The purpose of this study was to make clear determinants of social empathy and characteristics of interpersonal cognitive structure, by considering the relationship between the direction of interpersonal attitudes and the social empathy as a function of the sociometric status, as well as its similarity, of the perceiver and the subject perceived. Main results are as follows: (1) The social empathy in the interpersonal attitudes is a function of the direction of interpersonal attitudes. (2) The social empathy is a function of the sociometric status of the perceiver, in the sense that high-status members are more accurate than low-status members in predicting the positive feelings they receive, while low-status members are more accurate in predicting the negative feelings they receive. (3) The social empathy is a function of the sociometric status of the subject perceived, in the sense that positive feelings of high-status members are more accurately predicted than those are of low-status members, while negative feelings are more accurately predicted when they are of low-status members. (4) The social empathy is a function of the similarity in sociometric status between the perceiver and the subject perceived, in the sense that high-status members are more accurate in predicting the positive feelings they receive from highstatus members than those they receive from low-status members, and that low-status members are more accurate in predicting the negative feeling they received from low-status members than those they receive from high-status members. (5) The social empathy is a function of the direction of the interpersonal attitudes, in the sense that high-status members exceed low-status members in the direction of the positive attitude, while low-status members exceed high-status members in the direction of the negative attitude. (6) The directional dynamics of the interpersonal cognitive structure vary according to differences in the sociometric status of guesser or guessee. That is to say, the interpersonal cognitive structure toward, or, of the high-status members holds more positive directional dynamics on the one hand, and that toward, or, of the low-status members holds more negative directional dynamics on the other. (7) These directional dynamics in the interpersonal cognitive structure toward guessee or of guesser determine the social empathy in the interpersonal attitudes. These are formed in the course of the differentiation of members status through interpersonal contacts.
Traditional methods of factor analysis like diagonal, centroid, principal-factor, and multiple-group method could be formulated in a single matrix form as L. Guttman suggested in Psychometrika, 1944. Let W1 be an n×l-matrix and D1 be an l×l-diagonal matrix whose diagonal elements are equal to those of (W1′R0W1), where R0 is an n×n-reduced correlation matrix of test scores with communalities in the diagonal. l is assumed to be less than or equal to the rank of R0. If (W1′R0W1) is non-singular, then B1=(R0W1D1-1/2), and A1=(R0W1D1-1/2)(D-1/2W1′R0W1D1-1/2)-1 are the first l columns of a factor structure matrix B and of the corresponding pattern matrix A, respectively. When a residual correlation matrix, R1=R0-B1A1′, is not null, we can deduce matrices B2 and A2 further by applying to R1 a new weight matrix W2 such that |W2′R1W2|≠0, If R2=R1-B2A2′ is not null again, we can continue the same procedure until the t th residual correlation matrix Rt becomes null. Once Rt=0 is obtained, the whole structure matrix and the pattern matrix before rotation are expressed, respectively, in a super-matrix form: B=[B1B2……Bk……Bt], and A=[A1A2……Ak……At]. The elemelnts of weight matrix of different factor analytic methods are summarized in the following table: W and different factor analyses
TAT has two defects: one is the difficulty of using it in groups and the other is the limitation of the materials which makes it difficult to select proper ones case by case. In order to eliminate those two defects just mentioned above, this Scenario-Test is devised and its method is to use words, instead of pictures, as the materials to stimulate fantasies of subjects. Scenario-Test in this report is mainly for mental hygiene of university students and has five themes: (1) Relationship of a subject with his parents (required characters: Person A and A's parents), (2) relationship with his associates (required characters: Person A and one of his associates), (3) relationship with the opposite sex (required characters: Person A, a male and Person B, a female), (4) relationship with his superiors (required characters: Person A and his superior), (5) afflictions and self-image (required characters: a Person with affliction). This report consists of two parts. The first is the results of comparison between the data of this test and other ones including TAT, SCT and the Inquiry of life history, as fundamental data. The second part is the summarized report of this test taken by ordinary university students. (1) 98 students of some nurses' training school taken up as materials were devided into two groups. A group of them consisted of 50 members, and took this test, TAT with 10 original cards chosen according to the same way as that in a Osaka University, and the Inquiry of life history. 48 members belonging to B group took this test, SCT and the Inquiry of life history. The result indicates that Scenario-Test is more similar to TAT than to SCT and that it has a high possibility to project the considerably deep image of the subjects. (2) The papers of Scenario-Test taken by 1062 Osaka University freshmen who entered the university in 1960 were collected at the comparatively high rate of 91.2%. From those, 272 male students who showed less rejections in the test were arbitrarily picked up as the subject of study to determine the standard of interpretation. These materials, classified into each story, were devided into items such as length of the sentences, construction of the stories, setting up of the heroes, theme of the stories, and mode of the characters' personal interrelationship, with the explanation of characteristics on each item.