Our previous expriments showed that, when 72 words of similar structure and familiarity were each presented by tachistoscope, emotional stimuli given 5sec. prior to the presentation affected the word recognition. Now, in order to explore the above results more explicitly, it was first tested whether emotional stimuli will differentially affect word recognition or the results are attributed to the differeces in receptor organs, secondly whether chlorpromazine (a kind of tranquilizers) will repress the effect of emotion on word recognition. The following results were obtained: 1) Difference in receptor organs did not affect word recongnition. Thus our previous results showed clearly that the differential emotions affect word recognition. 2) Use of chlorpromazine repressed significantly the effect of emotion on word recognition. The obtained facts that emotional stimuli are effective on verbal response are not in accordance with Eriksen's theory on multiple concurrent response model. Besides, his theory does not seem to explain perceptual defense and sensitization phenomena. Thus, following Lazarus, we may assume that “subception” is a function of the autonomic system.
This study was undertaken to clarify what kind of effect the degree of figural generalization of a theorem had upon thinking process in geometrical problem-solving. For the purpose of simplifying the experimental conditions, we took up only one theorem-the two basal angles of an isosceles triangle are equal to each other. The Ss were first grade students of junior high school who had not yet learned geometry. For prior learning two steps of generalization of the theorem were set up by means of change in the shape and in the direction of an isosceles triangle in Exps. I and III, and in Exp. II four generalising steps were adopted in regard to two other isosceles triangles than one used in Exp. I. After prior learning, two experimental problems were used for this study. The Ss used in Exp. I were 16 girls who were divided into two groups homogeneous in terms of intelligence of T-Scores, those in Exp. II were 36 boys who were divided four homogeneous groups, and those in Exp. III were 160 students consisting of halves, highly and poorly scored in mathematics, who were divided into four homogeneous groups respectively. Especially in Exp. III the analysis of variance of three factors: geneneralization, ability and orientation, was attempted. The results were as follows: 1) Generally the group who learned by higher-ordered generalization solved the problems more easily than the other groups. The nearer to the problem-figures the figures learned for generalization were, the easier their solving was (Exps. I, II). 2) The group who had prior learning in terms of lower generalization tended to make imperfect solutions and irrelevant responses and to be bothered by the problem-sentences (Exps. I, II). 3) Some of the Ss who learned in terms of the lowest generalization could succeed in solving these problems. Their intelligence of T-Scores was not, however, the highest in every case, although above the average in general. When the difference between the highly and the poorly scored Ss was great, the latter could not surpass the former, even if they had previously learned in terms of higher generalization than the others (Exps. I, II, III).
The present experiment was designed to study the fundamental processes of during conditioning, extinction, and reconditioning in a semicircular maze. The maze had a spacious semicircular field and eight equal goalboxes. The floor was divided into 26 sections in order to count the number of traversings. After exploration and pretraining, eighteen rats were given twenty successive free-choice trials per day for seven days. Every choice was rewarded. The following two days constituted an extinction period of sixty trials per day. The next two days were a reconditioning period, when reward was reintroduced into all goalboxes. A reextinction period was followed on next day. Two groups of measures were used. The first group of measures was related to behavior variability and consisted of four different measures. These were a distribution of the choices on eight goalboxes, a standard deviation of the choices, the ratio of the sum of spatial goal differences between two successive trials to the sum based on the chance expectancy, and the ratio to the chance expectancy corrected by the rat's actual choices. These measures were observed for each rat for each of twenty trials. The second group of measures consisted of running time, the number of sections traversed, the number of pushing (but not entering) the door of the goalboxes, and the number of jumpings to the wall of the maze. It was found that, 1) During the conditioning period, the the last two measures of behavior variability were higher than the chance expectancy and the same level continued for seven days. The tendency to avoid response repetition was shown in a form of gradient in terms of spatial distance between goalboxes. The second group of measures (running time etc.) decreased with the progress of conditioning. 2) During the two-day extinction period, the behavior variability decreased to the chance level. The running time, the number of traversings and the number of pushings abruptly increased on the 6th to the 10th trials, and then latter two scores decreased to the initital level. The jumping response increased at the later period of extinction. These results may indicate that extinction is not merely a cumulative process of inhibition, but a more active process for all its phases. 3) During the reconditioning period, the behavior variability decreased below chance and the running response was remarkably facilitated. Several posibilities in explaining this phenomenon were mentioned.