心理学研究
Online ISSN : 1884-1082
Print ISSN : 0021-5236
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30 巻 , 4 号
選択された号の論文の8件中1~8を表示しています
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  • 田口 孝之, 徳田 安俊
    30 巻 (1959 - 1960) 4 号 p. 243-252
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this study is to find the concrete feature of the democratic home climate by questionnaire method. For, it is not so much of use for education that the home is only described as “good” or “not good”. We regard a domestic accord as the basis of the good home climate.
    So, our hypothesis is as follows: There is a domestic accord in the democratic home, that is, the better home is, the more accord we can find in the family.
    From that standpoint, we constructed 20 items on the questionnaire I for parents, and 34 items on the questionnaire II for their children. Moreover, the teachers were asked to evaluate the traits of the children and the climates of their families by using the questionnaire III. So, our questionnaire consisted of 3 parts, I, II and III, and the subjects were asked to fill them anony-mously in I and II, while the subjects' names were really konwn to us by secret signs. We intended to attain the above mentioned object through making those 3 parts interrelated with each another.
    The subjects were the 6th grade children of 2 urban and 3 rural elementary schools, and the 9th grade children of 5 secondary schools chosen in the same ratio, in Fukushima Prefecture (Table 1). The classification of them in this Table 1 was based upon scores on the questionnaire I.
    Results
    1. Mean scores on questionnaire I and II were shown in Table 2 and 5 respectively. As regards to the mean scores, there was no significant difference between both urban and rural parents (Table 2) and children (Table 5).
    By questionnaire I, the girls of the urban 6th grade and the rural 9th, respectively, exceeded the boys in their means (Table 2).
    Concerning the questionnaire II (Table 5), the 6th grade boys' mean exceeded the 9th grade boys' mean, and the 9th girls' mean exceeded the boys' mean (p<0.01). There was no other significant difference.
    2. As regards to each item, the high scores in I were highly evaluated by their school teachers in all points than the low scores. The same thing was seen in the responses of children in II.
    But concerning the comparison between urban and rural responses, those in I were sometimes reverse to those in II. Thus, it is doubtful to make conclusion from the one-sided data of either I or II. Besides, the coefficients of correlation between the scores on I and II were shown in Table 6.
    3. It was confirmed that there were, at basis of well-evaluated home, unintentional elements, such as sufficient affection, contact between parents, and warm contact between parents and their children. And as its phenotype, the family climates were represented in such behaviors ass preparation of tea, merry talking at tea or dinner times, fathers' playing and romping with their children, parents' companying in their childrens' study, and so on.
    Therefore, we may conclude that the above pheno-behaviors are characteristic of the democratic home climate.
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  • 寺岡 隆
    30 巻 (1959 - 1960) 4 号 p. 253-263
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    In experiments dealing with the rigidity or the mental set, anagram series have been occasionally used in problem solving situations. Usually, such a series contains a certain fixed cue for the solution; e.g., a fixed letter-order is used through the series, or every word has the same kind of meaning. Although anagrams are useful as experimental materials from various points of view, subject's performance clearly depends on the difficulty of the letter-orders and that of the words used. So it is necessary to control these two kinds of difficulty in order to make the use of anagrams effective. To serve this purpose, this paper mainly intended to inquire into factors determining these two kinds of difficulty and to investigate interactions between them.
    Materials used were simple anagrams made from 120 common four-letter nouns in Japanese by permuting letters of each word in all possible orders except the basic order (abcd) and the reverse (dcba) (Table 1, 2). Thus the total number of anagrams used in this experiment was 120×22 and each of them was performed by nine junior high school students who served as subjects. Each subject was given a series composed of 120 anagrams in which all 22 letter-orders appeared randomly. These anagrams were presented one after another, for 10 seconds each, and the subject was instructed to find the original word of each anagram in the series one after another.
    Main results were as follows:
    1) The order of the scores of relative difficulty from the most difficult to the least difficult of 22 letter-orders, as shown in Table 2, was approximately the same for different words. The variance of scores among letter-orders was not uniform, and appeared to have a curved regression on the score of the word.
    2) As factors determining the relative difficulty of a letter-order, the “direction”, “interval” and “position” of three different bonds in each letter-order were considered. The ‘bond’ means the pair of adjacent letters in the basic order. By the analysis of these factors the relative difficulty of a letter-order was shown to depend upon the deviation from the basic order. In order to indicate the deviation uniquely, an index, D=1-r2, was adopted. r was the Pearsonean correlation coefficient between the order in question and the basic order when each letter was given the ordinal number in the basic order. It was found that letter-orders were arranged in approximately the same order in terms of the values of this index as they were in terms of the scores of relative difficulty. So it seems plausible that the relative difficulty of any letter-order, irrespective of the number of letters, can be predicted to some extent from the value of this index.
    3) The order of relative difficulty of 120 words, as shown in Table 1, was approximately the same for different letter-orders. In addition to the familiarity of the words, redundancy was taken into consideration as one of the factors determining the relative difficulty of words.
    4) In order to detect the interactions between the letter-orders and the words, a simple two-factor model was used. Anagrams whose scores of relative difficulty differ significantly from the theoretical values calculated from the model were checked.
    These results should be useful when those anagrams are used as experimental materials.
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  • 勝井 晃
    30 巻 (1959 - 1960) 4 号 p. 264-269
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 水原 泰介, 詫摩 武俊, 肥田野 直, 東 洋
    30 巻 (1959 - 1960) 4 号 p. 269-272
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 小橋川 慧
    30 巻 (1959 - 1960) 4 号 p. 273-277
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 斎藤 久美子
    30 巻 (1959 - 1960) 4 号 p. 277-285
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 佐藤 幸治
    30 巻 (1959 - 1960) 4 号 p. 286-295
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 30 巻 (1959 - 1960) 4 号 p. 296-301
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
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