Artists and scientists have long been concerned with color “harmony” In this study 39 binary combinations of colors were analyzed by the SD (Semantic Differential) method in an effort to deternine whether there might not be other affective values in color combinations. In this experiment 39 color pairs, each color area being equal (2cm×2cm), were selected according to degree of color difference as measured by the color scale of Japan Color Research Institute and mounted on white sheets 6cm×10cm. In the experimental design, of the three attributes of color (hue, value and chroma), only one attribute was used as a variable and other two were kept constant. Subjects, reactions to these pairs were rated on 20 kinds of scales with 9-degree bipolar scale method which were derived from the free association response in the previous study. The subjects of this experiment were 30 (15 men and 15 women). The values for 20 scales on each pair were calculated and factor analysis done. The major findings of this study may be summarized as follows: (1) Four factors of affective value in color pairs were noted in percentages as indicated: pleasure (43%), brightness (21%), strength (19%), and warmth (8%). This suggests that pleasure is the dominant factor in paired colors. Of these four factors, warmth is peculiar to color; that is, it does not appear in other SD studies but one which concerned with color of buildings. The first three may correspond to the factors of evaluation, activity and potency which were discussed by Osgood & others. (2) The correlation coefficients between the ‘harmonious-inharmonious’ scale and the scales which had high weights of pleasure were constantly high. But correlation coefficients of the scales highly weighted with other factors were generally low. (3) It was found that the values on several scales increased or decreased as color difference between 2 component colors increased. The influence of difference in lightness on the change of affective values was stronger than that in hue or chroma. As hue-difference increased, the values of “melted, static, dull, vague, sober, weak” feelings decreased and those of “separated, dynamic, sharp, distinct, gay, strong” feelings increased. When lightness-difference increased, “unclear, light, melted, static, dull, vague, soft, weak” feelings decreased and “harmonious, smart, likable, pleasant, refined, beautiful, clear, sharp, distinct, hard, strong” feelings increased. And only “melted, vague” feelings decreased and “distinct, hard” feelings increased as chroma-difference increased. With respect to ‘harmonious-inharmonious’, the values of the present study do not always agree with the color harmony theory of Moon & Spencer. The warmth of color pairs seems to be defined by the mean value of the warmth of the 2 components. (4) Women tended to have the keen harmonious feeling rather than men in perceiving color combinations.
In the previous report, we left the problem how the perception of a figure has effect on the thinking process in geometrical problem solving. The present study was undertaken for the purpose of clarifying this problem by three kind of experiments. Method. Exp. I was planned to determine whether the drawing of assistance-line itself was related to the fundamental tendency of perception in geometrical problem solving. Exp. II was undertaken to clarify the factors which disturbed the finding of a specific figure (isosceles triangle) in the given geometrical figures. Exp. III, to study for the effects which the changes of the direction of geometrical figures or those of the length, size of their sides gave on the thinking process. The Ss were 101V grade children of elementary school in Exp. I, 252 III, IV garde children in Ex. II, 120I grade students of junior high school who were divided into 8 homogeneous groups in Exp. III. Results. (1) In some cases, drawing of assistance-line perpendicularly was easier than drawing of it horizontaly, and in other cases, drawing of it from left-up to right-down was easier than drawing of it from right-up to left-down. But there were no such tendencies mentioned above in the case of horizontal kite-quadrilateral (Exp. I). (2) There were difficulties of finding isosceles triangle in some geometrical figures, but not in others. Generally the Ss felt more difficulty of finding two isosceles triangles which were disposed unsymmetrically up and down, than symmetrically, right and left (Exp. II). (3) Generally, the changes of the direction of geometrical figures or those of the length, size of their sides gave pretty effects on the thinking process. They sometimes accelerated the recall of the referential theorem which was necessary for the solving, or inhibited it. In the case of inhibition they accerelated the recall of the other theorems (Exp. III). (1) The difficulty of geometrical problem solving seemed not to be determined only by the difficulty of drawing the very assistance-line, or of finding the very figure as sub-goal, but chiefly by the degrees of sub-goal's being concealed by the problem-sentence and its figure-construction (Exp. I, II, III).
There are a number of theories concerning taste factors. Some identify only four factors, i.e., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty. Others assume more factors like freshness of acidulous spring, pungent taste of alcohol, astringency (shibumi) like tannin, or delicious taste (umami) of glutamic acid, etc. The purpose of the present study is to examine to what extent these taste factors are independent. 1) Kato and others (cited in reference 2) measured absolute threshold and discrimination capacities of 10 veteran tasters for alcohol, succrose, succinic acid, cafeine, and salt. We have calculated the intercorrelations among these scores. The correlation matrix was factored by the centroid method. It is clear from Table 3 that three factors are enough to explain these five tastes. Fig. 1 indicates that alcohol has a very peculiar component, and the other four, though they are quite different from each other, have a common factor. We call it tentatively a “general tastability” factor. 2) By the same method as in (1), threshold and discrimination capacities of 10 tasters for hydrochloric acid, succinic acid, and lactic acid were analyzed. The result shown in Fig. 2 indicates that lactic acid has a somewhat distinct component besides its sourness. 3) By the Torgerson-Indow's multi-dimensional scaling, similarities among eleven substances, whose concentrations were 23 times above their threshold values, were analyzed. Those substances were sweet (succrose, glucose, cyclohexyl sulfate), bitter (cafein, quinine sulfate), sour (tartaric acid, citric acid, succinic acid), salty (sodium chloride), umami (mono sodium glutaminate), and shibumi (alum pottasium). -Exp. III- The results may well be represented by Henning's taste tetrahedron. (see Fig. 3), but the characteristics of shibumi and umami were not very clear, and vectors of these substances lie out-side of Henning's tetrahedron. Succinic acid at this concentration level is a completely sour substance, and similarity with glutaminate was not noted. 4) By the same method as in (3), we examined the change of similarity pattern shown by pyramidal framework of four fundamental tastes and the remaining two, when their concentrations were increased to threshold×24. The results of both Exp. IV and Exp. V were similar to that of Exp. III (see Fig. 5 and 6). 5) Throughout Exp. III-V, the reliability of numerical judgments concerning taste similarity, by naïve subjects, ranged around 0.6-0.8 (see Table 4 and 8). These values were higher than those of odor similarity judgments reported in reference 7.