In the preparatory experiments, the author found that the physical strength of the deaf and hearing bullies over their fellows did not differ greatly and that the deaf bully was not always physically stronger than his fellows. Experiments 1 and 2 were conducted during ten minutes of free play. Control groups consisted of hearing children of the same age. Groups were formed each consisting of a bully and three fellows. During the first five minutes (period “a”) all of the children in the group played together. At the end of the period “a” the bully was removed from the group, and the fellows continued to play during the following five minutes (period “b”). The author measured the degree of social participation in periods “a” and “b” with Parten's Social Participation Scale. In period “a” the experimental group had a lower degree of social participation than in period “b”. The control group showed the opposite tendency in comparison with the experimental group. Namely, in periods “a” they had a higher degree of social participation than in periods “b”. From these results, the author supposed that the bullies of the deaf group have somewhat more destructive tendencies compared with the bullies of the hearing group. In Experiments 3, 4, 5 and 6 the author observed the reactions of the fellows against the destructive acts of the bullies. Though the hearing fellows often showed the verbal objections against the bullies, the deaf fellows never manifested such objections, and often submitted themselves to the bullying expressionlessly. Experiments 7 and 8 failed. In Experiment 9, the author used the hearing groups only. He put a record on the grarnophone and played it very loudly and disturbed their mutual communications during their free play, and he measured the degree of social participation of their groups. The results of this experiment were fairly similar to the results of the experimental groups in Experiments 1-6. Based on such results, the author supposed that the destructiveness of the deaf bullies resulted largely from the inferior ability for communication among deaf children.
I Problem: This is one of a series of studies on the relationship between sociometric choice behavior and interpersonal perception, which has increasingly awoke the interest of many social psychologists. In the previous investigation, we analyzed the relationship in the social situation composed of three persons: the chooser p, the chosen o and the third person q. In this situation three relations are included from p's standpoint: p's attitude toward q (R1), p's attitude toward o (R2), and p's perception of q's attitude toward o (R3). These three relations are considered to be mutually interdependent. For a while, however, let us assume that R3 depends upon R1 and R2, while the latter two are independent of R3 and of each other. As a consequence of the investigation, we concluded that our initial hypothesis derived from Heider's theory should be corrected in one important point. The conclusion of the previous investigation was based on the data collected in the classrooms which might be considered as “well-structured”, because more than ten months had elapsed since the organization of the classrooms concerned till the date of the data collection. The major purpose of the present investigation, therefore, was to examine if the same relationship would be found in the “un-structured” classrooms as well, and, if not, to see how it would be changed in the course of structuralization of the classroom. II Method: Subjects of the investigation were ninety-seven pupils in two seventh-grade classrooms in the Faculty School. At the time of the organization of the classrooms, they were almost completely strange one another. They were given relation perception tests six times at intervals of two weeks, the first of which was administered when four weeks had passed by from the organization of the classrooms. III Results and Discussion: The validity of the method we employed for the purpose of the investigation relies on the assumption that the structuralization of the classroom goes with the time which passed by from the organization of it. The assumption was confirmed by the analysis of several measures. From the first to the last test, when the total responses were analyzed, the results were very similar to those obtained in the previous investigation. In other words, no differences in result which might be attributed to the different degree of group structuralization were found. Further analysis showed, however, that the relationship between the independent and the dependent variables was related to the time factor in some way. We broke down the total responses into two subgroups: those representing, so to speak, accurate perception and those representing inaccurate one. In the former case the degree to which the hypothesis was confirmed increased progressively as the tests were repeated. In the latter case, on the contrary, it tended rather to decrease. For these findings a tentative interpretation was presented in terms of different degree of manifestation of q's actual attitude toward o and the different path through which the subjects arrived at the balanced configuration.
The purpose of this study was to investigate in what aspects the personality of juvenile delinquents was similar to that of their parents. Subject used in this study were the juvenile delinquents, who were sent and under probation in Kanazawa Juvenile Court, and their parents. The Rorschach Test was administered to fifty sets of juvenile delinquents and their parents. The average ages of children, fathers and mothers were respectively 17 years 8 months, 50 years 6 months and 44 years 4 months and the average IQ of each group was 94.81, 90.12, and 85.31. The results were as follows: 1) From the average frequencies of the Rorschach variables, it was found that the common characteristics of three groups-children, fathers, and mothers-were immaturity and weakness in emotional control. Any remarkable indicator which defferentiates the delinquents from their parents was not found, yet the sex responses in parents, especially in mothers, called the author's attention. 2) The correlations among the three groups for the 12 test variables were computed by Pearson's r. As a result, it was supposed that children were similar to their fathers at the external level of personality and to their mothers at its deeper and emotional level. 3) Davidson's Adjustment Sign showed a higher correlation between children and their parents than any variable of the Rorschach Test. 4) In the diagnosis made according to the Rorschach responses, there was found a higher percentage of psychopathic mothers than in any other study. It deserves attention, even though a direct comparison is impossible because of a methodological difference. 5) Eighteen out of 26 psychopathic children had either psychopathic fathers or mothers or both, but among 22 quasi-normal children there were only 6, either or both of whose parents were psychopathic. Moreover, it was found that mothers had a stronger influence upon their children than fathers. 6) Children's personality was examined in reference to the success or the failure of probation or of corrective education. Its failure was found more significant in the psychopathic group than in the quasi-ormal group at the 5% level of confidence (x2-test). 7) The relationship between the juvenile delinquents' reforming process and their parents' personality was also investigated. It was revealed that the children with psychopath parents were worse in the process than the others, which indicates that it is meaningful to test their parents in order to measure the degree of children's delinquency.
Purpose; The purpose of this study is to explore two following problems: 1) If each type of self-control functions of group act on group members, how will the members measure the error of group performance and control their activities? 2) Self-control function of individual person seems to be the basis of self-control functions of both leader and member. How do then the adequacy of self-control function of individual person influence upon the members for measuring of error of group performance and for controlling their activities? Procedure; At the first step, the self-control function of individual person was measured. Subjects were asked to switch on and off for a certain frequency within a given time. The frequency was counted by the magnetic counter. From these pretests, (jGi-jPi-1) was obtained. Correlations between the (jGi-jPi-1) and (jPi-jPi-1) were computed and were assumed as the index of “goodness” or “poorness” of self-control function of individual person. Subjects were 40 fifth-grade boys of a elementary school and were deviled into 8 groups. Four groups were lower groups whose members got low Correlations and the other four groups were upper groups. Experimental task was similar to that of pretest. Total frequency of switching on and off of group members was regarded as group performance. Four experimental situations were made. In A situation, members were given only goal information; in B and C situation, members were given both goal information and feed back information; and in D situation, members were given goal information and instruction of leader. Result; The following variables were measured. RG; gGi-gGi-1 AD; gGi-1-gPi-1 GD; gGi-gPi-1 CGα; ΣjjGαi-gPi-1 CGl; lGi-ΣjjGαi CGβ1; ΣjjGβi-ΣjjGαi CGβ2; ΣjjGβi-lGi CP; gPi-ΣjjGβi RP; gPi-gPi-1 1) Correlations between RP, and RG, AD and GD were computed. Generally rRP·GD were the highest of the three. rRP·RG were the next and rRP·AD were the lowest. In comparison between the correlations of upper groups and of lower groups, both rRP·GD and rRP·RG of upper groups were higher than those of lower groups. This will mean that group members were likely to control their performance in accordance with GD and RG, and especially upper group members were more likely. 2) In order to