心理学研究
Online ISSN : 1884-1082
Print ISSN : 0021-5236
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32 巻 , 2 号
選択された号の論文の7件中1~7を表示しています
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  • 村田 孝次
    32 巻 (1961 - 1962) 2 号 p. 63-75
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this study, speech in sentence-form of the early developmental stage is analysed to clarify its structure and the interpersonal-instrumental functions. “Sentence” is defined as a word-chain which is organized by some syntactical rules in a given language (here in Japanese). Speech samples analysed had been recorded by tape-recorder and transcribed through its reproduction. Situations and accompanying behaviors to speech were also recorded. Situation were rather natural; a child (oneyear girl K) was in a room and given many toys and picture-books, and free conversations were allowed. Observations and recordings were made once a week, 30min. a day, and the tape-materials are 1090 in all, of which 520 are word-chains (the imitated utterances have been eliminated).
    Procedures and results are as follows:
    1) Every word-chain is classified according to the number of words contained, and we find following developmental features: number of words in a word-chain increases as her age in months increases, and 2-word-chains appear in the first half of her one-year old, and 3-word-chain in the second half.
    2) In the Japanese language, all the word-chains can be regarded as some combinations of content (independent) word [A] and function word (clitics) [B], or content words only, and identifications of words with these two fundamental word-classes were not so difficult even in speeches of early childhood. Next, every word-chain is classified according to the pattern composed of A and B. The group of 2-word-chains is divided into AA and AB. As a result, AAs are found to develop earlier than ABs. But toward the last period of one-year stage, the frequencies of AB and AA become nearly equal. By the same procedure, all the 3-word-chains are divided into AAA, AAB, ABB, and ABA, of which AAA and ABA are dominant in frequency. AAA develops earlier than ABA, but at last the latter exceeds the former. As ABA is one of the essential sentence-types and frequently used in the Japanese speech, even a child below 2 years of age may be able to learn this type of utterance.
    3) According to the definition already given, sentence are only a part of a body of word-chains. A uniqueness of the Japanese speech may be grammatical functions of B in sentence, and Bs are grammatically categorized according to these functions into following two: a) those of combining words logically [BL]; b) those of appealing to the hearer or of expressing the speaker's sentiment [BA]. BA appears earlier than BL in the developmental stage. Althouth BL plays more important functions in the developmental formation of verbal behavior, BA furnishes “plain logical-linguistic utterance” with interpersonal-humanistic “tone” which is essential in everyday conversation. In our data, BA is dominant in AB-type sentences, whereas BL is dominant in ABA-type sentences. In general, 2-word-sentences increase at the middle stage, and 3-word-sentences at the last.
    4) AA-type and ABA-type sentence utterances above all are considered as fundamental forms of the specific instrumental or motivation-reducing behaviors. Such an instrumental function may be classified in reference to the concrete situation where the utterance appeared. In both AA and. ABA-type sentences, number of types of the specific instrumental functions is positively correlated with C. A. in months.
    These features of speech development: may be partly explained by the mechanism of concept learning. However, conceptlearning processes work in two levels; one in the syntactical level, the other in the instrumental level.
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  • 田中 敏隆
    32 巻 (1961 - 1962) 2 号 p. 76-83
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    In the previous studies (11, 12, 13, 14, 15) the author investigated, by the same time choice method, the development of the comparison of similarity of figures. On the other hand there are a recognition method for developmental study on the comparison of similarity of figures. The purpose of the present investigation is to try more advanced analyses of the developmental characteristics of the figure recognition from a study through the recognition method with the same figures as the previous paper (13).
    The four sets (two sets for each experiment) of figures used in the present experiments were the same as in the previous experiment. Each set consisted of the standard figure and elective figures. In the first place the standard figure was presented to subject for ten seconds and then was removed. In the second place the elective figures were presented. The subject was asked to select from among them the one which has the greatest similarity to the standard. In the experiment I the number of subjects, from kindergarten children to adults was 646 and in the experiment II, 615.
