The purpose of this study is to construct the absolute scale of mental abilities developed by L. L. Thurstone on the basis of the raw scores of the Suzuki-Binet Intelligence Test given to 15, 820 children by Dr. J. Suzuki. The age of the children whose scores were used in this study ranged from 4 years to 12 years and 6 months, and they were classified into 18 age groups. The method of successive intervals developed by G. W. Diederich was applied in the course of scaling. It was assumed that the variable x, the mental ability required in solving the problems, was normally distributed for each age group, i, on the continuum with Mi as the mean and σi as the standard deviation. It was also assumed that there existed the critical value, tg, on the same continuum corresponding to each raw score, g, and that only those who had higher values of x than tg could get higher marks than g (see Fig. 1). However, in the course of analysis it was discovered that the assumption of normal distribution of x was somewhat inadequate and needed to be modified. The new distribution thus derived was much the same as normal distribution, but was slightly skewed to the right (see Fig. 4). The relationship among tg, Mi, σi and Z′ig, the deviate value of the new distribution corresponding to the distance from Mi to tg, is shown by the equation: tg=Mi+σiZ′ig. The values of tg, Mi and σi were obtained by the graphical solution developed by Diederich (See Fig. 5, Table 3 and Table 4). There was some variation in the values for t(g+1)-tg, but, where more than 30 children were available for obtaining a tg, the range of the variation was between .04 and .07 (see Table 3). This fact shows that the difference between the mental abilities required to get any 2 successive scores, g and (g+1), in the Suzuki-Binet Intelligence Test is almost the same regardless of the g value. From the values of Mi thus obtained the growth curve of intelligence was developed. It was slightly different from the growth curve obtained by Yokoyama and Indow (1), in which the absolute scale of the same data was constructed by using, as the landmark, the proportion of the right answers to each item of the test, though the amount of data available was 1/4 of that of the present study' the previous curve was almost a straight line while the present one proved to be slightly convex (see Fig. 6). As to σi as a function of age, a more remarkable difference was discovered between the results of the present study and those of the previous one (Yokoyama and Indow). In the previous study there appeared a tendency for the value of σi to become larger as the age increased. However, in the present study, no such tendency was discovered; the values of the standard deviation proved to be almost the same for all ages. The location of the absolute zero point, which was suggested by L. L. Thurstone, therefore, could not be determined from the results of the present study (see Fig. 7).
The purpose of this study is to confirm the conditions which may have influence on the deceptive behaviors in an experimental situations where deceptions are assumed to arise. In the main experiment, deceptions was examined which occurred in self-ratings of an arithmetical task of additions. Subjects were divided into four groups and their experimental conditions were set by instructions differing in each group. In Group 1 and 2, subjects were shown the minimum standard of the score required for all the subjects to attain in that age. Actually, the prescribed mark as the standard was such that to which only 15% of the subjects had attained. Further the subjects in Group 1 were given such a social pressure by an instruction that their marks should be announced to all others. The subjects in Group 3 were given no instruction about any standard. To Group 4, a level of score, to which 85% of the subjects actually attained, was shown to be a desirable standard for the subjects in that age. The subjects were primary, secondary and high school boys and girls, each divided into four groups and the sum total of the subjects counted 607. The results were as follows: The percentage of the subjects who made deceptions and the amount of the deception made by one subject in average were much greater in Group 1 and 2 than in Group 3 and 4. The subjects were divided into four grades by their actual marks, and it was found that, in each group, the lower the grade was, the more the subjects were apt to make deceptions. Thus the following conclusion was obtained. The amount of deception increased when the subjects were requested to do more than their own capacity, or they were given social pressures. It was suggested that the defense mechanism in the subjects drove them into making deceptions.
In the Sonohara's (1) and my (2, 3, 4) experiments on the recognition of similarity of figures composed of three element figures where the standard figures was presented upright coincident with the north-south-direction of the system of coordinate, the three developmental characteristics were found as follows: 1. Characteristics with kindergarten children: a. The figures which have the same form as the standard figure were predominately chosen, even when the colour arrangement in them was different from the standard one. b. The reversal figures were chosen preferentially. c. The semi-reversal figures and the “elementary” figures which consisted of the same elements as the standard but with different arrangements were much less chosen. 2. In adults the figures chosen as similar were determined by the similarity in the combinations of three factors-colour, direction and form. 3. The developmental changes from kindergarten children's characteristics to the adults' were found about in the third and sixth grades of primary school and about in the first grade of lower secondary school. The purpose of the present investigation was to confirm whether the above-mentioned results would be obtained in the standard figures which are tilted by 45° (NE), 90° (E) and 135° (ES) with the system of coordinate. Procedure and subjects Four sets of figures were used in the present experiment. Each set consists of a standard figure and four comparison figures. The subject was asked to select from the latter the one which has the closest similarity to the former. The subjects amount to the total of 677 from kindergarten children to adults. 1. Results with kindergarten children: a. The importance of the form of a dominant element was not recognized when a standard figure was presented in tilted position. b. The preference for a reversal figure was recognized as ever in all the experimental conditions. c. Tendency to ignore an “elementary” figure was recognized as ever in all the experimental conditions. d. Tendency to ignore a semi-reversal figure by kindergarten children was recognized more frequently than adults in all the experimental conditions. 2. Results with adults: Figures chosen as similar by adult were so determined by the similar combinations of three factors-colour, direction and form as the standard, that the changes of the direction of standard figures had little influence on determining similarity of the figures. 3. The adults' characteristics in the recognition of similarity of figures were observed to begin at the age of about 8 years in the development.