Current methods of readability measurement are generally “element countig”devices. On the contrary, the new method “Cloze produre” measures the degree of the likeness between the pattern a writer used and the patterns the reader is anticipating while he is reading. The basic assumption of this method lies in transitional probability of language and dispositional mechanism in individuals. As W. L. Taylor, the originator of this method, said, Cloze Procedure can be applicable to any language in any culture. In this study, the validity of applying Cloze Procedure to the Japanese language was tested. As Cloze Unit, two kinds of units were used ; letter and word. A letter corresponds to Japanese “ji” containing “kana” and “kanji”, and a word to Japanese “go”. Results : 1. Cloze procedure is applicable to the Japanese language. We had better delete the word i. e. “go” as Cloze Unit. 2. Cloze Procedure using “go” (word) as Cloze Unit shows more powerful discrimination than using “ji” (letter) as Cloze Unit. 3. The value of 10-15% for deleting frequency may be suitable. In this range, thre effect of the deletion is not significant. 4. As subjects of Cloze Procedure, 30 persons are enough to be used. Further problems : In Cloze Procedure, readability is measured only relatively, and it also may be able to make a standard scale of readebility. It is also important to study the dospositional mechanism, individual language pattern and readability itself.
Purpose ; The purpose of this study is to analyze the self-control mechanisms of discussion groups, especially to explore two problems as follows ; 1. If the discussion goals and the feedbacked informations are presented to the members of discussion groups, it will become easy for the members to contrast them. How much effect do, then, their presentations exert on the self-control of the discussion processes? 2. The control of discussion process seems to be depending upon both the self-control function served by each member of the group, and that by the group. What effect do, then, both functions exert upon the control of discussion group? Procedure ; In order to solve these problems, each member's ability of self-control was measured. And on the basis of the results, A groups and B groups were devided ; the former included the subjects of higher level of ability and the latter included the ones of lower level. Two discussions were conducted by each group. One was in the experimental situation which was called a feedback situation (F. situation), where an experimenter gave group mrmbers both goal informations and feedbacked informations, and another was in the controlled situation which was called non-feedback situation (N. situation), where an experimenter gave no goal information and feedbacked information. All speeches in discussion sessions were recorded bu a tapecorder. Two kinds of discussion goals were used, one was about “bad manners of speaking”and another one was about “to read a comic book”. Subjects were 70 sixth-grade boys of the elementary school and they were devided into 14 groups, each of whcih was consisted of 5 boys respectively. The experiment was conducted from the 4 th of November to the 11th of December, 1954. Results ; 1. Type of speeches. Speeches inclined to go more frequently toward the discussion goal in F. situations and to deviate from the goal in N. situations, and the differences of the distributions of these speeches were significant between F. situations and N. situations, and the speeches of A group members inclined to go more frequently toward the discussion goal than of B group members in N. situations, but the speeches of B groups members increased the tendency toward the discussion goal more radically than of A group members in F. situations. 2. Nature of speeches. Every speeches was rated by 5 graduate students. Almost all the rating scores in F. situations seemed to be higher than those in N. situations, but only few differences were significant, and as for the tendency toward the dis-cussion goal, the rating scores of B group members raised up near the scores of A group members in F. situations, although the scores of B group members were considerably lower than A grouop members in N. situation, but the differences were not significant. 3. Regularity of series of speeches. The results from a test of regularity of the series of speeches were as follows : the regularities were siginificantly high in more groups in F. situations than in N. situations, and the difference of this tendency could be seen a little when the regularities of A groups were compared with that of B groups. 4. Self-evaluation. The subjects' self-evaluations were obtained on the degrees of members' understandings of group goal, of tendencies toward the group goal, of relations of each speech to the other speeches and of meaningfulness of members' speeches. And it was found that the rating scores in F. situations were better than in N. situations, but the differences between F. situations and N. situations were not statistically significant only with the exception of the rating scores of relations of each speech to the other speeches.
