The problem of spatial orientation has been studied from various aspects. But the experimental study on this problem is not far advanced and the further researches are urgently called for. In this paper, the problem of orientation was studied from three aspects……visual perception, kinesthetic movement, and memory, because the recent study of this problem shows that these aspects are of importance. Exp. I. Each of the twelve figures (Fig. 1) was presented on each trial, and the subject, (A) after memorizing the figure, or (B) looking at it, drew on the paper the figure rotated by certain degrees, 180° and 90° to the right or to the left, as well as the figure reversed from right to left (Reversed)……reflected in a mirror. Results: The time required and the errors made in the task were 180°>90°> (Reversed). More errors were made in A than B, but as for time it was vice versa. Subjects reported that it was easier in A to imagine the rotated figure than in B. The difficulty of the rotation task increased with the complexity of the configuration of the figures. In Exp. II, it was examined whether the figurality which affects the difficulty of the rotation task would have an equal effect on the tachistoscopic vision. Results: The figures were different in exposure time required to reach correct perception, but it was found that figures which were easily caught by tachistoscopic vision were not always the ones easily drawn in rotation. Exp. III. Subjects learned to go through each of the 6 mazes (Fig. 2) from the starting point to the goal. After this, they went through the course from the goal to the starting point which was shifted by rotation at certain degrees. Results: There were no statistically significant differences among the three conditions of rotation (180°, 90°, and (Reversed)) in time and errors. The difference in complexity of the mazes used had not as much influence on the difficulty of the rotation task as the differences of the figures in Exp. I had. These facts may be explained as follows: More complex mental function is required in Exp. III than in Exp. I, viz. in Exp. I, immediate perception of visual figure is important; on the other hand, in Exp. III not only visual aspect but kinestic movement and memory are important.
From the results in our first report, it is presumed that an extra-stimulus (e), which is presented preceding the two comparative stimuli (N and V), has two different inhibitory effects upon the successive comparison of brightness, in addition to the so-called assimilation-contrast effect. In this second report, further analyses were made to test the existence of these two effects of e more in detail. (Regarding procedure and condions, see the first report). The main results were as follows: 1) When e (physically equivalent to N in brightness) was presented immediately following N and the inhibitory after-effect of e upon the excitation of N was eliminated, the tendency for the negative time-error disappeared at shorter time-intervals between N and V. And, in reverse, the time-error shifted noticeably toward a positive direction, i.e., V was underestimated. But when the time-interval was made longer, underestimation of N occurred in the same way as when e was presented immediately preceding N, though its magnitude was relatively small (Exp. V, see Fig. 3). 2) According to obserbers' introsections, e was seen a little darker than N there, especially at shorter intervals. But the comparative judgement between N and V was not so difficult at shorter intervals, even if e was interpolated between them. On the other hand, the fusing proccess had advanced between images of N and e at longer intervals. And he was forced to take a strong analytical attitude to separate images of N and e, to compare N with V directly. 3) These tendencies mentioned above were still noticed, when the brightness of e was made phenomenally equivalent to that of N, to eliminate more perfectly the assimilation effect occurrable between them (Exp. VI, see Fig. 4). 4) When two light-spots, placed by side in a horizontal line, were presented twice and a spatial grouping was produced in place of a temporal grouping between the two preceding stimuli, the tendency for the negative time-error disappeared again and the error shifted slightly toward a positive direction at shorter time-intervals. However, at longer time-intervals the error shifted toward a negative direction. Moreover, the image of the first stimulus-figure had become vague rather rapidly in spite of impressiveness on its appearance (Exp. III, see Fig. 1). 5) The above-mentioned tendencies were still noticed when the brightness of the stimulus-figure in the experimental series was made phenomenally equivalent to that in the control series (where a light-spot was presented twice in succession) to eliminate the central tendency occurrable between these two series (Exp. IV, see Fig. 2). 6) In addition, it was verified that the shift of time-error toward a negative direction seen at longer intervals by presenting e befor N, was never due to that e, in place of N, was compared with V, or that the level of N was assimilated to that of e (Exp. I, II). From these results in the first report and the second one, it is concluded that the after-effect of e which inhibits the perceptual excitation of N certainly exists; but that underestimation of N seen at longer intervals throughout these experiments is rather commonly caused by the inhibitory effect, perhaps similiar to the Kohler-Restorff effect, which has progressed in the field of memory trace with the passage of time.
If various visual phenomena are interpreted in terms of the field of the figure in visual perception, such phenomena as figural after-effects and simultaneous illusions can be considered in a unified manner to be based on the interaction of the changes of the field evoked by the presen tation and removal of two different figures. Attempts were made in this study to analyse the temporal factors concerned with such phenomena. It was experimentally investigated how changes in the field of the figure would reveal in terms of the displacement effect as the time elapsed after the presentation or removal of figures. A measurement was taken on the process of gradual change in the mode of appearance of displacement effect which was evoked along with the development of the field after the presentation of figures in the situation of simultaneous illusions. Changes in the displacement effect were studied in several cases of different relative relations between the field forces of two figures. Next, in the situation of figural after-effects, the quantity of the after-effects was measured at various parts around the figure. The result indicates that the maximum point of the quantity of after-effects in the so-called distance-paradox phenomena was determined not only by the relative size and position of the inspection and the test figure but also by the factor of lapse after the removal of the inspection figure. This fact will furnish a specific view concerning the problem of comparison of the maximum point in the magnitude of the displacement in the situations of both figural after-effects and simultaneous illusions which had been discussed in the past. In addition, as one of the factors related to these phenomena, the effect of changes in the field accompanying the changes of stimulation quantity on displacement phenomena was measured. Finally, the theoretical values calculated by Yokose's formula were compared with the observed values obtained in our experiments and each tendency was found grossy to correspond.
The effects of ECS and ES (stimulating on the grids-floor) on the sexual cycle of mature rats have been studied. Estrus cycles were observed by the vaginal smear method and were employed as a measure of behavioral and endocrine activity. The main results of Exp. I and II are as follows: (1) The length of the estrus cycle in normal rats averaged 101.6±17.8 hours in Exp. I, and 96.0±1.0 hours in Exp. II. For rats of both experiments, daily stimulation started when the smear was on the first day of the fourth estrus period. (2) In Table 1 are shown the averag es of the normal cycle, the first cycle and the succeeding cycles after starting the shock treatments. The averages of all estrus cycles administered by a series of ECS treatments were significantly related to the number of administrations given (p<0.01). Their effects were cumulative, that is, when numbers of ECS treatments increased, delay in resumption of normal sexual cycle increased. (3) In Exp. II the results indicate no significant effects of number of ES treatments on estrus cycles, but ES treatments significantly postponed the cycle in all groups (Table 2). Responses to ES treatments were divided into three types; startle response (S-R) violent running response (V-R), and tonic clonic convulsion (T-C) (Table 3). (4) These results indicate that ECS or ES affected the length of the estrus cycle and the effect was shown as a function of the number of administrations in Exp. I and, in part at least, in Exp. II. It may be suggested that these findings might depend on the changes in hormone level which suggests confirmation of relationship between the behavior disturbance and physiologic-endocrine level. Since the behavioral effects of ECS occur under functional stimulation of pituitary adreno-cortical mechanism as suggested by Rosvold and others (3, 11, 17) and the writer (15, 16), the present results may be interpreted by assuming some pituitary gonadtropic mechanism relating to their behavioral effects. In conclusion, the results of the present investigation, along with previous works, support the hypothesis that some physiologic endocrine mechanism may be associated with behavioral disturbances produced, whatever the stress may be.