The present experiment is designed to systematically examine interactions of time, space and velocity in estimation at the field of motion perception. In this paper, the author will report only the results of velocity estimation. The procedure is as follows: The standard stimulus, a light patch, moves from right to left on the right side of the screen, in accordance with the conditions shown in Table 1. One second after the standard stimulus disappears, the reproduction stimulus, another light patch, appears on the left side of the screen. The subjective velocity is measured by adjusting the reproduction stimulus to the phenomenal velocity of the standard stimulus by the method of reproduction. As you see in Table 2, there are four experimental sessions corresponding to four standard velocities, each of which contains five conditions of the standard stimuli. The orders among four sessions and among five conditions in each session are both at random for each subject. Each subject is assigned single trial for each conditions of the standard stimulus. Subjects are 16 1st grade children, 16 4th grade children and 16 university students. A half of subjects in each group is female and the other half is male. Results are as follows: 1. In all groups constant standard velocity, 1.8, 3.2, 5.8, or 10.5cm/sec, is significantly overestimated, as exposure time and spatial distance of standard stimulus become smaller. This tendency is stronger in female than in male (see Fig. 1 and Tables 3 and 4). 2. For each sex, four lines by ratios of reproduced velocities to standard velocities for the four standard velocities drawnearly one curved line, when exposure times of standard stimuli are set in abscissa (see Fig. 2). These findings are tentatively explained neurophysiologically. On the one hand, it is known that when certain receptor is stimulated continuously sensory adaptation occurs and frequency of neuronal discharge declines. On the other hand, it has been reported that in comparative primitive vertebrates such as frogs, rabbits and pigeons, some ganglion cells in retina respond only to a moving stimulus with certain direction and that in such cells in the frog retina the relation between neuronal discharge rate and the angular velocity of the moving stimulus is expressed as an increasing monotonic function. These facts suggest that in pursuit eye movement a moving stimulus of the certain physical velocity with long exposure time raises sensory adaptation of certain directionally sensitive cells in retina more strongly and frequency of neuronal discharge in the cells decreases more strongly and then perceived velocity becomes smaller than in the case of a moving stimulus of the same physical velocity but with short exposure time. But in primates or other higher mammals no cells that are specifically sensitive to movement have been found in retina and lateral geniculate nucleus. Such cells have, however, been found in visual cortex of a cat. Therefore, neurophysiological explain for our results may be not so simple as the above. But it does, at least, seem probable that effects of time (and space) on velocity estimation are caused more neurophysiologically than effects on time or space estimation.
The present study aimed at investigating the difference in retroactive inhibition between meaningful and rote learning. Ss, who were university students, were required to learn a series of 3 lists of paired-associates. S-term of each pair was a word and R-term was a NS or a combination of 2 or 3 NSs with English connectives (see Table 1). According to the kind of list, Ss were classified into 3 groups: M-M gr., Ss of which could learn both the second and third lists meaningfully, M-R gr., who could learn the second meaningfully but not the third, and R-R gr., who could learn neither of them meaningfully (Table 4). Ss learned Lists 1, 2 and 3 successively. After that, they were required to relearn List 2 and List 3. In each test session, which was given after the learning of one list, Ss were given a test of the list learned immediately before and tests of the other lists learned previously (Table 3). Performance of Ss at the test immediately after the original learning (List 2 or 3) and that of after the interference learning (List 3 or 2, respectively) were compared, in order to clarify the effect of retroactive inhibition. The results were as follows: 1) When the original learning had been meaningful, the effect of retroactive inhibition was very small (Table 6 & 7). The mean reduction ratio in number of complete correct response was only 5.2%. In case of rote learning, however, the effect was much larger, i.e., mean reduction ratio was 53.6% (Table 9). 2) Meaningfulness in interference learning was irrelevant to the size of the effect of retroactive inhibition (also Table 6-9). These results suggested that meaningful learning, compared with rote learning, can achieve more stable knowledge which is less vulnerable to interference learning.
An attempt was made to investigate the organization of social remembering and the transformation of memory traces through social attitudes. Ten subjects are observed: five were radical and five were conservative. Ten statements are used for the remembering materials, including five radical and five conservative statements concering capitalists and workers. The experiment was run individually. The subject was asked to underline those statements with which he agreed, and next day twenty-five minutes were allowed to memorize the ten statements. The recollection of the materials was tested twenty minutes, one, two, four and eight days later. The results are as follows: (1) The differences in the recollection ratio between the two groups are small and the radical group shows a higher ratio of recollection of the radical statements, and the conservative group, of the conservative ones; that is, the statements suited to the social attitude of the subjects are recalled in a higher ratio and those unsuited are more apt to be forgotten. This may be explained in terms of the organization of the Ego-system in the process of social remembering. (2) This reasoning may be further confirmed by the following observation: the recollection ratio of the statements the subjects support are very high, and increase gradually with the passage of time. This fact may be attributed to the organization of the Ego-system in social remembering. (3) When the transformation of memory traces is viewed from the points of simplification, rationalization, substitution and omission of the words, substitution is found most frequently in both groups for the statements endorsed by the subjects, followed by omission, simplification and rationalization in this order. On the other hand, the transformation by the simplification of words is most often for the statements not endorsed, followed by rationalization, omission and substitution.
