) by means of simultaneous comparison, continual observation, and gradually decreasing step mefhod. The strength of TF was defined by r = (t0-t) -1 = (t0·rE) = 1, where rE is the strength of spatial effect on time perception. It was found from Tables 1, and 2 and Fig. 1 that (1) the nearer TS was presented to IS, the stronger was r of TF, and that (2) the order of rE-strength was a virtical line, a horizontal line-and a circle in the horizontal direction. Table 3 and Fig. 2 show that rE outside an angle was stronger than that inside. Tables 3, and 4 and Fig. 2, and 3 indicate that the figural shape of an IS was more important than its center of gravity. Tables 5, 6 and Fig. 4, 5 tell that the spatial effect (rE) was stronger than the peripheral effect, and the so-called KaPPa-effect must be none other than the latter. Tables 7 to 11 and Fig. 6, 7 are concerned with the forms of TFs of a straight line, an angle, and contours of a circle, a square, and an equilateral triangle. However the same results were not observed in the region of auditory sensation. The phenomenon may be formulated as follows : τ = (L2, t, 1/s2), where t is a time interval, s is a special interval, and L2 is the coefficient of electro-magnetic self-induction, which may be controlled experimentally by the set of the observer, which sometimes may disturb E. In conclusion, the results together with the author's accumulated hypothetico-deductive investigations of the für sich considerations on this problem since the discovery of spatial effect on time perception in 1935, it was hypo-thesized that the electro-maganetic, neuro induction would cause the phenomenon to occur.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the visual after-image and corresponding brain waves (EEG) unde more specific stimulus conditions thar Jasper & Cruikshank (1936, 1937) and Motokawa & Mita (1941). The stimulus conditiom used in the present experiment were : 15 to 200 lux in intensity, 3 to 60 sec. in duration and 1×1 sq. cm. to 60×60 sq. cm. in size. Analysis of EEG corresponding to after-images was made in two ways : (1) in terms of the amplitude of glpha waves, and (2) by the use of a band-filtered method developed by Komizo & Yamaoka (1954). Procedure and Subjects The subject was asked to be seated facing a stimulus figure in the dark room. EEG's were recorded of the subject while he was closing his eyes. As soon as the light stimulus was exposed he was instructed to open his eyes and when the stimulus was extinguished after a certain duration of time, he was required to close the eyes. When an after-image was perceived, he had to press on an electric key. When the stimulus intensity was varied, a constant duration of 30 sec. and a constant size of 3×3 sq. cm. were used. The stinlulus duration was changed with the same area and intensity (3×3 sq. cm. and 50 lux). When the stimulus size was variable, a constant intensity of 50 lux and a constant duration of 30 sec. were utilized. An EEG recorder with 6 channels, manufactured by Sanei Co. was used for experimentation. Four experienced subjects were observed. Results and Discussions 1. Appearance of after-images agreed with the decrease in alpha wave amplitude and its disappearance with the increase in the amplitude. This was most conspicuous at the beginning of the whole phase, but was obscured at the end where alpha waves reached a certain level of amplitude. 2. After-images were seen longer and more frequently when the stimulus intensity was 200 lux. With the optimal intensity for the subject, after-images became clearer in contour and their intensity increased. The corresponding EEG showed regular fluctuations and the amplitude of alpha waves indicated regular increases and decreases. 3. When the duration of a light stimulus was varied, corresponding changes were shown in after-images and EEG. The longer the stimulus duration was, longer was its after-image prolonged and the EEG more regular in fluctuations. 4. When the stimulus size was of a optimal visual angle (7.2°to 13.9°) its atter-imags was seen longer and the EEG more regular in fluctuations. 5. A band-filtered analysis of EEG showed that wave components of 20, 10, 5 and 2.5 c/s were involved in the EEG of after-images. Components of 10 c/s changed with components of 5 c/s while those of 20 c/s varied with those of 2.5 c/s. They behaved antagonistically. 6. A slight difference was suggested between the EEG of a light stimulus and that of its after-image. In the former dominance of 20 c/s components was shown for a certain length of time, while in the latter 10 c/s and 5 c/s components were more conspicuous and 20 c/s components were inhibited, being shifted to a lower frequency of 18 c/s.
