The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of self-esteem and self-evaluation of own performance upon the attraction to other person who had evaluated subject's performance. Regarding to the effect of self-esteem we assume that (1) one projects his selfesteem level when he recognizes other person's appraisal toward him, and that (2) the recognition of how other person estimates determines the attraction to other person. Regarding to the effect of self-evaluation of own performance, we assume that (3) one recognizes other person's evaluation to minimize the discrepancy between one's and other's evaluation, that (4) the less discrepancy between self and other's evaluation is, the more one is attracted to the other, and that (5) when other's evaluation of one's performance is above the one's self-evaluation, he is attracted to the other. From the above stated assumptions, experimental hypotheses were derived. And partial correlation coefficients of variables were evaluated to examine hypotheses in the following three experiments: (1) The experiment to interact directly with a senior stranger. (2) The experiment to interact indirectly with a senior stranger. (3) The experiment to interact indirectly with the peer. Regarding to the effect of self-esteem the assumption (1) was verified, but the assumption (2) was not sufficiently verified. As for the effects of self-evaluation of own performance, the assumption (3), (4) and (5) were verified in the experiment (1) and (3), but these assumptions were not sufficiently verified in the experiment (2).
Purpose: This study aimed at clarifying the relationship between rigidity and adjustment as well as the qualitative and quantitative aspects of rigidity in persons with normal intelligence. Main problems we studied were: 1) It is said that organisms with some organic or functional handicap in cerebrum have in general rigidity. Dose it apply to persons with normal intelligence? 2) It is said that the longer are persons in social isolation, the more increases rigidity. Is this true? 3) It is said that the more intensive stress have persons, the more increases rigidity. Is the rigidity caused by these various conditions the same or not? Subjects: 80 persons were used as Ss, 20 for each of 4 groups; cerebral palsy, polio, amputations, and normal groups. All the Ss had normal intelligence, were not feebleminded, and lived in groups. Their age ranged from 16 to 35. Method: 1) Dot configuration test……the similar method to Werner's. 2) Concept formation test……the same method as Zaslow used. 3) Water jar test…The test material was revised by adding an extinction question to the one used by Cowen. 4) Rorschach test 5) Personality rigidity inventory Results: 1) Physically handicapped groups with motor functional defect showed more rigidity than the normal. Though there were individual differences, three groups of c. p., polio, amputation had each some what different rigidity. 2) For persons with organic defect in cerebrum, even if there was no handicap in intelligence, abnormal perseveration responses in perception were seen and their personality, as a whole had rigidity and, in particular, intensive constriction and perseveration. 3) Persons with long social isolation due to motor functional handicap since childhood had some perseveration in perception. But their signs of rigidity were found in such conditions as they had difilculty to shift their mental set and to adjust themselves to others' emotional need, and as they showed repressive tendency more intensively than the other groups. 4) Persons who were handicapped comparatively recently showed rather intense invariability in conceptformation and their personality had strong emotional nervousnesss, conflict and anxiety. So their rigidity was seen in their conventional attitude of not easily bein friendly to others. To them influence of stress was stronger than that of isolation. 5) Wefound that abnormal perseveration responses in perception were basically caused by cerebral defect. The rigidity on other levels, however, seemed to be not general but specific to each kind of deficiency. 6) As to the rigidity of normal persons with normal intelligence, further studies are necessary on both qualitative and quantitative aspects of rigidity and on the relationship between rigidity and adjustment as well as rigidity and personality.
A series of experiments were designed to test the hypothesis, postulated in our former report, on conditions necessary for the instantaneous judging of the number of objects. In this study, particularly spatial arrangements of objects were examined. Stimulus cards; Ninety-one cards of different figural patterns were used. Some of them contained outline circles of 1cm in diameter and others vertical lines of 1cm in length as stimulus objects. They were arranged in a horizontal row, but varied in number (from 1 to 10) and in amount of interval. Subjects & procedure; For each of 6 experiments, from 7 to 10 adults were subjected to the tachistoscopic presenta tion of the cards to measure the time value of cognition threshold. Purpose of each experiment; I. To test the effect of the distance between two stimulus objects. (Exp. I) II. To test the effect of two-subdividing arrangements of objlcts at a constant range, within which they were arranged. (See Fig. 2-1) (Exp. II) III. To test the effect of the amount of interval when the stimulus objects were arranged homogeneously (i.e., equidistantly). (Exp. III) IV. To test the effects of subdivisional arrangements such as follws; i) When the stimulus objects were articulated into two subgroups, the one of which contained the same number of objects as the other or one more than the other. (Exp. IV) ii) When they were articulated into three subgroups, each of which contained two or three objects. (Exp. V) iii) When they were articulated into subgroups, each of which contained two or less objects. (Exp. VI) Results; The results obtained are shown in Fig. 1, 2-2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. From these results, following conditions were found to be favourable for the instantaneous judging of the number of objects. 1. The objects are to be not too close to each other, but to be spaced out appropriately. 2. The objects are to be articulated into some sub-groups, rather than to be arranged equidistantly. 3. Each of those sub-groups is to contain two or less objects. 4. The number of those sub-groups is to be three or less. Discussion; So far as the instantaneous judging of the number of objects by normal adults are concerned and if the number of objects is six or less, all above mentioned conditions derived from this study can be satisfied simultaneously regardless of their arrangements, i.e., whether or not they are divided into some sub-groups or placed homogeneously. If the number exceed six, however, all these conditions cannot be always satisfied simultaneously even if the stimulus objects were divided into sub-groups. Therefore, this may be a reason why the number “six” has long been accepted as the socalled “range of attention”.