The purpose of this study was to investigate the shape of distribution of Nonverbal Reasoning Factor for LIS Measurement Scale for Non-verbal Reasoning Factor for the subjects belonging to the standard population. The standard population consisted of 2nd-and 3rd-school-year boys and girls of junior high schools in satellite cities of Tokyo. According to F. M. Lord's theory of test scores, by means of which the present data were analysed, it was assumed that the distribution of the ability under consideration should be normal in the standard population, and this assumption proved to be admitted because of the goodness of fit of the theoretical frequency for each test score, s, which was led by the assumption of normal distribution of the Factor, c, to the observed test score frequency of 883 examinees from the standard population (see Fig. 1). However, the slight systematic discrepancy between the theoretical and observed frequencies of test score suggested some skewness of distribution of the Factor, c. In the previous study entitled “The Absolue Scale Construction on the Basis of Raw Scores of the Suzuki-Binet Intelligence Test”, it was discovered that the mental ability required in solving the problems of the Suzuki-Binet Intelligence Test distributed almost normally, but slightly skewed to the left for each age group of children (see Fig. 2). It is interesting to know whether this skewed shape is also found out in the distribution of Non-verbal Reasoning Factor, since our intention to construct LIS Measurement Scale was to measure one of the core abilities in intelligence. The distribution of the Factor for each academic year group was estimated independently, from the observed frequencies of test score, s, and it was discovered that the two distributions did not coincide with each other (see Fig. 3). The estimation was accomplished by iterative solution until the value of the probability for each ability score was stabilized (see Table 1). As the result almost the same shape as was found out in the distribution of the mental ability required in solving the Suzuki-Binet items was discovered both in the distribution of the Factor for each academic year group and in the one for the combined group (see Fig. 5 and 6). The mean scale value and the stnadardd deviation of the Factor for each examinee group were estimated, and it was found out that the values of the standard deviation were almost the same for the two groups, and the interval between the mean scale values was about 0.4 S.D.'s (see Table 3). The bi-variate frequency distribution of ability and test score, together with the marginal frequency distribution of test score, was obtained separately for each academic year group and the new theoretical frequency of subjects acquiring each test score, was compared with the observed frequency (see Table 4, Fig. 7, 8 and 9). In conclusion, the discovery of the distribution in LIS Non-verbal Reasoning Factor similar to the one in the mental ability required in solving Suzuki-Binet items suggests the validity of this shape of distribution in certain mental abilities for each age group, and this will deserve further research.
The studies of spoken language have so far been made mostly for the pre-school period. As for the language development in the school period, written compositions in stead of utterances have commonly been used as the data for an analysis. There is, however, a considerable difference between the structures of spoken and written forms in Japanese language, so the investigation of the structural development of the former should be extended for school children. The present study was aimed at a contribution to this area. A qualitative rather than quantitative approach was attempted chiefly to analyze the patterns of sentences frequently spoken among school children. Procedure: For the above purpose 30-40 consecutive remarks were recorded for preschool children, 4 years of age and school children in every other grade from 1 to 9. As for the data of adults, the journal, “Gengo-seikatsu”, was referred to. They are all utterances in the usual free talking situations (Su). To compare with these data, the utterances in a few serious situations (Ss) were collected, for example, those in studying or meeting situations in their classrooms, and the written sentences were also chosen from 10 elementary school readers. In this study the elements of sentences were defined as follows: 1) Each block, “Bunsetsu” (Bst), in a sentence was taken as the unit of measuring the length of the sentence, as shown in the following examples: (1) Hana-ga saki-mashi-ta. (2-Bst sentence) [The flower opened.] (2) Sonna mono-wa nai. (3-Bsts sentence) [There is not such a thing.] (3) Ame-ga fu-tta-ra, yuki-mase-n. (3-Bst sentence) [If it rains, I won't go.] 2) Each Bst has a particular role as a component of the sentence. According to its role, it is designated as B, A, t, y, d, a, A, t or y. These 9 designations mean respectively as follows (each approximate correspondence in English language being given in the parenthesis): B: Jutsugo-Bst (a predicate), A: Shugo-Bst (a subject), t: Rentaishushoku-Est (an adjective), y: Renyo ship shouu-Bst (an adverb), d: Dokuritsugo-Bst (an interjection, etc, ), a: Bst A in a dependent clause only, A, t, y: Bsts A, t, y respectively in an independent clause, while all Bst B in a dependent clause. Thus are substituted for a sentence. A sequence of these marks when adopted to the above-mentioned sentences, (1), (2), (3), they are as follows: (1)→AB, (2)→tAB, (3)→ayB. The first two are simple sentences, and third is complex. Sentence patterns can be classified in terms of such sequences of marks. B Bsts were further analysed in detail. Results: 1. The length of sentences in spoken language in Su is usually short (Table 1). Even in the case of adults, the mean length of sentences is 3.42 Bsts. And 2-Bst sentences are most frequent at all sage levels. 2. The ratio of complex sentences to the total gradually increases with the age. It is 9.17 in the 4 year children while 25.06 in the adults. 3. The patterns of frequently spoken sentences determined by the component arrangement are shown in Table 4 (simple sentences) and Table 5 (complex sentences). In these tables both and t Bsts were excluded, for they seldom modify B Bst. The order of sentence patterns is set from the 1st to the 3rd in terms of frequency of them. If the number of simple sentences is counted in eash order cumulatively, including the sentences of d Bst only and those of A Bst only, there are 5058, 5473 and 5566 sentences respectively. Their percentages of the total 5597 simple sentences are 90.42%, 97.78% and 99.45%, respectively (Table 4). Complex sentences were analyzed in the same way as shown in Table 5. 4. And if these 20 simple and 23 complex sentence patterns are assumed as fundamental, 92% of all 6820 spoken sentences (Table 6) and 68% of all written sentences (Table 7) are to be included within these 43