Problem : Recently some investigators, such as Klopfer and Philips, proposed unique methods of rating the from quality of the Rorschach response, which was originally scored as F+ and F-by Rorschach. We have already found that there were some correlations between the Form Level Rating (following Klopfer) and the I. Q. evaluated by the Wechsler-Bellevue Test. (Philosophia, 1955, 28.) Here we give the results of the research conducted with reference to Form Level in relation to the age differences, with some considerations on the fundamental problems involved in evaluating the Form Level. We took up three groups of the subjects in the study. The first consisted of 55 undergraduate students, the second of 40 highschool students, and the third of 30 sixth-grade primary school pupils. The I. Q. distributions of each group were about the same (all approximately from 105 to 137). Results : 1. Both in average unweighted Form Level (Av. F. L.) and average weighted Form Level (Av. W. -F. L.), significant differences among the three groups were observed. 2, Minus Form Level scores appeared more frequently in the primary school group. 3. The Adding Credits increased as the age went up. 4. We applied the scale of Basal Ratings to some basic concepts. In many points our results agreed with the comments of Klopfer. However, from our viewpoint, the Rorschach diagnosis would be more adequate if we take into account not only Av. F. L. and Av. W. -F. L. but also Adding Credits separatly.
The purpose of this study was to examine the difference amoung recovery time of the various visual functions following electro-convulsive shock and to ascertain whether the visual functions form a hierarchical structure or not. Procedure Electroshock : A convulsive seizure was induced in the patient by applying electricity through electrodes of 60 mm in diameter placed on his auricles. Administration of tests : Tests were administered before and after the shock. Subjects : The subjects studied were mental patients, who were not greatly disturbed and were capable of cooperating in test situation. The number of subjects used amount to 64. Kinds of tests : a. The perception of the absolute direction based on the subject himself. b. The discrimination of colors. c. The perception of forms based on supplementation. d. The renaming of colors. e. The simultaneous size-comparison of objects. f. The simultaneous comparison of square dimensions. g. The selection of an identical size. h. The perception of directions on a plane. i. The size comparison of figures based on memory. j. The evaluation of line-length by memory. k. F-G phenomenon. l. The solid perception of figures drawn on a plane. m. Rorschach Test. Results and Discussion 1. The perception of absolute direction based on the subject himself recovered first, followed by the simultaneous size-comparison of objects and the square dimensions. Next, the perception of directions on a plane recovered. In due time, the selsction of the identical size recovered. 2. In color perception, the discrimination of colors recovered first. Next, the re_??_aming of colos such as “red” “black” and “white” fixated since early childhood recovered. The perception of forms based on supplementation recovered the last of all. 3. The recovery time of size comparison of figures based on memory, the evaluation of line-length by memory and the solid perception of figures drawn on a plane was more prolonged, as compared with the recovery time of the above mentioned visual functions. 4. In F-G phenomenon, Black space was perceived as a “figure” and as time elapsed, white space was perceived as a “figure”. 5. A phase of Rorschach records conformed with the above mentioned recovery order : that is, the simple color-naming response, which is a primitive response patern, appeared in the earlist records, the movement response which is of a higher order, appeared always the last in the records. 6. The various functions of visual perception did not recover at the same time, viz., the recovery time varied according to the differences of visual functioss and levels of function involved in the same function. The course of recovery is shown in Fig. 7. The abscissa indicates the time-passage after the shock period, and the ordinate, the various visual functions. The recovery process displays notable characteristics, namely, it indicates the recovery starting from the lower functions and going on to the higher functions. Consequently, we suppose that the various visual functions form a hierarchical structure, which, it is assumed, depends on the stratum of the cerebral cortex. It seems that electro-shock disturbs the surface of the upper parts of the cerebral cortex most markedly, while its effect apparently weakens reaching to ward the bottom stratum. Therefore, in the recovery time the bottom stratum of the cortex recovers more quickly than do the upper ones. The difference of recovery time of the various visual functions substantiates a hierarchical hypothesis of the visual functions.
