This study was undertaken for the purpose of verifying the following hypothesis on Japanese language. (1) As the order of approximation to language grows higher, the recognition of letter sequences as the stimuli becomes easier. (2) But, when we take redundancy into account, the total amount of information per sequence becomes relatively constant even though the number of letters received varies. The design of experiment was as follows: Four letter sequences (0, 1, 2, 3 order) were so constructed as to reflect different orders of approximation to Japanese words. Subjects were individually shown these sequences in a Dodge tachistoscope and a memory drum. In the tachistoscope the sequences of eight letters were exposed, each sequence for one second, and in the memory drum the sequences of twenty letters were exposed, each letter for one and a half second. The results were recorded in two different ways-in terms of (1) the total number of correct letters, regardless of their positions (letter score), (2) the number of correct letters recorded in the proper blanks on the answer sheet (placement score). The obtained data revealed a consistent difference among the four orders of approximation to Japanese. (1) The most nonsensical letter sequences (zero-order) yielded the lowest scores, whereas the most sensible letter sequences (third-order) yielded the highest scores. (2) When the experimental data were reinterpreted from the view point of the total amount of information per letter, the scores for all other orders of approximation were reduced to nearly the same values as the scores for the zero-order approximation. When the data were treated in terms of error responses, the results revealed that the amount of errors tended to decrease with an increase in the order of approximation to Japanese words. The above results showed a similar tendency regardless of the procedual difference in stimulus presentation, either in a tachistoscope or in a memory drum. We may therefore conclude that the results obtained from this experiment varied mainly with the nature of the letter sequences, and that they are independent of the procedure of stimulus presentation.
Although the ECS is known to impair the earned response, its effect upon the inhibition of the response is not evident. The only available data are those on the effect upon the extinction of avoidance response. The extinction of avoidance, however, is different from the other type of extinction, since the former is an extinction of motive rather than that of response. In the present experiment, the effect of ECS upon the experimental extinction of response was studied. Method. Thirty albino rats were condiioned to respond in the Skinner-Box for 5 days with 20 reinforcements per day. Then the response was extinguished for 3 days with the period of non-reinforcement of 30 minutes per day, which was followed further by another term of extinction of 3 days with the daily criterion of 5-minutes'-non-response. Then the rats were divided into experimental and control groups. The experimental group was led to the electric shock convulsion for the next 5 days, 2 times a day by the current of 30mA with 1500V through the ear lobes. During this period, the control group was given a rest. The test was extinction trials with the criterion of 5-minutes'-non-response each day for 3 days. Results. The mean number of responses was shown in Fig. 1 for every 5 minutes and in Fig. 2 and 4 for every day. The number of responses during the test period was greater in the experimental group than in the control group, in which a large individual difference was observed in the experimental group (Fig. 3). The time to attain the criterion was greater in experimental group than in the other (Fig. 5). There was no significant difference in the latency time between the two groups (Fig. 6). The ECS was found to interfere the extinction and permit the response to recover rapidly. This effect of ECS varied from individual to individual possibly in accordance with the inborn nature of the individual.
The purpose of this paper was to examine Maier's hypothesis of ‘frustration-induced-fixation’ by setting up the situation, with which Postman et al did the experiments as to ‘learning without awareness’, as the insoluble situation with human subjects and by analysing the types of their responses which would be developed in such a situation. Subjects used in this experiment were twenty-eight pupils of junior high school (14 boys and 14 girls), and they were divided into two groups, that is, learning group (LG) and frustrating group (FG). Both of the groupswere encountered to the quite same learning situation (learning of the principle of correct responses by associative method) in the first experiment, and after two days the learning group was encountered to the same situation in the form in which the principle of correct response only differed from the case of the first experiment, whereas the frustrating group was encountered to the new and insoluble situation in which whatever the responses of this group were correct as the responses of learning group, they were told ‘failure’ and let to be experienced the continuous failure from the onset to the end of this experiment. The results of these experiments have shown the facts as follows: (1) The frustrating group has developed relatively more intensive persistence of the principle of the response which had been effective in the preceding problem situation than the learning group has done. (2) The persistence, however, in both groups has shown the statistically significant decreasing tendencies, while in the frustrating group the several responses which seemed to be resembled to the preceding principle of response and developed newly have not shown the notable decreasing tendency. (3) The frustrating group has developed more intensive persistence, despite the persistence to the response based on the preceding principle, to the associative principle, which namely means the simple associative reaction to a stimulus word, than the learning group has done, (4) The frustrating group has shown the statistically significant increasing tendency of resignation, in other words, resigned reaction-for example, ‘Icannot find proper and correct answer’-from the middle phase to the end phase of the experimentation. After the several discussion based on above those facts, we have the conclusions as follows: (1) The frustration functions to develop the more intensive persistence to the preceding situation, but this function does not always mean the historical regression. (2) Since the frustration has the possibility of the more intensive persistence to a few specific responses which the frustrated individuals have newly developed, then the frustration functions to make the lack of variability of response and induces the freezing of the individual responses to a few specific ones. (3) It should be reexamined by the measurement of the reaction-time whether the secondary goal would appear in the frustration process or not; this could not be made clear in this experiment, then this is the next problem to be investigated.
