We have attempted to issue the Japanese edition of TAT, consisting of a series of 35 pictures, in the revised form of the Murray edition. The standard set includes 12 pictures selected out of this series. For the purpose of objectifying the clinical analysis-method, responses were obtained from 761 normal persons above 18 years of age, sampled at random. The standard responses, grouped according to sex and age (A, 18-24; Y, 25-34; M, 35-49; O, 50-64; S, above 65), were analysed under seven categories on the basis of a given measure. Table 1 shows the percentage of the scores the story structure, emotional tone, outcome and shift, and their statistical significance was tested in terms of chi squares, as shown in Table 2. The present study has made clear the following points. 1) The Japanese edition of TAT proved effective in obtaining data for the analysis. 2) The structure of story is not differentiated in ths S Group, paricularly in women. 3) As for the emotional tone, outcome and shift, significant differences were noticed among the age groups, particlarly between the A and S and remaining groups, which shows that the age factor cannot be ignored in establishing the measure for standard responses. The percentage of deviation from the standard responses of normal persons was grouped into three classes: (1) below 10%, (2) below 5%, (3) below 1% or none at all, on the basis of the results of the analysis under seven categories. (The detailed report on theme, hero, and human relationship will be published in Psychiatria et Neurologia Japonica, Vol. 61, No. 13, 1959). The above method was employed in the process of the analysis of the standard responses as a part of the method of clinical analysis (Nagoya University Method), and was utilized to measure the degree of deviation and to make the analysis objective.
It is our purposes in this study to differentiate the hypnotic sleep from the hypnotic trance and natural sleep and to investigate the nature of hypnotic sleep by means of the physiological indications. The hypnotic sleep is what C. L. Hull observed in one of his subjects and Barker and Burgwin found during EEG recording in hypnotic trance. This hypnotic sleep was subdivided into two states in our experiment; the hypnotic sleep I and hypnotic sleep II In the former, there is a rapport between experimenter and subject, whereas there is no rapport between them in the latter. Three students (male 1 and female 2) were employed as the subject, and induced to hypnotic sleep experimentally by giving the suggestion of sleep after the occurrences of hypnotic catalepsy and amnesia in hypnotic trance. We compared it with waking state, hypnotic trance and natural sleep by the simultaneous recordings of electroencephaloraphy (EEG), electrocardioraphy (ECG), galvanic skin response (GSR) and pattelar reflex. The introspection method, histogram method and Fourier analysis were used for the analysis of EEG, and examined their relationships each other. The results of these experiments are as follows: 1) The hypnotic trance is different from the waking state in appearence. In this state α wave-fast and β wave in EEG appear, and pulse rate increases, while pattelar reflex decreases. 2) In the hypnotic sleep I, θ and δ waves of low voltage appear, while, in hypnotic sleep II and natural sleep, θ and δ waves of high voltage and spindle waves appear. 3) In this state, the subjects responded to the instruction of experimenter, though slow waves in EEG appeared. 4) It is found that there is no transience from the slow waves of low voltage in EEG to those of high voltage, but α patterns recover rapidly with cessation of sleep suggestion. 5) The hypnotic sleep I is different from the hypnotic sleep II from the results of EEG, pulse rate, knee jerk and subject's observation. 6) It is not found that there are any significant differences between hypnotic sleep II and natural sleep from the resuls of EEG, ECG, GSR, and pattelar reflex. 7) We can conclude the following: a) The hypnotic trance is apparently different from the waking state and natural sleep. b) The hypnotic sleep which includes the factor of hypnosis and sleep between hypnotic trance and natural sleep exist. And it is the hypnotic sleep I which we insist. c) The hypnotic sleep I has a certain specific nature different from the waking state, hypnotic trance and natural sleep.
The present study was so designed as to verify the factorial validity of the “work curve” of the Uchida-Kraepelin Psychodiagnostic Test (U-K Test) chiefly comparing with Tsujioka's previous studies (3, 8). In 1952 Tsujioka factorized the work curves of this test (Tables 1 and 2, Fig. 1) by means of a sort of T-technique for the purpose of verifying Kraepelin's hypothetical work-factors such a Uebung, Gewoehnung, Ermuedung, Antrieb, and Anregung. Tsujioka's biased sampling of subjects, however, would seem not to be adequate to the experimental purpose, and it may have need of clarifying the factorial meaning of his percentization of performance scores by which he aimed at neglecting the effect of the intelligence in the scores. The sampling in the present study was cared to be unbiased, and for the raw scores the performance scores were directly used. In“Analysis I”the whole battery of 25 rows of the test was factorized by Thurstone's complete centroid method. The result (Table 4, Fig. 2) was compared with Tsujioka's (Table 2, Fig. 1). The main finding was that, in spite of difference in sampling and scoring, both centrold factor structures were similar except the first centroid factor of‘Analysis I’which seemed to be identified with the factor eliminated by Tsujioka's percentization of scores. Soma (3, 4) investigated the statistic, practical validity in the second half of this U-K Test. Its factorial validity was examined here in‘Analysis II’where the partial matrix of the second half in Table 3 was factorized into the centroid factor matrix (Table 5). The comparison of this result with that of‘Analysis I’suggests that the total variance of the first centroid factor in‘Analysis II’(Table 5, Fig. 3) includes that of the second centroid factor in“Analysis I”(Table 4, Fig. 2). Tsujioka's interpretation was based upon the centroid factors (Fig. 1). But these centroid factors would be desirable to be properly rotated. In“Analysis III”some reference-tests (Table 6) were added to the partial battery of the second half in order to make them the pilot of the rotation and interpretation of factors, though the addition of these reference-tests would cause the condition of Thurston's Experimental Dependence (6). The results were as follows: 1) Four significant factors were extracted (Table 8). 2) Rotated primary oblique factors and their intercorrelations are given in Tables 10 and 11 respectively. 3) Second-order general factor and orthogonalized primary factors are shown in Table 13, and their profiles in Fig. 4. 4) Each factor was tentatively named as Numerical ability, Mental fatigue, Volitional-tension, Excitation, and Second-order mental energy level (cf. Fig. 4). Tsujioka's percentization would have omitted the factor of numerical ability which contributes to more than 90% of variance in the common-factor-space. Table 14 shows the corresponding relations among factors of each analysis.