The aim of our experiment was to determine whether context effects in the psychophysical judgments are produced by perceptual factors or by semantic ones. For this purpose we compared the functions of two different response languages. One, the response languages representing semantic factors are generally regarded as possessing the following three characteristics: a) they are related to a specific situation, b) they are novel and arbitrary linguistic conventions used exclusively within a laboratory, and c) they have a restricted number of response categories. Consequently, the category scales are to be considered as typical semantic languages. The other, the languages representing perceptual factors lack any of the abovementioned three chracteristics. The physical languages such as “cm” “gm” satisfy these requirements. The task of the subject was to judge the length of white lines projected on a screen. A common “tracer” stimulus recurred in all phases of the experiment: in one phase the tracer stimulus interspersed among longer lines, and in another, among shorter lines. One group of Ss was told to make judgment by the “cm” scale, the other by an E-defined category scale. The effects of the shifts in the context on judgments of the common “tracer” Stimulus 7 (13.7cm) were examined. For the L (low) phase, the stimuli ranged from Stimulus 1 (4.0cm) to Stimulus 7. For the H (high) phase, the ranges was from Stimulus 7 to Stimulus 13 (23.6cm). In Exp. I, L-H-L and H-L-H groups were run for each combination of the “cm” scale and the 9-category scale. Transition phases (Phase 2 and Phase 4) interposed between the L and H phases and between the H and L phases. In Exp. II, only the “tracer” stimulus of the phases preceding a context shift was judged by the “cm” scale for the purpose of investigating the strengthened perceptual factors, In Exp. III, in order to investigate the strengthened semantic factors, the transition phase was omitted, and the 7-category scale was used instead of 9-category scale. Results. Exp. I. The overall pattern of the context shift effect was quite similar between both kinds of the response languages. The degree of context effects decreased with frequent repetition of the context shifts, Refer to Fig. 1, Fig, 2 and Table 1. From a standpoint that these converging patterns were representative of semantic factors, the “cm” scale can be regarded as having assumed the function of a category scale. Exp, II. Refer to Fig. 3. Excepting the initial trial, the context effect resembled the phase in Exp. I. Exp. III. Refer to Fig. 4. The context effects of the Phase 1 and the Phase 2 are respectively similar to those of the Phase 3 and the Phase 5 in Exp. I. The abovementioned results show that stress should be laid on the semantic factors when we study context effects of visual length judgments. We cannot conclude directly, however, that the semantic factors produce context effects. On the contrary, our study indicates that it is not appropriate to regard naively the “cm” scale as representative of perceptual factors and category scales as semantic ones.
The present experiment is a developmental study on interactions of estimated time, space and velocity. Psychological relativity in perception of time and space is well-known as tau-effect and kappa-effect. Although the effects are dynamic, static stimuli are usually used in these investigations. In the field of motion perception there are several investigations concerning interaction of time, space and velocity and most of the research failed in verifying the existence of tau- and kappa-effect. There are two methods in dealing with known and unknown qualities (Table 1). We adopted the Method I as it is simpler. Possible results in the case of Method I are shown in Table 2. Developmental investigation may make the interacting effects more clear, as young children may estimate time, space and velocity more interdependently than adults. The types and the number of subjects are in Table 4. The standard stimulus, a light patch, moves from right to left on the right side of the screen, in accordance with the conditions shown in Table 3. The reproduction stimulus, another light patch, appears on the left side of the screen when the exposure time of the standard stimulus is estimated. Subjects are requested to push the key when perceived exposure time of the reproduction stimulus equals to that of the standard. Two light patches used for reproduction of the spatial distance are presented one second after the standard stimulus disappeared. Subjects are requested to adjust the reproduction stimulus to the spatial distance of the stimulus. The subjective velocity is measured by adjusting the reproduction stimulus to the phenomenal velocity of the standard (see Fig. 1 and 2). Results are as follows: 1. There is a tendency especially for male subjects to underestimate the constant physical time (2 sec), as velocity and spatial distance become larger (see Fig. 3 and Table 5). 2. Female subjects in E2 group overestimate the constant spatial distance (8cm), as exposure time becomes shorter and velocity becomes larger, but female subjects in U group show different tendency (see Fig. 4 and Table 6). 3. All groups underestimate the constant physical velocity (4cm/sec) as time and spatial distance become larger (see Fig. 5 and Table 7). 4. Most of the subjects who show such relations as tau- and kappa-effect between time and space estimation belong to U group. But inverse relation is rather strong in E2 group.
In order to determine certain personality traits and their developmental changes as psychological factors that are supposed to prescribe academic achievement of pupils and students, a comparative study of over- and under- achievers who have some discrepancies between their intelligence and achievement was carried out by questionnaire method. The subjects were 2, 628 achievers of both kinds from primary school to college levels, and their academic records of Japanese, arithmetic and English and 27 personality traits selected from “Behavior Record” in schools and by some standards of mental health were chosen. Then, correlations between them were obtained. As the results, 12 significant academic traits as personality characteristics that indicate positive correlation for the overachievers were extracted. As personality-adjustment-patterns, they were classified into three categories as follows. 1. Individual-adjustment-pattern: eight traits such as 1 Basic life habits, 2 Independence, 3 Feeling of responsibility, 4 Endurance, 5 Introspection, 6 Improvement, 12 Positiveness, and (5) Self-control were included in this pattern, and they occupy about 70% of all academic traits. 2. Social-adjustment-pattern: two traits of 8 Leadership and (2) School adjustment were included in this. 3. Emotional-adjustment-pattern: two traits of 5 Sense of self-importance and (8) Inferiority complex were included in this. These academic traits were also classified into four developmental patterns: “Decending pattern” with its specific character of gradual decline after primary school to college like the 3 Feeling of responsibility, “Plateau pattern” with its specific character at its middle stage like the 4 Endurance, “Depression pattern” with a opposite trend of the former, and “High initial pattern” with its specific character in lower school stages i.e. from primary school to middle school.