The purpose of this report is to study the conditions which induce congruency or inconruency between social preference and its perception, and to clarify the psychological meanings of congruent or incongruent responses as well as the influence of social preference or its perception upon the interpersonal cgnitive structure, by analyzing the cgnitive interaction processes in the interpersonal attitudes. The main results are as follows: 1) The incongruent responses (responses which show inconruency between social preference and its perception) are not idiosyncratic responses, but important psychological responses which contain a rule. This rule is clearly shown by analyzing the cgnitive interaction processes in the interpersonal attitudes. 2) The congruent responses are more apt to occur under the conditions of mutuality (similarity of feelings between the members of dyad) than under the conditions of non-mutuality. The incongruent responses are more apt to occur under the conditions of non-mutuality than under the conditions of mutuality. 3) A factor which determins the similarity or dissimilarity of feelings between the members of a dyad and the cgnitive interaction processes in the interpersonal attitudes is the sociometric status of the guesser in the group. 4) The frequency of the congruent choice is the highest when the guesser of high sociometric status is chosen by the guessee. The frequency of the incongruent choice, on the other hand, is the highest when the guesser of low sociometric status is not chosen by the guessee. 5) The frequency of the congruent rejection is the highest when the guesser of low sociometric status is rejected by the guessee. The frequency of the incongruent rejection, on the other is the highest when the guesser of high sociometric status is not rejected by the guesses. 6) The psychological meanings of the social preference classified as the positive or the negative feeling are related to the status of the guesser. The positive feeling that a person of higher status holds toward another person is more “introjective” one, in comparison with more “projective” one that a person of lower status holds. The reverse holds when the feeling is negative, i.e., a person of higher status tends to hold more “projective” negative feeling, whereas one whose status is lower, more “introjective” negative feeling. 7) The degree of influence of social preference or its perception upon the interpersonal cgnitive structure is dissimilar among-individuals.
The present study was planned on the basis of the exprimental results of the comparison of similarity of figures which change indirection and arrangement of elements in the previous paper (4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 10, 11). The purpose of the present study is an inquiry into the development of figure-recognition by proving the results of the comparison of similarity of figures through the analysis of the developmental curve of exact perception in the experimental situation of figure-identification and also of errors made in it. Two sets of figures used in the present experiment consits of the correct figure added to the figures used in the previous experiments (6, 9). Each set consists of a standard figure and seven elective figures. In the choice method, the subject was asked to select out of the latter the one which is the same as the former. In the recognition method, the former was first presented to the subject for ten second, and after its removal the latter was then presented. The subject was asked to select from the latter the one which is the same as the former. The number of subjects ranging in age from 3-4 to 13-14 years was 1276. The results were as follows: (1) In the developmental curve of exact perception in experimental situation of figure-identification, the critical period shifting to the adult level was found at about 8-9 years, and nearly 100% exactness was achieved at about 13-14 years. These ages coincide with those of operational level at the first and third stages in comparison of similarity of figures. (2) By analyzing the errors, we found whole-framework perception done in groups of children, 5-6 and 4-5 years of age, whereas simple-framework-perception done in a group of 3-4 year-old children. We can then say that children step from simple-framework-perception into whole-framework-perception of figures around the period of 4-5 years.