The Wulf-Koffka hypothesis of dynamic activity within the memory trace assumes that the trace is a more or less unstable organization of field forces which tends to shift toward equilibrium. After a critical review of literature as well as through his own experimentation, Hebb, however, concluded that there is complete lack of factual support for this hypothesis It is purpose to examine in this study whether or not Hebb's conclusion is justifiable. Procedure : Three kinds of figures-angle, src and parallel-lines-were used as stimuli. The methods used were the recognition method afte Hebb (Exp. I), the discrimination learning method after Gellerman (Exp. 2), the psychophysical method modified for recognition experiment (Exp. 4), and the reproduction method (Exp. 3). In the recognition experiment the S was first told that he would be shown a figure which he was to remember exactly, and that the accuracy of his memory would be tested. After the removal of the stimulus figure he was shown a list of recognition figures, and told to pick out the one which had been shown. In the reproduction experiment the S was asked to reproduce the stimulus figure by drawing. Subjects : Subjectg employed were kindergarten children and children of first grade in primary school, ranging in age from 3 years and a half to 7 years, totalling four hundreds and fifty children in number, and one hundred and twenty college students. Results : The results obtained were as follows : 1) In the recognition experiment, larger angles than those of the standard stimuli were picked out when the original ones were comparatively small (underestimation of the recognition figures) ; whereas smaller angles were selected when the original ones were large (overestimation of the recognition figures). With regard to the arc this tendency was nqt so clear (Exp. 1). 2) The same tendency was found in the recognition experiment using the discrimina-tion learning method (Exp. 2). This was clearly observed in immediate recognition and the tendency was not significant after 24-hours. 3) In reproduction of the angle the small ones were reproduced larger and the large ones smaller. The phenomenon corresponds with the under-and overestimation in recognition process. In case of the arc the small arcs were reproduced larger and the large ones smaller. 4) When the size of angle was varied from small to large after the manner of psychophysical method, a gradual change from underestimation to overestimation of the recognition figures was observed (Exp. 4). 5) The same tendency as the one in Exp. 4 was found with the parallel-line-figure. The distance between the parallel lines became narrower when the length of lines was shorter, while it became broader when its length became longer. The tendency was more distinct in the parallel-line-figure with the distance of 20mm than the one with the distance of 40 mm (Exp.5). Summarizing the above mentioned results, we can conclude that, both in recognition and reproduction, underestimation of the recognition figures is dominant when the angle, the arc and the length of lines are comparatively small, while overestimation is dominant when they are large. This was commonly observed both with children and adults. We presume that this phenomenon can be explained in terms of “absolute impression”. As absolute impression of “big” or “small” are predominant in our comparative process, we make judgment on a figure regardless of its real size, resulting in the erroneous estimation. In our experiments, the validity of the Wulf-Koffka hypothesis of dynamic activity in the trace was not proved as was the case with Hebb. Thus, we are inclined to reject it in the explanation of memory process.
The present investigation consists of the following two experiments : Experiment I, which deals with the response variability in the albino rats during the conditioning, extinction, and reconditioning ; and Experiment II, which was conducted to examine the influences of varying of the intensity of hunger drive on the response variability, which was gathered from the results of Experiment I. Experiment I. (8 albino rats were used.) 1. Antonitis obtained the results that response variability is a decreasing monotonic function of the number of reinforcement, and that a stable level of response variability appears to be reached on the third day of conditioning-between 75 and 125 reinforcements, but the present results do not coincide with the findings of Antonitis. 2. Reconditioning after extinction leads to lesser response variability than at any time during continuous conditioning. 3. Reaction latencies were found to be a decreasing monotonic function of the number of reinforcement. An asymptote was determined on the third day of conditioning-between 75 and 125 reinforcements. 4. Reaction latencies at extinction session increased, as did variability. 5. Reconditioning session after extinction reduced reaction latencies below the asymptote hreached during continuous conditioning. 6. The response variability during each day of the conditioning and reconditioning sessions was found to be greater at the beginning and then to decrease as the number of the reinforcement increased. The extinction prior to the reconditioning session exercises such influences upon the responded position as it becomes fixed gradually. 7. A tendency was suggested that the reaction latencies during each day of conditioning and reconditioning are longer at the biginning, and decrease with the increasing number of reinforcement. Experiment II. (30 albino rats were used.) 1. No functional relationship Could be stated between hunger drive intensity and response variability. 2. The response variability was influenced by changing hunger drive intensity, not always in accordance with the degree of intensity, until 30 reinforcements in conditioning were given.
Using Skinner Box, we examined the differential effects of the number of reinforcement and the pattern of reinforcement schedule, with a fixed number of response, at a fixed series schedule, on the learning of bar-pressing by white rats with thirst and hunger drives. The findings from the results of training of fourty-nine rats divided into nine groups in texperiment 1 and fifty-two rats divided into ten groups in experiment 2 were : 1) In acquisition training, the performance of the groups trained by partial reinforcement schedule improved as the training proceeded. The average response latency of each group approached specific asymptotes, which were higher for the groups with greater number of reinforcement. This finding is supported by mathematical model by Bush and Mosteller and the experimental findings by others. As to the effects of the pattern of reinforcement schedule on the average latency of each group, the group with greater size of the unit of the pattern of reinforcement schedule showed higher latency. 2) In extinction training, with fixed number of response in acquisition training, the resistance to extinction increased up to a certain point as the reinforcement ratio decreased, but with further decrease of reinforcement ratio it Started to decrease. This maximal piont, the so-called optimal point, is influenced by at least three factors : the number of response in acquisition training, the size of the unit of the pattern of rein-forcement schedule, and the criterion of the resistance to extinction we adopt. However, as MacKintosh suggested, by the inspection of the behavior of rats in extinction training, the resistance to extinction did not appear to be the only index of habit strength or the strength of response tendency, and we tentatively discussed this problem from the point of view of frustration theory.