The relation of the apparent distance of an object to its visual angle was explored in situations somewhat similar to that reported by Ittelson (8, 9). Two objects were presented in darkness. The standard stimulus was a luminous square which moved back and forth between two points 150 and 300cm. from the observer. When the tracks, the size controlling device, were set parallel, the size of the square would be constant in spite of its motion (stimulus X). Then the near end of the tracks was narrowed and the far end widened, the size of the square would decrease rapidly as it approached the O (stimulus Y). Stimulus Y at all times subtended the same angle as stimulus X did. In addition, the size of the square could be varied continuously in the static presentation. The standard stimulus was viewed monocularly. The comparison stimulus, the King of Japanese chess-man (2.3×2.8cm.) was viewed binocularly 30° left to the standard. The O could shift it back and forth smoothly by turning a wheel. Exp. I. Radial motion situation. Stimulus X and Y were used, whose size at their extreme distance were shown in Table 1. They travelled between both extremes two times and then were turned off. The O was allowed to shift the comparison stimulus and set it at equi-distance to the apparently farthest (or nearest) point of the standard. Four trials for each point were made (Table 2). On stimulus Y, apparent direc tion of movement was in the opposite direction of physical movement. The dif ferences of apparent distance between stimulus X and Y were insignificant for both of the farthest and the nearest point. The distance-ratio of the farthest point to the nearest was 1.90 in stimulus X and was 1.75 in stimulus Y. Exp. II. Static presentation. The procedure was identical with Exp. I except the static presentation of the standard stimulus (Table 3). The results were shown in Table 4. The differences between A and D, and those between B and C were insignificant. The distance-ratio of B, C to A, D was 1.48. The apparent distance of stimuli, for both situations, was determined by their visual angle subtended, and the reduction of distance-ratio in Exp. II showed the effect of motion of the stimuli. Exp. III. The standard stimuli (Table 3) were presented in randomized order. The starting point of the comparison stimulus was at 73cm, from the O. Eight trials for each stimulus were made (Table 5). Remarkable individual differences were found, which could be classified in two types. One was characterized by the differences of distance-ratios (see Fig. 1 and Fig. 2). It would correspond with the “set” in comparison process. The other was characterized by the differences of apparent distance rather than that of ratios. The apparent distance for group II (Fig. 6) was significantly farther than group I (Fig. 5). All of the Os, who previously experienced such experiment, fell in group II. More than half of the unexperienced Os were included in group I. These differences might correspond with the effect of experience.
The experiments were designed to test the illusory effects of the various stimulus factors in Jastrow figure. Variables were as follows: (1) Radius of inside and outside circular arcs, ri, ro. (2) Opening angle of sector, 2θ. (3) Angle of cut ends of sector, θ′. (Fig. 2). (4) Curvilinearity of circular arcs. (5) Distance between two sectors, d. (6) Spatial conditions of sectors placed in vertical or horizontal directions, v, v′, h, h′ (Fig. 3). Results obtained were as follows: A. Generally: The size (area) of the outside sector was always relatively underestimated. But, in the absolute quantity, this was mainly due to the expansion of the size of the inside sector. The maximum values of relative underestimation were about 10%. B. Factors related to form: (1) The effect of the factor of the width between the concentric circular arcs, or the length of the cut ends, presented the mountain-shaped curve, and the maximum point appeared in ri/ro=3/5 (variations of condition; ri/ro=0/5-5/5). (2) The effect of the factor of the opening angle presented the mountain-shaped curve with a sharp summit, and the maximum point appeared in 2θ=40° (variations; 2θ=20°-180°). (3) The maximum effects of the factors of the angle or direction of the cut ends appeared in θ′=0° when 2θ=40°, 80°, 120°, and, in θ′=-50° when 2θ=180° (variations; θ′=0° -±90°). Here, in these angular factors, involving the opening angle, two kinds of factors are assumed; one is the general angle (g-factor) and the other the specific (s-factor). The maximum effects of g-factor are in 2θ=20°-40°, and those of s-factor are when the prolongation of the cut ends passes the common center of the concentric circles, and the former effects are stronger than the latter. The effects of the factors of the cut ends could be accounted by the manner of the composition of these two (g, s) factors, in some cases the maximum points coinciding or overlapping, and in some cases shifting (Fig. 5). (4) The existence of the circular arcs also is essential to Jastrow illusion because the effect of the curvilinearity of the sectors is about twice, in maximum value, that of the linearity of the trapezoids. C. Factors related to spatial arrangement: (5) The illusory effect of the vertical (v) condition was superior to the other conditions. (6) The amount of the relative under estimation of the outside sector decreased monotonously with the increase of the distance between the two sectors (variations; d=1-19cm). After all, the specific effects in Jastrow illusion consist of direct regulating factors such as the direction and length of the cut ends and also such as the curvilinearity of the circular arcs. However, the effects of other indirect factors such as the vertical and horizontal conditions, and the distance between sectors cannot be neglected either.