心理学研究
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28 巻 , 1 号
選択された号の論文の10件中1~10を表示しています
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  • 阿部 孫四郎
    28 巻 (1957 - 1958) 1 号 p. 1-9
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    It seems to be one of the remarkable differences between the tempral effect on space perception, i. e. Gelb phenomenon (23) and the spatial on time perception, i. e. Abbe phenomenon (23), that φ phenomenon appears obviously with the former (1, 12) but vaguely with the latter (6, 11, 8).
    However, φ phenomenon is dependent upon the set of the observer for its appearance and is often destroyed by an analytical set. With respect to time perception, if the observer assumes an analytical set and divides up mentally the temporal course of the oncoming stimuli at the their initial appearance, it is strongly influenced. We may consider that quasi-φ phenomenon occurs even in these situations in such a manner as shown in table 1 in the optic sector of sense-physiological process in accordance with Köhler's stream-pole theory (3a). Korte's law (4, 5c) and Schiller's law (14, 23), which were found by them with respect to φ phenomenon, should also be applied to quasi-φ pheno-menon (table 2, 3).
    The experimental setting is indicated in table 4 & 5, in which you can see spatial intervals. The time interval t0 was 235σ, and equi-stimulus time interval t was determined by the method of limits (step width=4.7σ), continual observation, and simultaneous comparison. Stimuli were as follows : P0D0 were angles (∠60°, length of a side=25mm, breadth=3mm), P, D & Ds were small circles (2r=3mm), F was a fixation-point (2r=2mm), all of which were illuminated by neon lamps of 100 V. each.
    The strength of TF (cf. 8) is represented by the formula τ= (t0-t) -1 for the experiments of one point method, and by [τ′] L1L2L2′=[t0-t]-1L1L2L2′ for the experiments of two points method.
    Does quasi-φ phenomenon in stroboscopic presentation accompany the displacement of temporal field from the initial spot P0 (IS) to the last spot D0 (TS0) of quasi-φ phenomenon?
    1° TF left side the IS P0 (table 3 & 2, fig. 4 & 5) :
    Series D0DP0-At first P0 was presented as IS momentarily, then D0 as TS0 and D as TS followed simultaneously. The time shortening force i. e. the strength of the TF at D : [τ′] D0DP0>0 whereas distance D0P0>DP0 and D0D>0. So hte time shortening force may affect the left side of D from D0 when quasi-φ takes place. Series DsDP0-[τ′]DsDP<0 whereas D0P0>DP0. So the time shortening force may affect the right side of D from P0 when quasi-φ does not take place. Series D0D0D-At first D0 was presented as IS momentarily, then D0 again as TS0 and D as TS followed simultaneously.τ>0 and moreover τ≅[τ′]D0DP0. Series P0P0D-τ>0 and moreover τ<[τ′]D0DP0, yetτ of P0P0D<τ of D0D0D. For these reasons the TF must move from P0TD0, and the TF of D0 must affect D stronger than the TF of P0, D being neare to D0 than to P0. 2° TF right side the IS P0 (table 4, 2 & 3, fig. 4 & 5) : Series D0PP0-[τ′]DoPP0>0 whereas D0P0=4P0P0 and D0P0<D0P. So the TF must have moved. Series D0D0P-τ>0, τ<[τ′]D0PP0. So the TF of P0 must yet temain somewhere when the TF moves in company with quasi-φ.
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  • 28 巻 (1957 - 1958) 1 号 p. 9
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 横瀬 善正, 内山 道明, 横山 明
    28 巻 (1957 - 1958) 1 号 p. 10-17
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    The temporal factor plays an important role in visual phenomena. We should analyse, accordingly, not only the spatial but temporal conditions which produce the phenomena.
    Having constructed the growing and declining process of the psycho-physical field, corresponding to visual phenomena, we have tried to throw light upon various phenomena not only in thesimultaneous but alsoin the succesive space.
    In this study, we try to make clear how the perceived length of a line and the size of a surface figure are changed by varying the stimulating time. We do not expect they become shorter or smaller simply in proporiton to the amount of stimulating time, but they correspond to the forming process of the field.
    As we expected, the following exprimental results were obtained :
    1) The perceived length of a line is unaderstimated when the line was exposed for a short time but the underestimation rate decreases as the stimulating time increase.
    2) The gradient of its change is steep at first, and then become slight gradually.
    3) When the stimulating time is 5 or 10 seconds, the underestimation rate beecomes zero. The overstimation occurs with a further increase of time.
    4) The greater the stimulus intensity is, the greater the understimation rate is.
    5) Under the condition of the reduced stimulus intensity, the rate stops with 1 of 2 seconds and seems to be near zero.
    6) The perceived size of a square is similar to that of a line.
    7) But as its stimulus intensity is less than that of a line, the understimation rate becmes zero and even overstimation occurs when the stimulating time is as less as 2 or 5 seconds.
