This experiment was designed to investigate the effects of chromatic and achromatic colors on the stimulus value of Rorschach inkblots. Ss were two groups of college students. Each group consisted of 34male and 17 female students. Method. The Rorschach inkblots were projected on a screen one by one from slides in standard series, and Ss were asked to rate each stimulus card on the 21-item semantic differentials in 2min period. Exp. I. The chromatic Rorschach inkblots (C series) were presented to one group. Exp. II. The achromatic Rorschach inkblots (A series) were presented to the other group. Results. 1) There was a marked change in the stimulus value of cards VIII and IX according to the presence or the absence of color. 2) Disagreement of stimulus value of colored cards between C and A series was significantly greater than that of non-colored cards between Exp. I and Exp. II. 3) The influence of color on the colored cards (II, III, VIII, IX, X) produced various changes in direction and intensity of evaluative, potent, and active factors. 4) In A series, there was a tendency that “disliked” cards were rated as potent and active than “liked” or “neutral” cards were. But this tendency was not seen in C series. 5) The selection of “father card” had some relation to achromatic copies of the colored cards, but that of “mother card” had no relation to the color of the colored cards. 6) The colored cards (in C series) were found by Ss to be pleasing and were responded in positive terms. This result suggested that color did not cause color shock. 7) According to the results of factor-analytic study of inter-card correlation of stimulus values, chromatic cards VIII and IX differed in their stimulus characteristics from the other colored cards (II, III, X). Every non-colored card had the same stimulus value in A series as in C series. In short this experiment suggested that color played a more influential role than the results of many other studies dealing with the influence of color on Rorschach performance had shown. It was also noted that the effects of color were different among cards, which suggested that the responses to color should be treated differently for each card.
The basic principles of the present study are as follows: (1) In order to classify words of the speech of early developmental stages, the “psychological” classification is indispensable, to classify the words according to what these words mean for a child, not for the adult with his all differentiated grammatical forms. (2) As McCarthy (8) and Leopold (4) pointed out, words acquired are very unstable in the infancy and early childhood and one aspect of language development is gradual stabilization of them. Therefore, we should not regard accumulated vocabularies over some continuous periods as the total vocabulary of the last period. (3) Events which are referred to by a word, or situations in which a word is used, are far more multiple in the early childhood than in the adulthood. This tendency of generalized use of word must be taken into account when words are counted. (4) The observing situation and stimuli presented are specified and controlled at the expence of total vocabulary in entire everyday life. This was done because our main purpose was not to construct year-grade norms of the child vocabulary, but to examine the nature of development of behavioral functions of words in children's active speech behavior. (5) All of the above-mentioned principles can be realized only by the longitudinal method, which may especially be effective in the developmental study of language behavior. Main procedures and results are as follows: (1) For the purpose of clarifying the developmetal change of active vocabularies of four one-year-old children, speech samples, which were recorded by a magnetic tape recorder through one year (1;0 or 1;2-1;11), once a week, 30min a day were analysed (Table 1). (2) The observing situation and stimuli presented were controlled to find some internal mechanisms of the development of vocabulary. (3) Vocabulary growth was steady in general. But there were great individual differences in the total vocabularies of a given period and in their increments (Table 2). (4) Through the entire one-year period, forms and functions of words were unstable, and disappearances, appearances, and changes of forms or functions were frequent. But we could not find any periodical- and individual-differences as to this tendency in the percentage of its occurrence (table 2-3). (5) By the classification of words according to their behavioral functions, we found the following results: a) Action-cuesgradually decreased toward the end of one-year period; b) On the other hand, object-words, state-words and connectives increased; c) These tendencies, however, were comparatively vague in relatively retarded children (Table 4-5). (6) Adultification of word (from baby-word to adult-word) was advanced steadily in each child through the entire period. But its speed in each child appeared to be positively correlated with the growth of his vocabulary (Table 6). The study which is concerned with the functions of words of speech in early childhood, may not be attained in the quantitative-mass analysis. In this kind of study, it may be essential to single out some representative words from the samples, selection of which is based on the careful inspection of functions as well as forms of every word, and it may be also indispensable to trace their origin and developmental courses and their inter-word relationships.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the personality traits of three persons separately by means of P-technique factorization in order to examine the problem of generality and uniqueness of personality factors. One male and two female college students, considerably different from one another in the main personality characteristics, were chosen for the experiment and used as the subjects every other day for about one month. Eleven variables were obtained chiefly from objective personality measurements. The centroid method of factor analysis and the orthogonal rotations of axis were applied to each of the correlation matrices based upon the fourteen successive variations of the intra-individual scores. Four significant factors were analyzed from each of the individuals, and the results were interpreted in comparison with one another and with those results which the previous researches had obtained by means of R-technique. First we found that the variations of these three subjects in this experimental period had in general some considerable features in common with the R-technique personality factors. Factors similar to Cattell's “H” and “C” which had previously been approved as the common personality factors were found in each of them. Also a factor which had proved itself to represent the surgency of psychological speed or rhythm was found in the two female subjects. The patterns of loading in those factors which were interpreted in terms of any general factors, however, did not necessarily coincide exactly with one another. Moreover, there were factors which could not be interpreted by any of the general common factor terms and seemed to be quite peculiar to each individual. Accordingly, there were no two factors which were identical both in quality and quantity. Generally speaking, the male subject K was different considerably from others in respect to the whole pattern and also to the supposed ideational upsurgency factor, while the two female subjects, S and N, had somewhat similar patterns but were different from each other in regard to the loadings of the intellectual performance variable. A suggestion could be given as to the theoretical possibility of prediction of individual behaviors by means of the basic formula hypothesized in factor analysis. However, in order to develop this idea of personality prediction, more detailed experimental designs for P-technique factorization should be carried out. Especially, the variables used in this sort of P-analysis should be selected more from observational life-records and behavior-ratings which are really significant to the individual's daily experiences.