心理学研究
Online ISSN : 1884-1082
Print ISSN : 0021-5236
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32 巻 , 6 号
選択された号の論文の8件中1~8を表示しています
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  • 隈江 月晴
    32 巻 (1961 - 1962) 6 号 p. 347-352
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    Needless to say, usual methods for the measurement of meaning such as question-naires or paper and pencil tests necessarily limit the age of subjects, and therefore, previous studies in this field were mostly concerned with intellectually normal or superior school-children. Recently, however, the author tried to determine the preschool-children's interpretations of indeterminate number words (quantitative words) with an operational method for the measurement of meaning. In this study feeble-minded children were tested with this method. This method differs from usual ones in that it operationally determines the meaning of indeterminate number words through action. It only requires each subject to take out “many” or “a few” etc. of beads from a container and put them in a tray. Because of this simple procedure it was expected that this could be applicable to feebleminded children. Stimulus words selected for this study were “hijoo-ni ooi”, “ooi”, “ooku mo sukunaku mo nai”, “sukunai” and “hijoo-ni sukunai”. Here “hijoo-ni” means “very”, “ooi” means “many” and “sukunai” means “a few”.
    The main findings are summarized as follows:
    1) Feeble-minded children can be classified into three groups according to their scores for “hijoo-ni ooi” and “ooi”. In group A children the scores of “hijoo-ni ooi” and “ooi” were 76.38 and 78.63 respectively when background number was 100. The difference between two scores is not significant. For groups B and C the meaning of “hijoo-ni ooi” is equal to that of “all”. These two groups, however, differed in that group B children regarded the meaning of “ooi” as about 63, whereas group C children regarded the meaning of this word as equivalent to that of “hijoo-ni ooi”.
    2) It was suggested from the comparison with normal subjects that the language of the feeble-minded could not necessarily be characterized as the retardation of the development.
    3) Feeble-minded children seem to understand three words correctly as “ooku mo sukunaku mo nai”>“sukunai”>“hijooni sukunai”. However, they do not necessarily seem to understand the meaning of five words of this experiment as “hijoo-ni ooi”>“ooi”>“ooku mo sukunaku mo nai”>“sukunai”>“hijoo-ni sukunai”.
    4) The expectation that the development of indeterminate number concept may have a close relationship with that of determinate number concept in the feebleminded were not supported.
    5) Lastly mention was made of the reliability of this method when applied to the feeble-minded.
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  • 吉田 正昭, 森山 美那子, 玉井 ちづ子
    32 巻 (1961 - 1962) 6 号 p. 353-366
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    It is said that the Japanese are weak toward authority, and the authors feel it is necessary to analyze the structure of the attitude toward authority among Japanese. The main purpose of this paper is an analysis of the Japanese attitude toward authority.
    1) Thirty items (jobs or positions) were selected for rating. These items were: Judge of the Supreme Court, lawer, university professor, editorial writer of a big newspaper, radio news commentator, chief engineer for constuction of a dam, the president of the medical association, the Foreign Minister, Member of Parliament, the chairman of the General Council of Trade Unions, revolutionist, the president of the Bank of Japan, director of a large company, the best rice cultivator in Japan, principal of a primary school, president of the society for the child welfare, social worker, minister, president of Soka-Gakkai (a society of a new religion), the Emperor, literary critic, music conductor, kabuki actor, movie actor, masterhand of Go or chess, designer, Miss Universe, head master of tea ceremony, a grand champion of Sumo wrestling, and a baseball pitcher of fame.
    2) These items were rated on twenty-two traits or attributes by the contant sum method. These traits were: length of training or experience, thinking ability, constant effort, educational background, popularity, critical ability toward the current issues, good writing and fluent speech, administrative ability, social status, standing by the weak, popularity among high society, number of subordinates, sensitivity, physical strength, good looks, idealism, international reputation, financial status, good tradition, superhuman attractiveness, pedigree, and athletic skill. Raters were about one hundred and twenty female university students.
    3) The results of the rating for the social status are as follows: The president of the Bank of Japan is ranked the highest, and the president of the medical association, judge of the Supreme Court, the Emperor, the Foreign Minister, university professor and director of big company, follows in this order. These ranks seem to coincide with the current social hierarchy. Those who have strong social powers seem to be ranked high and those who criticize them low. Intellectual abilities (e.g., ability of reasoning, critical ability and educational background) are ranked higher than family standing, prestige by tradition or physical ability (see Table 1).
    4) Intercorrelations of the twenty-two traits were computed and analyzed by Thurstone's centroid solution, and the following factors were found. (I) High education and social status vs. physical ability, constant efforts, popularity, and superhuman attractiveness. (II) Idealism vs. popularity among high society. (III) Term of training or experience, constant effort and physical strength vs. administrative ability. (IV) Good looks vs. popularity. Percentage of the factor variance (I) is approximately 50 (see Table 4 and Fig. 1).