The purpose of this study is to examine these hypothesis: forward CS will acquire negative drive properties, and backward CS positive reinforcing properties in conditioning by the noxious stimulus. The experiments were designed with twofold intention. The first was a supplementary examination to Barlow's result and to make clear the contradictory of many past studies. The second was to indicate that the hypothesis on the backward CS could be proved with more stable form by using instrumental conditioning method. In Exp. I, Ss were conditioned by inescapable procedure, in Exp. II, Ss were conditioned by procedure shifting from inescapable to escapable training and in Exp. III, by instrumental procedure as in general avoidance experiment. These secondary properties were tested in the new learning situation in Exp. I and the extinctive situation in Exp. II and III. Experiment I: 313 rats were divided into four groups: Forward Group (5-sec. signal immediately followed by 10-sec. shock), Backward Group (10-sec. shock immediately followed by 5-sec. signal), US only Group (10-sec. shock only). and CS only Group (5-sec. signal only). Each group was divided into four (1, 5, 15 and 30) trial groups. An electric light stimulus served as the conditioned stimulus and electric shock as the unconditioned stimulus (5 trials a day) 22-24 hours after training (stimulus presentation in pairs) each group was further divided into two subgroups and tested. On the test stage, the bar was inserted in the same situation. CS occured for half of the Ss for, however, long the Ss pressed the bar (CS-on). For the other half of the Ss, CS illumination was presented when the Ss was put into the apparatus. For these Ss down the bar terminated the CS (CS-off). This bar press duration was measured for 12min after the first response. Results: For the Backward Group, 1 trial group proved the hypothesis (t=2.621, df=17, p<0.05), 15 trial group showed the tendency, 30 trial group was neutral and 5 trial group negative. (See Fig. 2) Experiment II: 60 rats were divided into three groups: Forward Group, Backward Group and Control Group (US only). On the training stage, as soon as US was presented, the bar inserted, and the bar press response terminated US. CS fixed 5-sec duration and unless the bar press response occured US terminated 10-sec duration (5 trials a day). This resulted in the Ss pressing the bar more than four trials within 5-sec from US on set for two consecutive days. They were tested in 22-24 hours after achieving it. The test stage was similar to Exp. I. This bar press duration was measured for 15min after being introduced into the apparatus. Results: The difference between two subgroups of Forward Group during the test hypothetically showed the significant effect (t=3.265, df=19, p<0.05), that of the Backward Group had no significant effect (t=0.892, df=17, p>0.05), and in analysis of variance, the interaction (Group×Subgroup) showed the significant effect (F=7.768, df=2; 59, p<0.01). (See Fig. 6) Experiment III: 66 rats were divided into three groups: Forward Group. Backward Group and Control Group. On the training stage, as soon as stimulus (CS or US) was presented, the bar was inserted and the bar press response terminated US. But unless the response occured, US was kept. Only in Forward Group, as soon as the bar press response occured during the presentation of CS, CS was terminated and US was not given. The others were similar to Exp. II. Results: The difference between two subgroups of Forward Group and Backward Group during the test, the significant effect was seen (t=5.178, df=19, p<0.01; t=2.454, df=22, p<0.05). (See Fig. 10) The results of three experiments made were that, as to secondary properties of Backward CS in
Tucker's method for multidimensional analysis of preference structure has been suggested as a market research technique for describing intea and inter individual preference strcucture. The researcher has applied this technique to the field of music preference, to explore its wider significance. In Experiment I, 23 subjects evaluated 6 different piano interpretations of the Chopin waltz op. 34, 3, presented to them in pairs of performances. The pairs were offered in random order, but all 15 possible combinations were presented. Subjects were asked to give “equal-appearing” judgements. The data were analyzed according to the method. Fig. 2 is a two dimensional diagram of preference structure representing each subject's preference for each object. The axes a1′ and a2′ were interpreted as the performance style (dramatic-lyric) and the technical level, respectively. In Experiment II, 9 subjects judged Schubert's lied “An die Musik” sung by 6 vocalists. The experimental procedure and the method of analysis are the same as in Experiment I. Fig. 4 represents the results of the preference structure on the vocal performances. The a1′ is interpreted as the axis of performance style (dramaticsoft), and a2′ is the pronunciation of German verse. From the results of these two experiments, Tucker's method showed its applicability to the field of music preference. It described preferences of individuals and accomplished this description in a systematic manner so as to reveal relationships among the preferences of different individuals.