    Results with kindergarten children:
    a. The choice of the figures accord ing to form was dominant.
    b. The tendency to pay attention chiefly to the upper part of the figure was found in some degree.
    c. The reversal figures were chosen preferentially.
    d. The semi-reversal figures and the “elementary” figures which consisted of the same elements as the standard butt with different arrangements were much less chosen.
    The above-mentioned kindergarten results were the same ones as previous paper.
    Results with adults:
    In the recognition method of the present investigation figures chosen as similar by adults were determined much more by the action of recognition manner of reorganization than by the same choice method of the previous investigation.
    The developmental stages were found about at the third grade (the ages of 8-9) and the sixth (the ages of 11-12) in primary school and the second grade (the age of 13-14) in lower secondary school. The developmental stage came one year later than the previous study. The developmental processes from about the secondthird grades in primary school to the firstsecond grades in secondary school were found to make less changes than the previous paper.
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  • 岩下 豊彦
    32 巻 (1961 - 1962) 2 号 p. 84-96
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this study, the attempt was made to set up the 19 theoretical hypothesis which construct the mechanisms of one's feelings toward others and of the perception of others' feelings toward the self, and to inspect experimentally a part of these hypothesis.
    There are two basic intentions in this study. The first: for the use of the concept of feeling, the investigators have emphasised upon the kinds and the strength of its experiences, and have scarcely considered about why certain stimuli brings pleasure or displeasure into person. And the writter's purpose was to explore the mechanism of occurrences of the pleasure or displeasure feeling toward persons and things, and of the perception of the feeling which was directed by others. The second: at the experimental situation of small group, the stimulus value of feeling which the speaker oriented toward others will be inferred from the communicator's overt behavior and the pro-and-con of the communicattee. However, the emotional stimuli depends upon the conditions of listener, and therefore, in the above method one can not sufficiently understand and control it. And this brings about a difficulty to observe what one perceives other's feeling to change through discussion. While the writer tried to grope for the possibility that control and operate the stimulus value of feeling, and set up the hypothesis according this purpose.
    Leading contents of hypothesis were following. (The constitutional or phsiological factors in the personality were laid out of the cosideration in these hypothesis.)
    A) One has each ideal state of feeling which one is fond of experiencing, that is so-called preference.
    B) Through the past experiences, one perceives the feeling value of objects, and the feeling value of many objects make up the feeling tone of ones own psychological circumstance. This is thought as the feeling tone of personality.
    C) One has the positive or negative feeling of self-image, and this feeling tone controls one's ideal of feeling which one persues.
    D) If one's feeling tone of self-image were positive one would have the same feeling tone of preference as that of one's personality, and if the feeling tone of selfimage were negative, one would have the ideal of feeling which opposed to the feeling tone of one's personality.
    E) When the feeling value of the object agrees with the ideal of feeling, one has positive feeling toward it's object. And when these are not in accordance with each other, one has negative feeling toward it's object.
    F) When other persons manifest nothing without their preference to the object, one perceives their feeling tone of personality with this cue. He perceives that others have the same interrelation of the ideal of feeling and the feeling value of the object as he himself has.
    G) After one succeeds to perceive the feeling tone of other's personality, he has positive or negative feeling toward the other on the basis of the mechanism which was described above.
    H) When one succeeds to perceive the feeling tone of preference of others and he tells them his preferences, he can guess the feeling which is directed toward him by others.
    I) One identifies the other who is perceived having the same ideal of feeling as his, and for example, there are three pesons A, B, C in the same face-to-face situation, A guesses that B's positive or negative feeling toward C who was directed of the positive or negative feeling by A is the same as A's.
    A part of basic theme that is described above is confirmed experimentally. The result proved to be reliable sattistically and supported these hypothesis.
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  • 高橋 茂雄
    32 巻 (1961 - 1962) 2 号 p. 97-101
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 松野 豊
    32 巻 (1961 - 1962) 2 号 p. 102-114
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 32 巻 (1961 - 1962) 2 号 p. 115-120
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 32 巻 (1961 - 1962) 2 号 p. 129
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
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