Reasonable educational objectives should be constructed on the basis of scientific analyses of the psychological traits which are required in various educational areas. The writer has been trying to study the factorial analysis of those traits which are now involved in the main fields of educational evaluation. The present study succeeds his previous factorial research on sociality and is concerned with four behavior traits, each of which is represented by an objective-type question. The first item relates to sociableness in human relations ; the second, to activeness in all kinds of actions ; the third, to dominance or leadership in various group activities ; and the fourth, to vigorousness in physical or motor behaviors. The subjects were 1, 000 college students, including equal number of both sexes. They were asked to answer whether they possessed each behavior trait or not. The latent structure of their answers were analysed on the assumption of two latent classes : one whose members were supposed to have a certain social tendency, and the other not. The latent parameters were obtained separately for each sex. It was found that the first latent class of male subjects consisted of about 58% of the total, and that they possessed all of those traits to a considerable degree, although the third trait was relatively low. Thus, the majority of their answer patterns belonged to all-positives (++++) and to three-positives except the third (++-+). The first class of female subjects involved about 67% of the total, and they gave positive answer to the first and the second items at considerably high rate, while the other two items, especially the third, were quite low in the rate of positive answers. Accordingly, most of their answer patterns were of four types, all of which had almost the same frequencies ; i. e., all-positives (++++), three-or two-positives except the third or/and the fourth (++-+, +++-, ++--). For both sexes, the second latent class was one where the members generally denied the possession of all, especially the third, of those behavior traits. The traits which were studied here relate to some main evaluation objectives in the realm of social behavior. Therefore, the above results will give some factorial clarifications to the relations among those educational values and will help us understand the factual of their appearance among the Japanese students.
It has been demonstrated that those attitudes which anchor in a group-norm show some resistance to a change (3, 10). This fact may suggest that the strength of resistance is determined by such a factor as the degree to which attitudes anchor in a group-norm. The purpose of the present experiment is to clarify the relation of the resistance to the situation in which attitudes are constructed in connection with an experimentally introduced group-norm. The following hypothesis may thus be proposed : when group-anchored attitudes are exposed to a counter-norm pressure, their resistance to a change will be greater with the higher pressure in the situation where they have been constructed. Method : In order to test this hypothesis it is necessary, (1) to choose a problem in which the member of experimental groups are not conscious of the group-norm, (2) to set groups which differ in terms of the degree of anchorage in the introduced norm, (3) to give them a communication which is contrary to the norm. The total of 1931 high school students were divided into one control and five experimental groups. For the appraisal of the attitudes was used the nine-point rating scale concerning the question, “How is the personal character formed, by nature or by nurture?” (see Table 1). The experimental procedure is summarized in Table 2. As it is seen, it consists of two stages, both containing two measurements of the same kind, mediated by the introduction of the norm at the first stage and by the counter-norm communication on the second stage. The norm given at the first stage was the opinion which lies at the seventh point in the scale, i. e., that the character of the person is formed almost by the influence of the external environment, and this norm was given to all five experimental groups under each different condition. The counter-norm communication given by the experimenter at the second stage was the instruction that the second point in the scale was approved by the majority of the students of a certain college, and also the reading of the composition, the content of which was that the character is almost formed by the nature and the environmental force plays only the role of a ‘drawer’. There was also set a control group which was given only a counter-norm communication, mediating between two measurements. Results and discussion : The amount of conformity on the first stage was found to be arranged in the following order : C1=C2<C3<C4<C5 (see Table 5). It may therefore be generally assumed that the amount of pressure towards an experimentally introduced norm increases in the same order as above. Since the pressure which works on the members of a group in a situation will produce a change in their attitudes and at the same times lead to the formation of new attitudes, those attitudes formed by a high pressure will show a strong resistance to the change. The strength of resistance at the second stage will thus vary positively with the larger amount of conformity (the change of attitudes) at the first stage. The assumption of this relation between the change and resistance of attitudes has been supported by some previous reports (3, 9) which demonstrate that the amount of a change in the opinion resulting from receiving a communication increases as the pressure towards the uniformity in the group increases. The results given in Tables 5 and 6 did not, however, fully support this assumption because of the exception of the reverse in the expected order between C3 and C4.
This paper aims to scrutinize the differences in environment which are produced by the hereditary factors, by studying certain phases of the environment of twins in repect to intra-pair differences. The subjects studied consisted of 25 identical, 23 like-sex fraternal and 9 oppositesex twin pairs enrolled from the 5th grade in elementary school to the 2nd grade in senior high school. The data were obtained by a combination of interview and questionnaire. The differences in environment were considered from the following two phases ; the one is the difference of life-situation such as the length, the frequency and the causes of their separation from each other, and the other is the difference of social relation such as their relation with their parents at home and with their friends. In most of the phases of environment studied, intra-pair differences of fraternal pairs were on the average greater than those of identical pairs, and still greater differences were found among the twin pairs of opposite-sex than among those like-sex. (Table 1. 2.) The differences in the environments of the fraternal pairs may be attributed to the influence of their different hereditary predisposition upon the individual's choice of environment. The assumption that intra-pair differences in the environment of identical pairs are, on the average, equal to those of fraternal pairs has been made in many previous studies of twins. The author's study indicates that this assumption is not necessarily justified and some modifications should be made in those conclusions based upon the previous assumption.
“Rorschach Schizophrenic Score” (RSS) provides a method for an objective and quantitative analysis of the Rorschach protocols with a purpose of differentiating schzophrenia from other clinical groups, especially psychoneurosis. RSS was first prepared for the examination of 1) general formal scoring categories, 2) form level ratings, 3) Bühler's Basic Rorschach Score, and 4) Watkins & Stauffacher's delta %. As a result, it was found that P, R+% (including all the primary form responses), W-%, BRS and delta % were the factors by which schizophrenic group was differentiated from psychoneurotic group at 0.5% level of confidence (t-test). Hence these five factors were synthesizes by Fisher's “discriminant function”. We obtained by this statistical method Z score of -14.13, which was the cut-off point between schizophrenia and psychoneurosis. Thus Z≤-14.13 was called “Rorschach Schizophrenic Score” (RSS) and 77% of schizophrenic group came within this score. Subjects used in this research were as follows : 1) Schizophrenic group (SGr.) N=30 These patients have been diagnosed undoubtedly as chronic schizophrenia which were considered comparatively fresh cases by more than two psychiatrists. 2) Psychoneurotic group (PGr.) N=30 This group consisted of eight anxiety neurotics, three hysterics, five obsessivecompulsive neurotics, six neurosthenics and eight neurotics of mixed-type who had visited the National Institute of Mental Health for treatment. 3) Normal group (NGr.) N=30 They were well-adjusted adults and have never undergone any psychiatric treatment. The subjects mentioned above were homogeneous with regard to the following conditions : age, sex, educational level, socio-economic level and so on. The protocols which had less than 10 reponses were omitted because of difficulty for diagnosis in many cases.