    8) We found overstimations in both lines and squares, but their amount was too little. This problem will be further analyzed in the following paper.
    It is very interesting that the growing process of visual phenomena which was shown to correspond to the forming process of the psycho-physical field. And it is full of suggestions to develop the field-theoretical study of visual phenomena.
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  • 大山 正, 笹本 至心
    28 巻 (1957 - 1958) 1 号 p. 18-27
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    The temporal factor plays an important role in visual phenomena. We should analyse, accordingly, not only the spatial but temporal conditions which produce the phenomena.
    Having constructed the growing and declining process of the psycho-physical field, corresponding to visual phenomena, we have tried to throw light upon various phenomena not only in thesimultaneous but alsoin the succesive space.
    In this study, we try to make clear how the perceived length of a line and the size of a surface figure are changed by varying the stimulating time. We do not expect they become shorter or smaller simply in proporiton to the amount of stimulating time, but they correspond to the forming process of the field.
    As we expected, the following exprimental results were obtained :
    1) The perceived length of a line is unaderstimated when the line was exposed for a short time but the underestimation rate decreases as the stimulating time increase.
    2) The gradient of its change is steep at first, and then become slight gradually.
    3) When the stimulating time is 5 or 10 seconds, the underestimation rate beecomes zero. The overstimation occurs with a further increase of time.
    4) The greater the stimulus intensity is, the greater the understimation rate is.
    5) Under the condition of the reduced stimulus intensity, the rate stops with 1 of 2 seconds and seems to be near zero.
    6) The perceived size of a square is similar to that of a line.
    7) But as its stimulus intensity is less than that of a line, the understimation rate becmes zero and even overstimation occurs when the stimulating time is as less as 2 or 5 seconds.
    8) We found overstimations in both lines and squares, but their amount was too little. This problem will be further analyzed in the following paper.
    It is very interesting that the growing process of visual phenomena which was shown to correspond to the forming process of the psycho-physical field. And it is full of suggestions to develop the field-theoretical study of visual phenomena.
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  • 大羽 蓁
    28 巻 (1957 - 1958) 1 号 p. 28-38
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    Problem-The Korte's law of the optimal phase of the β apparent movement suggests that the time interval and the spatial extent between two stimuli are proportional. There are three kinds of extent : objective, retinal and phenomenal. Which of them relates most closely to the time interval at the optimal phase of the β movement? The purposes of this study were to answer this question and to investigate the so-called “phenomenal” extent more operationally.
    Procedure- This series of experiments were conducted by the similar procedure with Ogasawara's experiment in 1936, which aimed at the investigation about the influence of the phenomenal extent upon the β movement. The present experiments consisted of tests of β movement (Exp. I-XI) and size (extent) constancy (Exp.II′-XI′) under the same condition. The proximal (rentinal) and distal (objective) constellation of stimuli were represented in each figure. Their variations were operationally interlocked (Fig. 2-6, 11) or counterbalanced (Fig. 7-10) by the co-Variation of the objective extents and the observation distances.
    Results and Discussion-As long as the results were interpreted under a certain implicit assumption that size (extent) constancy should exist in the light room but should not exist at all in the dark room, present results were identical with Ogasawara's results. That is to say, the phenomenal extent might be a main determinant which influenced the β movement.
    The concept of the phenomenal extent, however, is very ambiguous. The meaning of that term was discussed and apparent extent were measured by the usual experimental method of size constancy in each condition in order to check Ogasawara's conclusion. Results were as follows : In the dark room, the measured extents were not always parallel to extents, but revealed the regression to the objective extents as required by the law of size constancy (Fig. 4, 5, 6, 8, 10a, 10b). In the light room, the measuredextents in each condition were parallel to the objective extents (Fig. 2, 3, 7, 9a, 9b). In the present experiments the implicit assumption held only for the conditions of light room.
    The phenomenal extent in our terminology, therefore, was not always the main determinant. Under the conditions of the dark room, the retinal or peripheral extents were most closely related to the β movement. Under the condition also of monocular observation through a reduction slit in the light room, the measured apparent extents showed the size constancy effect, while the time intervals of β movement remained constant together with the retinal extents (Fig. 11).
    Peripheral determinants are more influential in the conditions of β movement than under static conditions of stimulus presentation.
    It is insisted that retinal extent which influenced the β movement should not be neglected under the condition of the dark room. Further, it is suggested that the retinal factor or at least the subcortical one might play an effective role and it would be too general to assert that “phenomenal” extent was exclusively the main determinant of the β movement.
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  • 石原 静子
    28 巻 (1957 - 1958) 1 号 p. 39-42
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 28 巻 (1957 - 1958) 1 号 p. 43-47
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 28 巻 (1957 - 1958) 1 号 p. 60a
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 28 巻 (1957 - 1958) 1 号 p. 60b
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 28 巻 (1957 - 1958) 1 号 p. 60c
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
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