    5) Thirteen items selected from the thirty items, mentioned above were rated and analyzed by Torgerson's multi-dimensional scaling method. Raters were eighty female university students, fifty factory workers, a few nurses, business girls, and house wives. The results show that these items can be arranged on a two dimensional space with x and y axes. Those who have high ranks along the x axis are Foreign Minister, university professor, editorial writer and the Emperor, and those who have low ranks are movie actor, head-master of tea ceremony and a grand champion of Sumo. This may imply that the x axis shows the degree of social influences or the amount of authority. The higher the social status and educational backgrounds are, the higher the prestige. The prestige based on sensual or physical traits are ranked low. Critical attitude toward the current social hierarchy has not gained high prestige among Japanese. The implication of the y axis is not clear, but it may
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  • 高野 清純
    32 巻 (1961 - 1962) 6 号 p. 367-380
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses advanced in our previous studies, which had been developed in order to be applicable to the effect of the experience of success on the succeeding child behavior in general.
    Method: The appratus and main procedure were described in detail in a previous report. One major variable manipulated in this experiment was the number of pre-experience trials-6, 12, and 18 trials were used, and each of the pre-experience trial groups was combined factorially with three percentages of success, 33, 50, and 67%, and regularity of the sequence of the successful response. In addition, one 0% and three 100% success groups, differentiating for the number of pre-experience trials, were also used as the control groups. So the experiment was designed to consist of 22 groups. Each of these 22 groups contained 6 boys and girls of second year class of elementary school as the subjects. A S was given as a reward one toffee on each success trial, and the last play of pre-experience situation was always a success play. Following the last pre-experience play, non-successful situation began and no S was rewarded again although he was permitted to play as long as he desired. One response measure was the number of plays in the nonsuccessful situation, and another measure was S′s expectation scores.
    Results: A transformation of the number of responses in the nonsuccessful situation to common logarithms resulted in a satisfactory normalization, and an analysis of variance was performed on these log. scores. The main results of this analysis showed essentially that the number of pre-experience trials, the percentage of success, and the pattern of sequence had all significant effects upon the mean number of plays in nonsuccessful situation. That is; the smaller number of pre-experience trials, the smaller percentages of success (excepting 0% group), and the irregular sequence resulted in greater number of plays in non-successful situation. There were also significant interactions among these three variables.
    The results related to the expectation indicated that: a) Expectation scores increased differentially during the pre-experience as a direct function of the percentage of success. b) Expectation scores decreased differentially during non-successful situation as an inverse function of the percentage of success. c) There was no clear-cut statistical evidence that the number of pre-experience trials or the patterns of sequence and their interaction had any effect upon expectation.
    Discussion: It was appeared that the results of the present experiment could warrant our theory which was able to explain the effects of success on the children's bar-pressing behavior in the non-successful situation. In the theoretical formula, however, it was supposed that AE/NS1 and D should be revised in ΣAE/NS1 and De′ representing a expectation by discrimination between the pre-experience and non-successful situation, respectively. Therefore, we can state this as a general formula as follows, BNbar=f{(Ebar & GEAE/Nbar)-De′} This theoretical formula may explain and anticipate effect of success on child behavior.
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  • 水島 恵一
    32 巻 (1961 - 1962) 6 号 p. 381-387
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    Seventy Inmates were studied at a reformatory in the United States where an intensive psychotherapy program was carried out. Those who have had professional group therapy or individual therapy (N=22) were compared with those who have had only non-professional treatment (N=32, counseling by officers or teachers) and those who have had no particular treatment except for occupational training (N=16). As a result, it was found that 1) psychotherapy helped the development of feeling of emotional change and maturity (Table 1), that 2) it helped the decrease of violation of rules in reformatory (Table 2), and that 3) such effects were more frequently observed with those whose delinquency was regarded as more influenced by emotional disorder (unsocialized aggressive pattern plus mixed pattern) than those whose delinquency was regarded as more influenced by sub-cultural acculturation (socialized delinquents). This difference in effects seemed to be more pronounced in the feeling of change and maturity than in the decrease of actual violation (Table 3, 4). Therefore it seems to be inadequate to conclude that psychotherapy solves the emotional problems of individuals without solving the problems of sub-cultural acculturation and identification. As far as the institutional adjustment is concerned, we should rather hypothesize that the difficulty to deal with socialized delinquents and their sub-cultural acculturation is in the process of ordinary type of psychotherapy itself.
