心理学研究
Online ISSN : 1884-1082
Print ISSN : 0021-5236
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37 巻 , 3 号
選択された号の論文の7件中1~7を表示しています
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  • 北野 栄正
    37 巻 (1966 - 1967) 3 号 p. 125-133
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this experiment was o study the influence upon the memory race of such frameworks of social relationship as Attraction-Repulsion and Domnance-Subordination which cause certain ocial interaction.
    The subjects of the experiment were junior high school students, who were divided into the experimental group and the control group. The experimental group was subdivided into four: (1) a star and four mutually attracted students (Attraction Group); (2) a student rejected and four rejectors (Repulsion Group); (3) a student of the highest rank and four others (Dominance Group); (4) a student of the lowest rank and four others (Subordination Group).
    The interpretation sentences of TAT Card were used as the material which the subjects were asked to memorize. The star of the Attraction Group, the student rejected of the Repulsion Group, the student of the highest rank in the Dominance Group, and the one of the lowest rank in the Subordination Group presented the material orally to the other four members of each group, who were asked to memorize the meterial, and to recall and recognize it after 10 minutes, after 1 day, after 3 days and after 9 days.
    The results of the experiment were as follows:
    (1) In terms of the percentage of recall the Dominance Group performed the best, the Attraction Group the second, the Subordination Group the third, and the Repulsion Group the worst.
    (2) In all groups, the percentage of recognition was higher than the percentage of recall. In terms of the percentage of recognition the rank of the four groups was the same as in (1).
    (3) In order to make sure that the above difference in memory trace was due to that of the membership of each group, the experiment was repeated with the membership of each group interchanged. The result showed that there was a certain systematic difference in memory trace among four groups, i.e; both in recall and recognition percentages, the Dominance Group ranked the highest, the Attraction group the next, the Subordination Group the third, and the Repulsion Group the lowest.
    From these observations, it is claimed that the framework of social relationship exerts great influences upon the memory trace as the factor of social interaction.
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  • 藤田 統, 石原 静子
    37 巻 (1966 - 1967) 3 号 p. 134-142
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    Previous studies have shown an induction phenomenon, i.e. a considerable decrement in behavior variability and facilitation of a running response, of the rat when reinforcement was presented after or between nonreinforced trials in the semi-circular maze. The purpose of the present experiment was to determine the amount of induction found when the reinforced test trials in the semi-circular maze were given immediately after an extinction which was conducted in the runway or the jumping apparatus.
    Forty-eight hungry white rats were equally devised into two groups (Group R and J). After exploration and pretraining, Ss in the former group were given 10 reinforced trials per day in the straight runway apparatus, and, one hr. later, they were also given 20 reinforced trials per day in the semi-circular maze. Ss in the latter group were similarly treated except that they received the trials in the jumping apparatus followed by the semi-circular maze. The same procedure continued for 4 days. On the following day, half of the Ss in each group were given 50 extinction trials in the straight runway (Group R-E) or in the jumping apparatus (Group J-E), respectively, and then, immediately after that, they were run 20 reinforced test trials in the semi-circular maze. The other half of the Ss in each group did not receive the extinction trials; they were given the reinforced test trials in the semi-circular maze without extinction either in the runway (Group R-C) or in the jumping apparatus (Group J-C). These test sessions repeated for 3 days. On the following day, all Ss were given 60 extinction trials in the semi-circular maze, and immediately afterward 20 reinforced test trials were given in the same maze.
    The results obtained during the test trials in the semi-circular maze were:
    (1) When compared with the non-extinction groups (Group R-C and J-C), induction, i.e. the decrement of behavior variability (in three measures) and facilitation of running response, were found in the two extinction groups (Group R-E and J-E) in which their responses were extinguished only in the apparatus other than the semi-circular maze. The analysis of variance of the data showed that extinction produced significant differences in three behavior variability measures in Group R and Group J, and in the running time in the Group R.
    (2) When these data, however, were compared with those of the previous study in which almost the same number of nonreinforced trials were given in the semi-circular maze, significantly less amount of induction was found in the present experiment.
    (3) A significant interaction between amount of induction and maze difference (runway or jumping apparatus) was found. That is, more induction was obtained after extinction in the straight runway than in the jumping apparatus.
    (4) The extinction in the same semi-circular maze produced significantly more induction than those obtained after extinction in the other two mazes. Results in (2), (3) and (4) showed that the greater the similarity of the test to the extinction situation, the greater the induction.
    From the above results, induction seems to be closely dependent upon some internal state produced by the nonreinforcement whether nonreinforcement was administered in the same maze or not. Secondly, amount of induction was also related to the similarity between the test and the extinction situation.
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  • 増山 英太郎
    37 巻 (1966 - 1967) 3 号 p. 143-148
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    In order to determine the open-loop transfer function was attempted an experiment in which a human subject was asked to match a follower to a target with an effort to nullify the error. As a target were used random waves composing of six different sinusoidal waves (ranging from 0.160 to 1.563cps).
    The results were analyzed at 0.1 second intervals for 25 seconds, and four different measures (y, x1, x2, and x3) were observed (Fig. 2), and cross-correlograms were obtained between y and each of x's (Fig. 3). Manipulated variable y may be expressed by the following multiple regression equation:
    y=b1x1+b2x2+b3x3
    which is identical to
    y(t)=b1∫(x2-L1)dt+b2(x2-L2)+b3d(x2-L3)/dt
    By Laplace transformation,
    y(s)={b1e-L1s/s+b2e-L2s+b3se-L3s}x(s)
    Thus we have the following transfer function;
    H(s)=b1e-L1s/s+b2e-L2s+b3se-L3s
    When we assume the identical dead time for x's, then the obtained transfer function was
    H(s)=0.1057(1/0.9756s+1+0.1422s)e-0.6s
    and the multiple correlation coefficient R was 0.5963 between y and x's.
    On the other hand, when we assume different dead times for x's, the transfer function was rather complex;
    H(s)=e-0.3s/9.070s+0.005327e-0.6s+0.03553se-0.8s
    However, the multiple correlation was 0.6640 which was slightly greater than the R (0.5963) obtained above.
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  • 松井 洋子, 芳賀 純
    37 巻 (1966 - 1967) 3 号 p. 149-154
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 宗宮 保
    37 巻 (1966 - 1967) 3 号 p. 154-156
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 杉原 一昭, 河井 芳文
    37 巻 (1966 - 1967) 3 号 p. 157-169
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 37 巻 (1966 - 1967) 3 号 p. 170-172
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
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