Nach den experimentellen Untersuchungen Ovsiankinas nahmen die Vpn., die während der Ausführung einer Aufgabe durch eine zweite Aufgabe (Störungshandlung) unterbrochen wurden, die erste Handlung sehr häufig wieder auf. Nach Lewin und Köpke ist der Prozentsatz der Wiederaufnahme bei schwachsinningen Kindern sehr viel höher als bei normalen Kindern (derselben M. A.), weil sie die feste Zielstrebigkeit haben. Um die Bedingungen, welche die Wiederaufnahme unterbrochener Handlungen bei schwachsinningen Kindern bestimmten, festzustellen, stellten wir systematische Untersuchungen an. Alle experimentellen Situationen wurden in zwei geteilt. Situation A : Von Anfang bis zum Ende der Versuchzeit bleibt der Vl. mit der Vp. im Versuchszimmer. Situation B : Nach der Unterbrechung der ersten Handlung und der Instruktion der Störungshandlung sagt der Vl. der Vp., sie möchte einen Augenblick warten, und verlässt für 8-10 Min. das Zimmer. Dann beobachtet er vom nächsten Zimmer (Beobachtungszimmer) im Verborgenen, ob die Vp. die unterbrochene Handlung wieder aufnimmt oder nicht. Der Prozentsatz der Wiederaufnahme unserer schwachsinningen Vp. bei Situation A ist nicht so hoch wie bei Köpke. In dieser Situation nehmen Vpn. die unter-brochene Handlung nur in dem Falle wieder auf, wenn sie durch “Zufalls” -unterbre-chung, kurz vor der Vollendung ihrer Handlung, order durch eine aus eigenem Antrieb angefangenen Handlung unterbrochen werden. Daraus scheint uns hervorzugeben, dass alle Vpn. zumeist dem Typus “der-Vp., die ganz Vp. sind”, angehören. Ovsiankina sagte, dass diese Vp. ihren eigenen Willen möglichst ausschalten und sich dem Willen des Vls. anpassen möchten. Für dies Vp. kann die Instruktion bei Unyerbrechung der resten Handlung als Verbot der Wiederaufnahme aufgefasst werden. Doch bei Situation B nehmen die Vpn. die unterbrochene Handlung fast ohne Ausnahme wieder auf. Sogar die unangenehme, fortlaufendene Handlung (z. B. Schraffierung) nehmen sie ziemlich oft auf. Situation B ist im allgemeinen günstig für die Wiederaufnahme aus Langweile, weil die Vp. bis zum Wiedereintritt des Vls. in Versuchszimmer längere Zeit dort bleiben muss und auf dem Tisch dieses Zimmers keine Sachen ausser den für die Unterbrechunga-und Störungshandlung nötigen Materilien zu find_??_ sind. Aus diesen Gründen sind wir nicht imstande festzusteelen, zob der höhere Prozentsatz der Wiederaufnahme bei Situation B von der innern Spannung, die durch die Instruktion oder die wirkliche Beschäftigung der Vp. mit der jeweiligen Aufgabe hervorgerufen wird, abhängig ist, oder von der Langweile, die aus dem Nichtstun nach der Unterbrechung folgt, herkommt. Um diese Frage zu lösen, führen wir zwei Experimente (d. h. Exp. 8 und 9) aus. Im Exp. 8 unterbrechen wir zwei Handlungen in Situation B (die eine Handlung ist für die Vp. interessant und angenehm, die andere nicht). Im Exp. 9 liegen verschiedenartige Spielzeuge auf dem Tisch, mit denen die Vp., gewöhnlich gern spielt. Das Ergbnis dieser zwei Experimente lässt erkennen, dass die Stärke des Wieder-aufnahmebedürfnisses von der Art der Handlung abhängt, ob sie eine zielbetonte geschlossenen order eine labile, nicht so stark differenzierte Struktur hat. So zeigen unsere Vp. nur selten die Tendenz zur Wiederaufnahme, ein Egrebins, das dem von Ovsiankina krass entgegensteht. Schwachsinnige Kinder sind im allgemeinen stärker als normale Kinder von der momentanen Situation abhängig und eher der Autorität des erwachsenen Vls. augeliefert. Unserer Meinung nach rührt das wahrscheinlich von der unzulänglichen Spontaneität dieser Vpn. her.