心理学研究
Online ISSN : 1884-1082
Print ISSN : 0021-5236
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29 巻 , 6 号
選択された号の論文の6件中1~6を表示しています
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  • 広田 実
    29 巻 (1958 - 1959) 6 号 p. 363-376
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    Problem: Easel pictures painted by children freely were analysed into items according to the categories of painting characteristics and each of them was rated from two points of the quantity of painting expression (e.g., the length of strokes, area of a mass, number of dabs, etc.) and the effect of expression (e.g., distance from left edge of paper to painted things, recognizable forms, etc.). Then, the questions to be answered were as follows: What are the quantity and the effect of painting expression? How do they change with age? What factors are found in characteristics of children's painting? Have its characteristics been analysed and rated accurately? How much is its rating affected by errors? To what extent is the agreement among caters gained?
    Procedure: Two age groups of young children, consisting of 22 four-year-olds (IQ 119 on the average), and 29 six-year-olds (IQ 111 on the average) were selected from a kindergarten and a nursery school of middle class districts in Kyoto City. Pictures painted 4 times each with interval of more than 7 days, were analysed into 71 items and were rated into 4 grades. The categories of items were defined as clearly and unambiguously as possible.
    Results: 1. 4-year-olds were rated as more distinctively in items on color and on non-concreteness of form than 6-year-olds. The latter were more distinctively in items on direction and on concreteness of form than the former. Those developmental differences should be taken into consideration when personality studies and clinical researches with children's paintings are conducted.
    2. The correlation clusters were found when correlation coefficients of inter-items were tabulated adequately, and 3 factors were found on factor analysis. The first factor was interpreted as the emotionality of expression, the second as the effectiveness of expression, the third as the color and form quality of expression.
    3. Validity. Examining the internal consistency of items estimated from the intercorrelations of each item to the total by 6-year-olds, the majority of the items except several turned out to be valid.
    Reliability. The internal correlations of each item on 6-year-olds were mostly recognizable as significant, but several were negligible. As reliability coefficient of item battery, rtt by the method of Spearman-Brown was .74, which is reliable.
    4. 48 pictures painted by 12 children of 4-year-old and 6-year-old; were rated on 31 items into 4 grades by 3 raters, whose opinions on children's painting were different, and after 19 months' interval they were rated again by one of the racers, Agreement among 3 raters' ratings and the agreement between the first and the second ratings of one rater were 61% and 76% respectively on the average.
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  • 牧田 稔, 林 知己夫, 斎藤 定良
    29 巻 (1958 - 1959) 6 号 p. 377-395
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study, based on the panel surveys made in September, 1956 and February, 1957, is an attempt at an analysis of: the reasons given by the respondents for supporting certain political parties, the characteristics of the groups who, showed throughout the first and the second survey no change in thier support of particular political parties, and the multidimensional positioning of the factors for supporting a political party, and finally at an attitude analysis through the modified latent structure analysis.
    The questionnaire contains such items as: biased questions to measure the respondent's political party affiliation, reasons therefore, reasons for a turnover from the party affiliation, opinions about social insurence, government controls, scandals among government employees, international relationships and rearmament.
    1. Analysis of the Reasons for Supporting a political Party
    The reasons for the support of political parties given by the panel respondents were coded and a matrix was made of the reasons given in the first and second surveys. The eij represents the number of the respondents who gave the reason i in the first survey and the reason j in the second survey. The reason i is given the numerical value xi and the cases with approximate values of xi were grouped together. This means that the reasons in the matrix are moved in such a way that those with greater frequencies are as much concentrated near the diagonals as possible.
    Q=-RΣi=1RΣj=1eij(xi-xj)2
    The greater the value eij is, the smaller will the value between xi and xj become and the smaller the value eij is, the greater will the separation between the two become. It is, therefore, possible to make Q in the above obtain the maximal value.
    When the formula ∂Q/∂xl=0 is written under the condition where 1/nΣxi2=a2, the maximal value obtained by the following equation is the greatest value in this case.
    {-nΣj=1jlalj}xl+nΣj=1jlaljxjxl(l=1, 2, ……, R).(alj=elj+ejl).
    Then we can find out xi (i=1, 2, ……, R), which is the maximal value, under the condition where x=0.
    The results enabled the grouping of reasons. It has become clear that the reasons for supporting the Liberal-Democratic Party and the Socialist Party can respectively be divided into 3 groups. Since the reasons have been coded into 12 items, this means that the reasons, though expressed in different wording, do not differ much in contents.
    2. Characteristics of the Groups Consecutively Supporting the Liberal or the Social Party
    Here an analysis was made regarding which questions the two groups were most likely to be characterized by. When the quantity given to each item is αi and the average of αi for n people for each item category is α,
    α=1/nnΣi=1αi.
    Its variance is
    σ2=1/nnΣi=1αi2.
    The average of each grouped stratum, αi, and the variance between each stratum, σb2, are as follows:
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  • 市村 潤
    29 巻 (1958 - 1959) 6 号 p. 396-398
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 新美 良純
    29 巻 (1958 - 1959) 6 号 p. 399-408
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 29 巻 (1958 - 1959) 6 号 p. 409-412
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 29 巻 (1958 - 1959) 6 号 p. 419
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
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