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  • 田中 敏隆
    32 巻 (1961 - 1962) 6 号 p. 388-394
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    The present study is the third report of the developmental study on the comparison of similarity of figures by a recognition method. The purpose of the present study where the same figures (composed of the same elements, different in direction) as used in the simultaneous method in the previous paper (7) were used, is to compare between the results of both simultaneous choice and recognition methods and to try a further analysis of the developmental characteristics in the comparison of similarity of figures.
    Procedure and Subjects: The standard figures were presented upright along the north-south-direction of coordinate system and the elective figures presented were rotated at angles of 45°(NE), 90°(E), 135°(SE), 180°(S), 225°(SW), and 315°(NW). Four sets of figures used in the present study were the same as in the previous study. Each set consisted of the standard figure and seven elective figures. The standard figure was first presented to S for ten seconds and then removed. It was immediately followed by the elective figures. S was asked to select from the latter the figure which had the greatest similarity to the former. Ss amounted to the total of 632, ranging from kindergarten children to adults.
    Results:
    1) Results with the kindergarten children on the comparison of similariy of figures as to the direction showed that reversal figures (figures rotated at an angle of 180°(S) on the system of coordinate) were chosen preferably and the preference for figures of the other directions was undifferentiated. These results were similar to those in the previous paper, showing that the preference of the reversal figures was rather emphasized in the recognition method of the present study than in the simultaneous choice method of the previous study.
    2) Results with the adults on the recognition of similarity indicated that the elective figures which had a minimal apparent difference from the standard figures were dominantly chosen, the reversal figures coming in the second rank, and the residual figures in the other direction being far less chosen. These results were again similar to those in the previous paper, showing even a stronger preference in the recognition method for the figures which had the minimal apparent difference from the standard figure.
    3) The transitory period of shifting to the adult characteristics in the recognition of similarity in direction was observed at the first (the ages of 6-7) or the second grade (the ages of 7-8) in the primary school and the recognition of adult type was found to begin around the third grade.
    This recognition of adult type came one year later than that in the simultaneous choice method.
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  • 大橋 正夫
    32 巻 (1961 - 1962) 6 号 p. 395-404
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    We have concerned ourselves with the relationship among three relations (Rs) contained in the triad: p′s attitude toward q (R1), p′s attitude toward o (R2) and q′s attitude toward o as perceived by p (R3). Up to now a constant discrepancy has repeatedly been found between our results and the prediction derived from Heider's theory of balance. We are then to inquire into the matter more deeply. The purpose of the present study is thus to examine if any difference in methods of collecting and analyzing data may affect the results.
    In the preceding investigations subjects reported their cognition about q′s attitude toward o in terms of [+], [0], and [-]. The sign of R3 thus obtained was set against those of R1 and R2. Instead, in the present study, each subject was given sets of three stimulus-signs as though they represented three Rs in the triad composed of o, q and p (himself). Some of the stimulus-signs were made to represent rightly the “objective sign”, the real attitude of one person toward another, but the others were not. The subject was asked to correct wrong stimulus-signs presented, if any, according to his awareness, to constitute the “subjective configurations”. In addition he rated the degree of appreciatedd pleasantness of each configuration on a five-point-scale. Some 200 sixth graders served as subjects. The major findings are as follows:
    1. The subjective configurations are categorized into twenty-seven types by the permutation of three signs contained. In the types where all three signs were coincident the observed frequencies were significantly larger, while in the types where all three signs were different the observed frequencies were smaller than the theoretical ones. In the types where only two signs were coincident, the observed frequencies were either larger or smaller than the theoretical ones, depending on whether the sign of R2 coincided with that of R3 or not. This is completely compatible with our previous results, but not with Heider's theory in several respects. Then we may conclude that the difference in the procedures we employed has no virtual effects upon the results.
    2. The objective sign was often subjectively changed but not uniformly. In R3 the change occured more frequently than in R1 and R2. When the objective configuration was in an imbalanced state the change was easier than when it was in a balanced state, especially in R3. And in R1 and R2 the change was easier for the objective sign [-] than for [+]. We may thus conclude that the locomotion from an imbalanced to a balanced state is achieved through the path of R3, through mainly cognition rather than action.
    3. The degree of pleasantness of the configurations as rated by the subjects corresponded roughly to the states of the configurations: the balanced configurations tended to be rated as more pleasant than the imbalanced ones. Another factor, however, seems to be rather important in determining the pleasantness: the subjective sign [+] in any Rs serves to make the rating more positive and the sign [-] more negative, irrespective of the states of the configurations.
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  • 小見山 栄一
    32 巻 (1961 - 1962) 6 号 p. 405-413
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 32 巻 (1961 - 1962) 6 号 p. 414-417
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
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